Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts

The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts has provided education in the arts for more than 250 years, playing its part in the development of the art of Denmark. The Royal Danish Academy of Portraiture and Architecture in Copenhagen was inaugurated on 31 March 1754, given as a gift to the King Frederik V on his 31st birthday, its name was changed to the Royal Danish Academy of Painting and Architecture in 1771. At the same event, Johann Friedrich Struensee introduced a new scheme in the academy to encourage artisan apprentices to take supplementary classes in drawing so as to develop the notion of "good taste"; the building boom resulting from the Great Fire of 1795 profited from this initiative. In 1814 the name was changed again, this time to the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, it is still situated in its original building, the Charlottenborg Palace, located on the Kongens Nytorv in Copenhagen. The School of Architecture has been situated in former naval buildings on Holmen since 1996; the academy is larger and better funded than the Jutland Art Academy and Funen Art Academy, which offer similar programs.

It teaches and conducts research on the subjects of painting, architecture, graphics and video and in the history of those subjects. The academy is under the administration of the Danish Ministry of Culture; the Academy’s School of Architecture offers education in the fields of architectural design and restoration and landscape planning and industrial and furniture design. The school has four research institutes and six affiliated research centres; the undergraduate course, leading to the Bachelor of Architecture diploma, lasts three years while the Master of Arts in Architecture is a two-year graduate course. Notable Danish architect Arne Jacobsen, a major influence behind the Architectural Functionalism, studied at the Academy, as did Bjarke Ingels, the rising star in the world of architecture and design. In 2011, the Wall Street Journal named Ingels the Innovator of the Year for architecture. Kunstakademiets Billedkunstskoler, The School of Visual Arts Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, The School of Architecture Kunstakademiets Designskole, The School of Design Kunstakademiets Konservatorskole, The School of Conservation Det Kongelige Akademi for de Skønne Kunster C. F.

Hansen Medal Thorvaldsen Medal Eckersberg Medal Thorvald Bindesbøll Medal N. L. Høyen Medal The School of Visual Arts C. C. A. Christensen Olafur Eliasson Lili Elbe Oluf Hartmann Jeppe Hein Georg Jensen Jane Jin Kaisen Karl Kvaran Asger Jorn Caspar David FriedrichThe School of Architecture Jan Gehl Birgit Cold Knud Holscher Bjarke Ingels Victor Isbrand Arne Jacobsen Finn Juhl Kaare Klint Henning Larsen Alex Popov Steen Eiler Rasmussen Verner Panton Johann Otto von Spreckelsen Magnus Steendorff Lene Tranberg Jørn Utzon Kristian von Bengtson Architecture of Denmark Arne Ranslet Danish art List of Danish painters Open access in Denmark Det Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole Det Jyske Kunstakademi Det Fynske Kunstakademi Top 10' World's best Architecture Universities / Schools

Hotel Alfonso XIII

Hotel Alfonso XIII is a historic hotel in Seville, located on Calle San Fernando, next to the University of Seville. Designed by the architect José Espiau y Muñoz, it was built between 1916 and 1928 for the Ibero-American Exposition of 1929, it opened on April 28, 1929, with a sumptuous banquet attended by King Alfonso XIII and Queen Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg. The hotel is owned by the City of Seville and managed by The Luxury Collection division of Marriott Hotels. Designed by architect José Espiau y Muñoz, the hotel was built between 1916 and 1928, inaugurated on 28 April 1929, with a celebration preceded by King Alfonso XIII and Queen Victoria Eugenia; the reason of the celebration was the wedding of Infanta Isabel with count Juan Zamoyski. The hotel was a winning project chosen among others after a contest was held under the direction of renowned architect Aníbal González. Espiau reached the award, built a hotel destined to be the hotel of the Iberoamerican Exposition of 1929. During the Second Republic, its name was changed to Hotel Andalucía Palace.

It recovered its original name, conserved to date. The building is in the Neo-Mudéjar style; this style is historicist and, in this case has an aspect of Andalusian regionalism. Designed in 1916, it blends in with the overall aesthetics of the buildings planned for the Ibero-American Exposition of 1929, its façade and its overall construction display a significant wealth of decorative elements and details, built from materials that could well be considered as frugal or simple: brick, plaster and ceramics. The interior puts forth a display of wealth and status: arches and columns, decorated with elaborate coffered hanging lamps and fine carpets from the Royal Tapestry Factory. Ornamented ceramic tiles decorate walls and all manner of structures; the luxurious rooms were designed to accommodate kings, presidents and other guests of the Ibero-American Exposition of 1929. The floors are wood; the hotel has six banqueting halls. The Royal Hall, the largest and most ornate, was the hotel's main dining room.

It is accessed through a wrought iron gate similar to those that enclose the choirs of several Andalusian cathedrals. Inside, eleven bronze chandeliers hung with Bohemian crystal and plated in gold descend from a palatial coffered ceiling. Large arched doorways inlaid with mahogany and inlaid tiles lead to a terrace over the garden of the hotel. Other neoclassical banqueting halls or salons—Andalusia, Híspalis and Cartuja—feature arched doors and windows with frames of golden stucco, more Bohemian glass chandeliers and marble floors; as is typical of the region, the hotel has patio. The original design inspired was for a courtyard modeled on that of Seville's baroque Hospital de los Venerables, but was redesigned at the express request of Alfonso XIII, who disapproved of the original plan; the building has a total of each unique: 19 single rooms. 55 luxury double rooms. 55 larger "deluxe" rooms, with lamps of Venetian glass from Murano, wooden ceilings. There are three categories of decoration: Castillian and Mozarabic.

