The Cisterns is a museum in Copenhagen, Denmark. The Cisterns, A Cave within a City Located under Frederiksberg Hill in the heart of Søndermarken Park, the natural formation of stalactites and stalagmites are not uncommon for concrete structures, yet none anywhere can offer the sheer magnitude and diversity of those found here. In February 2009 Forbes listed Cisternerne as one of the more unusual exhibition spaces in Europe, the Cisterns, a long forgotten subterranean reservoir, once contained the supply of drinking water for the Danish capital and could hold as much as 16 million liters of clean water
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Louisiana Museum of Modern Art
The Louisiana Museum of Modern Art is an art museum located directly on the shore of the Øresund Sound in Humlebæk,35 km north of Copenhagen, Denmark. The museum is acknowledged as a milestone in modern Danish architecture, noted for the synthesis it creates of art, the museum has at occasions exhibitions with works of the great impressionists and expressionists, like the large Claude Monet impressionist exhibition in 1994. The museum is included in the Patricia Schultz book 1,000 Places to See Before You Die, the name of the museum derives from the first owner of the property, Alexander Brun, who named the villa after his three wives, all named Louise. The museum was created in 1958 by Knud W. Jensen and he contacted architects Vilhelm Wohlert and Jørgen Bo who spent a few months walking around the property before deciding how a new construction would best fit into the landscape. This study resulted in the first version of the museum consisting of three connected by glass corridors. Since it has been extended several times until it reached its present circular shape in 1991, in late November 2012 Louisiana Museum of Modern Art launched Louisiana Channel, a web-TV channel contributing to the continual development of the museum as a cultural platform.
In 2013 the music department of the museum launch Louisiana Music, the videos are often housed in room settings where the viewer is made to feel part of the scene being portrayed. Perched above the sea, there is a garden between the museums two wings with works by artists including Henry Moore, Alexander Calder, and Jean Arp. Besides the collection of art, Louisiana displays a collection of Pre-Columbian art. Consisting of more than 400 objects, the collection was a donation from the Wessel-Bagge Foundation in 2001 and it is the personal collection left by Niels-Wessel Bagge, who was a Danish dancer and art collector living in California and who died in 1990. The Concert Hall was built in 1976 in connection with the West Wing which had built in 1966 and 1971. Its acoustics make it fit for chamber music but it is used for other musical genres as well as a wide array of others events and activities such as debates, lectures. The chairs are designed by Poul Kjærholm and the wall is decorated with paintings created for the site by Sam Francis.
In 2007 began a project to produce concerts filming and musical clips directed by Stéphan Aubé, all the movies are available for free on the Louisiana Music website. The grounds around the museum contain a sculpture garden. It is made up by a plateau and the sloping terrain towards Øresund and is dominated by huge, ancient specimen trees and sweeping vistas of the sea. It contains works by artists as Jean Arp, Max Ernst, Max Bill, Alexander Calder, Henri Laurens, Louise Bourgeois, Joan Miró. The sculptures are placed so that they can be viewed from within, in special sculpture yards or independently around the gardens, forming a synthesis with the lawns, the trees
Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg
Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg was a Danish painter. He was born in Blåkrog in the Duchy of Schleswig, to Henrik Vilhelm Eckersberg and carpenter and he went on to lay the foundation for the period of art known as the Golden Age of Danish Painting, and is referred to as the Father of Danish painting. In 1786 his family moved to Blans, a village near the picturesque Alssund, where he enjoyed drawing pictures of the surrounding countryside, after confirmation he began his training as a painter under church- and portrait painter, Jes Jessen of Aabenraa. He continued his training at 17 years of age under Josiah Jacob Jessen in Flensborg and he, had his sights set on being accepted at the Royal Danish Academy of Art in Copenhagen. Still under apprenticeship he produced proficient drawings and paintings, having amassed some money, including financial support from local well-wishers, he arrived at Copenhagens Tollbooth on 23 May 1803. He was accepted into the Academy without payment in 1803 where he studied with Nikolaj Abraham Abildgaard and he made good progress, painting historical paintings and landscapes.
However, friction between him and Abildgaard impeded his advancement, and he did not win the Academys big gold medal until 1809 and he worked to earn living money as a hand laborer, and he made drawings for copperplate etchings. Although he received promise of a stipend in conjunction with the gold medal. On 1 July 1810, he married E. Christine Rebecca Hyssing against his wishes, in order to legitimize a son, Erling Carl Vilhelm Eckersberg and his son, eventually followed in his fathers footsteps with an Academy education, and a career as a copperplate engraver. On 3 July, a few days after the wedding, he began his travels out of the country, along with Tønnes Christian Bruun de Neergaard, enthusiastic art lover and financial supporter, he made his way over Germany to Paris. Here he studied under neoclassicist Jacques-Louis David from 1811-1812 and he improved his skills in painting the human form, and followed his teachers admonition to paint after Nature and the Antique in order to find Truth.
