The Royal Collection of the British Royal family is the largest private art collection in the world. Spread among 13 occupied and historic royal residences in the United Kingdom, the collection is owned by Elizabeth II and overseen by the Royal Collection Trust; the Queen owns some of the collection in some as a private individual. It is made up of over one million objects, including 7,000 paintings, over 150,000 works on paper, this including 30,000 watercolours and drawings, about 450,000 photographs, as well as tapestries, ceramics, carriages, armour, clocks, musical instruments, plants, manuscripts and sculptures; some of the buildings which house the collection, like Hampton Court Palace, are open to the public and not lived in by the Royal Family, whilst others, like Windsor Castle and Kensington Palace, are both residences and open to the public. The Queen's Gallery at Buckingham Palace in London was built specially to exhibit pieces from the collection on a rotating basis. There is a similar art gallery next to the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh, a Drawings Gallery at Windsor Castle.
The Crown Jewels are on public display in the Jewel House at the Tower of London. About 3,000 objects are on loan to museums throughout the world, many others are lent on a temporary basis to exhibitions. Few items from before Henry VIII survive; the most important additions were made by Charles I, a passionate collector of Italian paintings and a major patron of Van Dyck and other Flemish artists. He purchased the bulk of the Gonzaga collection from the Duchy of Mantua; the entire Royal Collection, which included 1,500 paintings and 500 statues, was sold after Charles's execution in 1649. The'Sale of the Late King's Goods' at Somerset House raised £185,000 for the English Republic. Other items were given away in lieu of payment to settle the king's debts. A number of pieces were recovered by Charles II after the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660, they form the basis for the collection today; the Dutch Republic presented Charles with the Dutch Gift of 28 paintings, 12 sculptures, a selection of furniture.
He went on to buy other works. George III was responsible for forming the collection's outstanding holdings of Old Master drawings. Many other drawings were bought from Alessandro Albani and art dealer in Rome. George IV shared Charles I's enthusiasm for collecting, buying up large numbers of Dutch Golden Age paintings and their Flemish contemporaries. Like other English collectors, he took advantage of the great quantities of French decorative art on the London market after the French Revolution, is responsible for the collection's outstanding holdings of 18th-century French furniture and porcelain Sèvres, he bought much contemporary English silver, many recent and contemporary English paintings. Queen Victoria and her husband Albert were keen collectors of old master paintings. Many objects have been given from the collection to museums by George III and Victoria and Albert. In particular, the King's Library formed by George III with the assistance of his librarian Frederick Augusta Barnard, consisting of 65,000 printed books, was given to the British Museum, now the British Library, where they remain as a distinct collection.
He donated the "Old Royal Library" of some 2,000 manuscripts, which are still segregated as the Royal manuscripts. The core of this collection was the purchase by James I of the related collections of Humphrey Llwyd, Lord Lumley, the Earl of Arundel. Prince Albert's will requested the donation of a number of early paintings to the National Gallery, which Queen Victoria fulfilled. Throughout the reign of Elizabeth II, there have been significant additions to the collection through judicious purchases and gifts from nation states and official bodies. Since 1952 2,500 works have been added to the Royal Collection; the Commonwealth is represented in this manner: an example is 75 contemporary Canadian watercolours that entered the collection between 1985 and 2001 as a gift from the Canadian Society of Painters in Water Colour. Modern art acquired by Elizabeth II includes pieces by Sir Anish Andy Warhol. In 1987 a new department of the Royal Household was established to oversee the Royal Collection, it was financed by the commercial activities of Royal Collection Enterprises, a limited company.