1 Royal Suite, used by royal families who are visiting Seville. The building includes several bars, the San Fernando restaurant, a pool, a gym, a massage center, several terraces and gardens. Diplomats representing the Ibero-American countries, as well as King Alfonso and his wife, attended the 1929 exhibition. However, no foreign presidents attended, except the Norwegian President Johan Ludwig Mowinekel, who came for a private visit, the Portuguese President Fragoso; the hotel housed personalities during the 1992 show, such as Diana of Wales. It is common for celebrities visiting the city to stay there, such as Brad Pitt, Angelina Jolie, Tom Cruise, Cameron Díaz, Madonna and Bruce Springsteen. List of hotels in Spain Official site


Nanshin-ron was a political doctrine in the Empire of Japan which stated that Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands were Japan's sphere of interest and that the potential value to the Japanese Empire for economic and territorial expansion in those areas was greater than elsewhere. The opposing political doctrine was Hokushin-ron supported by the Imperial Japanese Army, which stated the same except with regards to Manchuria and Siberia. After the military setbacks at Nomonhan on Mongolian front, the Second Sino-Japanese War, negative Western attitudes towards Japanese expansionist tendencies, the Southern Expansion Doctrine became predominant, its focus was to procure colonial resources in South East Asia and neutralize the threat posed by Western military forces in the Pacific. The Army favored a "counterclockwise strike" while the Navy favored a "clockwise strike". In Japanese historiography the term nanshin-ron is used to describe Japanese writings on the importance to Japan of the South Seas region in the Pacific Ocean.

Japanese interest in Southeast Asia can be observed in writings of the Edo period. During the final years of the Edo period the leaders of the Meiji Restoration determined that Japan needed to pursue a course of imperialism in emulation of the European nations to attain equality in status with the West as the European powers were laying claim to territories closer to Japan. After the Meiji Restoration of 1868, the nanshin-ron policy came to be advanced with the southern regions as a focus for trade and emigration. In the early Meiji period Japan derived economic benefits from Japanese emigrants to Southeast Asia, the vast majority of whom were prostitutes who worked in brothels in British Malaya, the Philippines, the Dutch East Indies and French Indochina. Nanshin-ron was advocated as a national policy by a group of Japanese ideologues during the 1880s and 1890s. Writings of the time presented areas of Micronesia and Southeast Asia as uninhabited or uncivilised and suitable for Japanese colonisation and cultivation.

In its initial stages Nanshin-ron focused on Southeast Asia, until the late 1920s it concentrated on gradual and peaceful Japanese advances into this region to address what the Japanese saw as the twin problems of underdevelopment and Western colonialism. During the first decade of the 20th century, private Japanese companies became active in trade in Southeast Asia. Communities of emigrant Japanese merchants arose in many areas, selling sundry goods to local customers, Japanese imports of rubber and hemp increased. Large-scale Japanese investment occurred in rubber and hemp plantations in Malaya and in Mindanao in the southern Philippines; the Japanese Foreign Ministry established consulates in Manila and Batavia. With increasing Japanese industrialization came the realization that Japan was dependent on the supply of many raw materials from overseas locations outside its direct control, was hence vulnerable to disruption of that supply; the need to promote trade and protect sea routes, to encourage emigration to ease overpopulation arose with the strengthening of the Imperial Japanese Navy, which gave Japan the military strength to protect these overseas interests should diplomacy fail.

The Japanese government began pursuing a policy of overseas migration in the late nineteenth century as a result of Japan's limited resources and increasing population. In 1875 Japan declared its control over the Bonin Islands; the formal annexation and incorporation of the Bonin Islands and Taiwan into the Japanese Empire can be viewed as first steps in implementation of the "Southern Expansion Doctrine" in concrete terms. However, World War I had a profound impact on the "Southern Expansion Doctrine". Japan was able to occupy the vast areas in the Pacific controlled by the German Empire: i.e. the Caroline Islands, Mariana Islands, Marshall Islands and Palau. In 1919, these island groups became a League of Nations mandate of Japan and came under the administration of the Imperial Japanese Navy; the focus of the "Southern Expansion Doctrine" expanded to include these island groups, the economic and military development of which came to be viewed as essential to Japan's security. Meiji-period nationalistic researchers and writers pointed to Japan's relations with the Pacific region from the 17th-century red seal ship trading voyages, Japanese immigration and settlement in Nihonmachi during the period before the Tokugawa shogunate's national seclusion policies.

Some researchers attempted to find archeological or anthropological evidence of a racial link between the Japanese of southern Kyūshū and the peoples of the Pacific islands. Nanshin-ron appeared in Japanese political discourse around the mid 1880s. In the late 19th century the policy focused on adjacent China with an emphasis on securing control of Korea and expanding Japanese interests in Fujian. Russian involvement in Manchuria at the turn of the century led to the policy being eclipsed by hokushin-ron; the resulting Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05 produced territorial gains for Japan in South Manchuria. Following the war the expansionist aspects of nanshin-ron became more developed, it was incoroporated into national defence strategy in 1907. In the 1920s and 1930s, the "Southern Expansion Doctrine" came to be formalized through the efforts of the Imperial Japanese Navy's "South Strike Group", a strategic think tank based in the Taihoku Imperial University in Taiwan. Many professors at the university were either active or e