It was here that he developed a friendship with Paris roommate, fellow artist Jens Peter Møller. After two years he traveled further via Florence to Rome where he continued his studies between 1813-1816 and he worked on improving his skills as a history painter, and enjoyed painting smaller studies of the local life and area. He lived there three years among a group of artists, with Bertel Thorvaldsen as the cultural head. Eckersberg and Thorvaldsen developed a lasting relationship, and the master served the younger Eckersberg as both loyal friend and advisor. Eckersberg painted one of his best portraits, a portrait of Thorvaldsen, in Rome 1814, life in Rome agreed with him, and he was greatly affected by the bright southern light he experienced there. He produced a body of work during those years, including a number of exceptional landscape studies. His divorce from Hyssing was finalized during his stay out of the country, shortly after his return to Denmark he arranged for his admission into the Academy, and received as the subject of his admissions painting the Norse legend, the Death of Baldur
A missile boat or missile cutter is a small fast warship armed with anti-ship missiles. Being smaller than other such as destroyers and frigates, missile boats are popular with nations interested in forming a navy at lower cost. They are similar in concept to the boats of World War II, in fact. The doctrine behind the use of boats is based on the principle of mobility over defence. This trend culminated in the giant battleships of World War II, endurance was limited to 1,000 nautical miles at 12 knots and the vessels had fuel and supplies for only five days at sea. 112 Komar-class vessels were produced, while over 400 examples were built of the following Osa-class missile boat, being relatively small and constructed of wood, the Komar-class boats had a very small radar cross-section. Its sophisticated radar enabled the boat, with its low radar reflectivity, to detect a larger enemy ship before the latter was aware of its presence, fire its missiles. Soviet naval architects had designed them with these characteristics to give the small boats this advantage against much larger American naval ships should they attempt to attack the Russian coast, the boats were designed for coastal operations, with limited endurance.
The Soviet-built boats prompted a NATO response, which became more intense after the sinking of Eilat, the Germans and French worked together to produce their own missile boat, resulting in the La Combattante class. Built until 1974, a total of 68 Combattante IIs were launched, the design was immediately followed by the Combattante III which added 9 metres to hull length but kept the same armament,43 of this type were produced. Several other countries produced their own versions of the Combattante, notably Israel with the Saar 3, the two key operations in which these vessels played an active role were Operation Trident and Operation Python. The attacks destroyed half of the Pakistani Navy and most of Pakistans naval fuel reserves in the fuel storage tanks which cleared the way for the decisive victory of the Indian Armed Forces. The first of these became known as the Battle of Latakia. During this and battles, some fifty Gabriels and a number of Styx missiles were fired, seven Syrian ships were sunk.
At the Battle of Bubiyan in 1991 Iraqi missile boats were destroyed by British air-to-surface missiles, such as the German Gepard class and Finnish Hamina class are equipped with surface-to-air missiles and countermeasures. The size of boats has increased, with some designs now at corvette size,800 tonnes including a helicopter. In April 1996 during Israels Operation Grapes of Wrath, IDF naval forces used Saar 4 and Saar 4.5 boats to shell the Lebanese coast with 76 mm fire, in conjunction with artillery and air attacks. Iran and North Korea have some of the largest numbers of boats in operation today
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was governed by a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party. Under Hitlers rule, Germany was transformed into a fascist state in which the Nazi Party took totalitarian control over all aspects of life. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich from 1933 to 1943, the period is known under the names the Third Reich and the National Socialist Period. The Nazi regime came to an end after the Allied Powers defeated Germany in May 1945, Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by the President of the Weimar Republic Paul von Hindenburg on 30 January 1933. The Nazi Party began to eliminate all opposition and consolidate its power. Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934, and Hitler became dictator of Germany by merging the powers and offices of the Chancellery, a national referendum held 19 August 1934 confirmed Hitler as sole Führer of Germany. All power was centralised in Hitlers person, and his word became above all laws, the government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but a collection of factions struggling for power and Hitlers favour.