Before it was maintained using the monarch's official income paid by the Civil List. Since 1993 the collection has been funded by entrance fees to Buckingham Palace. A computerised inventory of the collection was started in early 1991, it was completed in December 1997; the full inventory is not available to the public, though catalogues of parts of the collection – paintings – have been published, a searchable database on the Royal Collection website is comprehensive, with "265,302 items found" by early 2019. About a third of the 7,000 paintings in the collection are on view or stored at buildings in London which fall under the remit of the Historic Royal Palaces agency: the Tower of London, Hampton Court Palace, Kensington Palace, Banqueting House, Kew Palace; the Jewel House and Martin Tower at the Tower of London house the Crown Jewels. A rotating selection of art, furniture and other items considered to be of the highest quality is shown at the Queen's Gallery, a purpose-built exhibition centre
Yakov Grigorevich Kreizer was a Soviet field commander. Kreizer's Jewish parents were granted permission to live outside the Jewish pale of settlement because his grandfather was a cantonist soldier in the Russian imperial army. Kreizer enlisted in the Red Army in 1921, volunteered to the school for infantry officers in Voronezh and rose to Colonel and commander of 172nd Rifle Division, his rapid promotion, like that of other senior Soviet officers of his generation, was made possible because Stalin's great purge had decimated the Red Army officers of the Civil War generation. During these years Kreizer continued his military education: in 1931 he graduated from the Higher Officer Training School "Vystrel" and in 1941 from the elite Frunze Military Academy. In March 1941 Kreizer was appointed commander of 1st Moscow Motorized Rifle Division. At the start of World War II the Red Army was notorious for its poor battlefield quality because a large number of its newly appointed commanders lacked initiative and skill.
Kreizer was among a few senior officers who prepared his troops adequately for the requirements of the modern mobile war. In July 1941 Kreizer became the first Red Army General to outfight the Wehrmacht in a large-scale engagement. Kreizer's division took position along the Minsk-Moscow highway and faced the main brunt of German Army Group Center in its drive to Moscow, spearheaded by Heinz Guderian. Guderian, who in that time was considered the world's best commander of armoured forces, had at his disposal forces that were far superior to those of Kreizer in manpower, in number of tanks and in air support. In the battle of Borisov Kreizer stalled the advance of Guderian's elite panzer corps for two days, killed more than one thousand German troops, destroyed several dozen tanks and twelve warplanes; when German numerical superiority made further defense of Borisov impossible, Kreizer skilfully conducted a fighting retreat along the highway to Orsha. In the subsequent battle of Orsha Kreizer stalled Guderian's panzers for twelve days.
His resistance gave the Red Army enough time to bring up reserves to take up defensive positions along the river Dnieper. The battlefield skills and valor of Kreizer's troops and his ability to prevent Wehrmacht domination of the unfolding battle, in spite of German superiority in numbers and materiel, delivered a blow to the myth of German invincibility; the action of Kreizer and his men inspired Soviet confidence in the Red Army's capacity to defeat the Germans. At 35 years old Kreizer was promoted to Major-General. On 21 July 1941 Stalin awarded Kreizer the distinction of Hero of the Soviet Union. Kreizer was the first General to receive this award during World War II. Kreizer commanded the Soviet Third Army in the battle of Smolensk, which brought about the strategic end to the German Blitzkrieg, as well as in the momentous battle of Moscow. In October 1942 Stavka entrusted Kreizer with the formation of the powerful Soviet Second Guards Army, trained for decisive action in the battle of Stalingrad.
During the battle in the winter 1942-1943 Kreizer was a deputy commander of that army under the more experienced Rodion Malinovsky and contributed to defeating Manstein's attempt to save the German 6th Army, surrounded in Stalingrad. For victory over Manstein, Kreizer was promoted to Lieutenant General. In February 1943, after Malinovsky was appointed the Front Commander, Kreizer resumed command of the Second Guards Army. From August 1943 until the end of the war he commanded the 51st Army. Kreizer played one of the key roles in defeating the Wehrmacht in Ukraine, Belorussia, the Baltics and was one of the few commanders of Field Armies to be promoted to Colonel General, he was twice wounded during the war. After the war, Kreizer's advancement was stalled. For ten years he remained commander of an Army and Colonel-General while less distinguished Generals were getting higher promotions. In 1953, during the Kreizer refused to sign a letter in favor of the campaign; the change came with a consolidation of power by Nikita Khrushchev who knew Kreizer from the battle of Stalingrad and had a high opinion of him.
Under Khrushchev, Kreizer commanded several Military Districts, the highest Soviet territorial units, each consisting of several armies: South Ural Military District. With the worsening of Soviet relations with China, resulting from the Sino-Soviet split, the Soviet government became apprehensive of Chinese militancy. To strengthen the security of the Soviet borders and as a warning signal to the Chinese, the Kremlin appointed Kreizer to Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet armies in the Far East. Following this promotion in 1962 Kreizer received the rank of General of the Army, equivalent to British and German Field Marshal and General of the Army, he was the only Jewish officer. To confirm his status in the Soviet Party-state hierarchy, Kreizer was selected with a few others from the top Soviet military to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, it appears that the Kremlin foresaw Kreizer for future higher promotion, but he became ill and in 1963 moved to a less demanding command of the Higher Officer Training school "Vystrel."
MinWin is a term used informally by Microsoft to describe the kernel and operating system components that form the basis of releases of Microsoft Windows starting with Windows Vista. The term was first used in 2003 to describe 95% of the common components of the operating system, but has over time come to refer to a smaller portion, its most recent and most well-known variation was a minimalistic, self-contained set of Windows components that shipped as part of Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2. Through the history of Microsoft Windows, the core of the operating system was designed to be a single large, inter-related set of components. With successive releases, the set of components considered to be the core of Microsoft Windows numbered into the thousands, with numerous dependencies that prevented the company from producing a version of Microsoft Windows that didn't include the graphical user interface and printing components. Further complicating this was the issue that many configuration tasks could only be performed using the graphical user interface.
In an April 2003 interview coinciding with the release of Windows Server 2003, Rob Short, the vice-president of the Windows Core Technology group, explained that creating a command-line version would involve "looking at the layers and what's available at each layer and how do we make it much closer to the thing the Linux guys have -- having only the pieces you want running. That's something Linux has that's ahead of us. We will have a command line-only version, but whether it'll have all the features in is another matter. A lot of the tools depend on having the graphical interface." Windows Server 2003 was seen by reviewers such as Direction On Microsoft's Michael Cherry as having reduced the reliance on graphical tools to configure the operating system, but the operating system itself still required the full graphical interface to be installed on servers where it would never be needed. After Windows Server 2003's release, Rob Short assembled a team of kernel architects at Microsoft, with the intention of untangling and documenting the dependencies within the core operating system.
The kernel development team had realized that they were having difficulty being able to "predict the impact of changes and to make broad, cross-group changes to Windows", the new kernel architecture team would aim to improve software engineering practices both within the Windows kernel itself, as well as with the other components of Windows. To do this, every component of the operating system was assigned a "layer number" that represents its dependency position relative to other components, with lower-numbered components being closer to the core of the operating system, higher numbers representing high-level components. With this information, the core architecture team began to address a range of issues where low-level components were reliant on high-level components, finding ways to resolve those dependencies. In doing so, a number of new options for creating focused sub-sets of Windows for different purposes became possible. Larry Osterman, a developer on the Windows Audio team at Microsoft, described the effort in a November 2008 posting to the Channel 9 discussion forum as, "refactoring code along architectural layering lines, it's the natural extension of what we've been doing since the Longhorn Reset."
Brandon Paddock a Windows developer, expanded on this, saying, "It's more like a set of guidelines and principles, kind of like how SDL guides our development process toward more secure software, the MinWin effort guides Windows components to fit into a more and well-defined layered architecture." While Microsoft has stated that MinWin will not be released as a stand-alone product, the various iterations of MinWin have shipped in every Windows operating system release since Windows Vista. The first use of the term "MinWin" by Microsoft was in 2003 during the development of Windows Vista, known at the time by its codename, Longhorn. MinWin was described at the time as consisting of 95% of the total Longhorn code base, with the additions for each edition of Longhorn layered on top of that. While the name MinWin was never used as part of Windows Vista's marketing efforts or in presentations to developers or IT professionals, some of the kernel architecture team's componentization and refactoring work was shipped with Windows Vista.
One of Microsoft's goals for Windows Server 2008 was to produce a variant with a sub-set of the entire Windows operating system that contains enough components to run a number of common server roles, such as Active Directory, Microsoft DNS Server, DHCP Server, Internet Information Services. During its development in 2005 and 2006, this installation option was internally called "MinWin", sometimes externally "Server Foundation", before its final name of Server Core was chosen. By the time Server Core was ready to be shipped with Windows Server 2008, the term "MinWin" had changed to describe a much smaller set of components, its focus and intent had shifted from being a large sub-set of the complete Windows operating system with some high-level components removed, to being a small, self-contained operating system that has no dependencies on higher-level components. Andrew Mason, the program manager at Microsoft responsible for Windows Server Core, explained in a February 2008 interview for TechNet that Windows Server 2008 is built on top of this smaller set of components.
In this release, MinWin is "the definition of the lowes