In the midst of the Great Depression, the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending, extensive public works were undertaken, including the construction of Autobahnen. The return to economic stability boosted the regimes popularity, especially antisemitism, was a central feature of the regime. The Germanic peoples were considered by the Nazis to be the purest branch of the Aryan race, millions of Jews and other peoples deemed undesirable by the state were murdered in the Holocaust. Opposition to Hitlers rule was ruthlessly suppressed, members of the liberal and communist opposition were killed, imprisoned, or exiled. The Christian churches were oppressed, with many leaders imprisoned, education focused on racial biology, population policy, and fitness for military service. Career and educational opportunities for women were curtailed and tourism were organised via the Strength Through Joy program, and the 1936 Summer Olympics showcased the Third Reich on the international stage.
Propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels made effective use of film, mass rallies, the government controlled artistic expression, promoting specific art forms and banning or discouraging others. Beginning in the late 1930s, Nazi Germany made increasingly aggressive territorial demands and it seized Austria and Czechoslovakia in 1938 and 1939. Hitler made a pact with Joseph Stalin and invaded Poland in September 1939. In alliance with Italy and smaller Axis powers, Germany conquered most of Europe by 1940, reichskommissariats took control of conquered areas, and a German administration was established in what was left of Poland. Jews and others deemed undesirable were imprisoned, murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps, following the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, the tide gradually turned against the Nazis, who suffered major military defeats in 1943
Gammelholm is a predominantly residential neighbourhood in the city centre of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is bounded by the Nyhavn canal, Kongens Nytorv, Holmens Kanal, Niels Juels Gade, the new neighbourhood was planned by Ferdinand Meldahl and has been referred to as Meldahls Nine Streets. In the beginning of the 16th century land reclamations annexed the island to Zealand and in 1510, under the reign of Hans of Denmark, a ropewalk at the site is first mentioned in 1555 and an anchor forge was built in 1563. When King Christian IV commenced his modernization of the fortifications of Copenhagen, he extended the citys East Rampart, taking it straight through Bremerholm to the beach. The moat in front of the rampart was expanded to form the Holmen Canal, in the first decades of the 17th century, Christian IV built a considerable amount of housing for higher-ranked naval personnel at Bremerholm. This prompted a demand for a church, leading to the conversion of the anchor forge, now located on the far side of the Holmen Canal.
In 1631 the barracks at Bremerholm were supplemented by Nyboder in the far north of Copenhagen which was built to satisfy the demand for housing for lower-ranked crew members of the nacys vessels, around the same time, a large prison was inaugurated at Bremerholm. Much of the work in the shipyards was based on forced labour carried out by convicts from the facility. The rope walk came to mark the boundary between the square and rest of Bremerholm, together and Nyholm remained for a long time the largest employer in Denmark. In 1778 the University of Copenhagen Botanical Garden relocated from Amaliegade to the garden behind Charlottenborg Palace and it was at Gammelholm that the Copenhagen Fire of 1795 broke out. In 1859 the Navy decommissioned their last operations at Gammelholm, at the same time the Canal of Holmen was filled and converted into a prominent new street. Construction in the began in 1861 and was completed in 1876. Apart from the buildings, a number of new institutions. A new building for the Royal Danish Theatre, which had been located nearby since 1754, was built on the corner of Kongens Nytorv and the filled Holmens Kanal.
A new building designed by Meldahl and Ludvig Fenger for the Royal Mint was completed in 1873 on land which was previously part Botanical Garden which had left the area in 1879. Gammelholm was planned with broad streets inspired by Paris, an inspiration Meldahl relied on elsewhere, typically of the time, the residential buildings were not designed by architects but the master builders who constructed them. The area was built up with blocks with elegant, richly decorated Historicist fronts facing the street but drab. Lots were sold at high prices and developers therefore utilized space to the utmost
Gammel Dok (building)
Gammel Dok is a former warehouse located on the waterfront in the Christianshavn neighbourhood of Copenhagen, Denmark. It now houses the Danish Architecture Centre and the National Workshops for Art, Gammel Dok takes its name from Gammel Dok, Denmarks first dry dock which was located at the site from 1739 until 1919. It was built for De Forenede Oplagspladser og Værfter i Kjøbenhavn in 1882 to the design of the architect H. C, scharling and extended with an extra floor around 1920. The building was acquired by the Danish state in 1979 and it was restored and adapted for use as an exhibition space by Erik Møller Architects in 1985. Gammel Dok houses the Danish Architecture Centre in the part of the building faces the water. The other end of the building, towards Strandgade, houses the National Workshops for Art, north Atlantic House Agency for Palaces and Cultural Properties
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen