Edward John David Redmayne, OBE is an English actor of stage and screen. Born and raised in Westminster, he studied history of art at Trinity College, Redmayne began his professional acting career as a youth in West End theatre before making his screen debut in 1998 with guest appearances on television. Redmayne starred in the productions of Red and Richard II. The former won him the Tony Award for Best Featured Actor in a Play and his film breakthrough came with the roles of Colin Clark in the biographical drama My Week with Marilyn and Marius Pontmercy in Tom Hoopers musical Les Misérables. In 2014, Redmayne portrayed English physicist Stephen Hawking in The Theory of Everything, winning an Academy Award, a Golden Globe Award, in 2016, he starred as Newt Scamander in the fantasy film Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them. Redmayne was born on 6 January 1982 in Westminster and his mother, runs a relocation business, and his father, Richard Redmayne, is a businessman in corporate finance.
His paternal great-grandfather was Sir Richard Redmayne, a civil and mining engineer and he has an older brother, a younger brother and an older half-brother and half-sister. He attended Eaton House, Colet Court and Eton College and he went on to read History of Art at Trinity College, from where he graduated with 2,1 Honours in 2003. Despite being colourblind, Redmayne wrote his dissertation on Yves Kleins signature colour, prior to becoming a full-time actor, Redmayne modelled for Burberry in 2008 with Alex Pettyfer, and in 2012 with Cara Delevingne. In the September 2012 issue of Vanity Fair, he was featured on its annual International Best Dressed List, in 2015, he was named number one in GQs 50 best dressed British men. Redmayne made his stage debut as Viola in Twelfth Night. Later stage credits include Now or Later by Christopher Shinn at the Royal Court Theatre, the show ran from 3 September to 1 November 2008. In 2009, Redmayne appeared in John Logans new play Red at the Donmar Warehouse in London, for which he won the 2010 Olivier Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role.
He reprised his role in Red at the John Golden Theatre on Broadway, in a 15-week run from 11 March to 27 June 2010 and he portrayed King Richard II in Richard II directed by Michael Grandage, at the Donmar Warehouse from 6 December 2011 to 4 February 2012. Redmayne was cast in his first feature film Like Minds after being spotted by casting director Lucy Bevan performing in a play called Goats. Redmayne has appeared in such as The Good Shepherd, Savage Grace, Powder Blue, The Other Boleyn Girl, Glorious 39. He starred as Osmund in Christopher Smiths supernatural gothic chiller film Black Death and his 2008 Sundance drama film The Yellow Handkerchief was released on 26 February 2010 by Samuel Goldwyn Films. He starred as filmmaker Colin Clark in the drama film My Week with Marilyn and he took on the role of Marius Pontmercy for the 2012 musical film Les Misérables
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Copenhagen Opera House
The Copenhagen Opera House is the national opera house of Denmark, and among the most modern opera houses in the world. It is one of the most expensive houses ever built with construction costs well over US$500 million. It is located on the island of Holmen in central Copenhagen, the A. P. Møller and Chastine Mc-Kinney Møller Foundation donated the Opera House to the Danish state in August 2000. Architect Henning Larsen and engineers Ramboll and Buro Happold and Theatre Consultant Theatreplan designed the facility, the acoustics were designed by Arup Acoustics and Speirs and Major Associates designed the architectural lighting. A. P. Møller had the say in the design of the building, adding steel to the glass front. Construction began in June 2001 and was completed on October 1,2004 and it opened on January 15,2005, in the presence of Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller, Danish Prime Minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen, and Queen Margrethe II. The tenor Plácido Domingo made a gala guest appearance as Sigmund in Wagners Die Walküre on April 7,2006, in a production by Kasper Bech Holten), the Denmark leg of the Red Bull Cliff Diving World Series takes place here.
The Opera is located in Copenhagen just opposite the main castle Amalienborg at the shore of the harbour, the specific part of the island where the Opera was built is named Dokøen, which means the Dock Island. Just a few meters west of the opera, one can see an old dock. The house is administered by the Royal Danish Theatre and is one of the best-equipped in the world and it has a main stage with five other stages directly connected, where large setups can be moved easily in and out. The theatre can seat between 1492 and 1703, depending on the size of the orchestra, the 1492 seats are all individually angled in order to provide the best experience. The orchestra pit is one of the largest in any house, with room for 110 musicians. However, the overhang is very slight and the authorities have permitted this to happen, if the orchestra is small or absent, the pit can be covered and additional seats can be added to the auditorium. Just like the old Royal Danish Theatre in Copenhagen, The Queen has her own box on the side of the auditorium.
Guided tours cover most of the building, including both the auditorium and backstage areas, besides the main stage, the building includes a small stage for experimental theatre, a so-called black box theatre called Takkelloftet. It was named after the original Takkelloftet, a building just south of the Opera 280 meters long, thus the opera maintains a connection to the marine history of its location. Everything on the stage and in the area is totally black. There are up to approximately 200 seats for this stage, in this room, some of the walls are decorated using the same Jura Gelb limestone as outdoor
Det Ny Teater
Det Ny Teater is an established theatre in Copenhagen, first opened in 1908. It is based in a building which spans a passage between Vesterbrogade and Gammel Kongevej in Copenhagens theatre district on the border between Vesterbro and Frederiksberg, with more than 12,000 m2 it is one of Denmarks largest theaters. It has two stages, the auditorium which seats more than 1,000 and Sceneriet, a smaller theatre established in the cellar in 1994. In March 1907, Bona commissioned the architect Lorenz Gudme to draw up a project and he had previously worked for Ove Petersen, who was responsible for both the Royal Theatre, in collaboration with Vilhelm Dahlerup, and the Dagmar Theatre. His proposal was accepted and the fundaments were laid on 14 August 1907, shortly after construction start, a disagreement occurred between Bona and Gudme who was ultimately fired from the project which was instead completed by Ludvig Andersen. When the theatre was inaugurated on 19 September 1908 it was the second largest theatre in the country, DKK1,200,000 and DKK600,000 for the site.
Lindstrøm himself left the theatre after just three years due to an insignificant debts, the director from 1944 to 1966 was Peer Gregaard and he dramatically changed the repertoire from with a combination of classics and contemporary Danish and European drama. During this era, Det Ny Teater came to challenge the Royal Danish Theatre as the theatrical stage in Denmark. Im the 1960s it became evident that it was difficult to operate theatres without subsidies, in 1991, when the theatre, by in a poor state of neglect, lost its support, it had to close indefinitely. The owners succeeded in raising funds for a thorough renovation, bent Mejding was the driving force behind the restoration of the theater, which he and Niels-Bo Valbro reopened as a venue for operetta and musicals with a production of Die Fledermaus in 1994. Since the theatre has produced a number of productions, the most successful of which and audience-wise, has been Phantom of the Opera. The theatre building spans a passage between Vesterbrogade and Gammel Kongevej and has a front on both sides.
The complex includes the surrounding buildings, the theatre was the first in Denmark to feature a revolving stage. Other state-of-the-art features were an advanced system in case of fire on stage. For the audience there were comfortable family boxes, an elegant marble staircase, the renovation in 1994 received the Europa Nostra award from the European Union. Since the renovation, the theatre has two stages, the large auditorium seats app.1,000 while the small one, built in the cellar in connection with the 1994 renovation, seats an audience of 250 to 300. The main repertoire is still musicals, the theatre plays host to a variety of other events and is available on hire
Lili Ilse Elvenes, better known as Lili Elbe, was a Danish transgender woman and one of the first identifiable recipients of sex reassignment surgery. Elbe was born Einar Magnus Andreas Wegener and was a painter under that name. She presented as Lili and was introduced as Einars sister. After successfully transitioning in 1930, she made a name change to Lili Ilse Elvenes. The name Lili Elbe was made up by Copenhagen journalist Louise Loulou Lassen, Lili died from complications involving a uterus transplant. Her autobiography, Man into Woman, was published in 1933. Elbes year of birth is stated as 1886. This appears to be from a book about her, which has some facts changed to protect the identities of the persons involved, some reports indicate that Elbe already had rudimentary ovaries in her abdomen and she may have had Klinefelter syndrome. Wegener met Gerda Gottlieb while they were students at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen, and they married in 1904, the two of them worked as illustrators, with Elbe specializing in landscape paintings, while Gottlieb illustrated books and fashion magazines.
They both traveled through Italy and France, eventually settling in Paris in 1912, where Elbe could live openly as a woman, and Gottlieb a lesbian. Elbe received the Neuhausens prize in 1907 and exhibited at Kunstnernes Efterårsudstilling, at the Vejle Art Museum and she is represented at Vejle Art Museum in Denmark. Elbe started dressing in womens clothes after filling in for Gottliebs absentee model, she was asked to wear stockings, Elbe felt surprisingly comfortable in the clothing and began identifying as a woman. Over time, Gottlieb became famous for her paintings of women with haunting. In 1913, the public was shocked to discover that the model who had inspired Gottliebs depictions of petites femmes fatales was in fact Gottliebs spouse. In the 1920s and 1930s, Elbe regularly presented as a woman, attending various festivities, one of the things she liked to do was disappear, wearing her modeling fashions into the streets of Paris in the throngs of revelers during the Carnival. Elbe was introduced by Gottlieb as Einar Wegeners sister when she was dressed in female attire, only her closest friends knew once she had transitioned.
In 1930, Elbe went to Germany for sex reassignment surgery, a series of four operations were carried out over a period of two years. The first surgery, removal of the testicles, was made under the supervision of sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld in Berlin, the rest of Elbes surgeries were carried out by Kurt Warnekros, a doctor at the Dresden Municipal Womens Clinic
Indre By, known as Copenhagen Center or K or Downtown Copenhagen, is an administrative district in central Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark. It covers an area of 4.65 square kilometres, has a population of 26,223, and its boundaries pretty much reflect the entire city’s extent during the reign of King Christian IV. At the time it was a city and its borders were made of defensive walls with moats. To ensure water for the moats there was a series of dams, the gates were dismantled in 1856. The locations are now commemorated with milestones erected on the spot, additionally artificial lakes were constructed as part of Christian IVs large building project. These still exist to this day, and are simply referred to as the lakes. The area beyond the lakes, now heavily populated city districts, was used primarily for grazing. It was prohibited to build beyond these original city limits so that the cannons could have clear shot. The fortification system was sold to Copenhagen municipality in 1869 and largely dismantled the year after, evidence of the walls can be found in the street names outlining the central part of the city.
From Kastellet at the northeast point of the district runs Øster Voldgade to the southwest, the street changes names near Nørreport Train Station and continues as Nørre Voldgade. Vester Voldgade starts at Ørsteds Park and runs southeast until it reaches the water of Copenhagen Harbour, the fortification system continues on the other side of the water in the Christianshavn city district. Copenhagen was founded around year 1000 by Sweyn I Forkbeard and his son Canute the Great and it was only a fishing village until the middle of the 12th century when Havn, as the town was called, assumed increasing importance in the Danish kingdom. Around 1160 King Waldemar the Great gave control of Copenhagen to Absalon, whereas other cities in the Danish realm were under the governance of the king, Havn or Købmannehavn as it comes to be known, was given to the Bishop of Roskilde. Bishop Absalon built his fortified Castle at Havn in 1167 on an island outside the harbour itself. In the years that follow, the town grew tenfold in size, the excellent harbour encouraged Copenhagens growth until it became an important centre of commerce.
Købmannehavns economy blossomed due to the income from an enormous herring fishery trade, in 1254, it received its charter as a city under Bishop Jakob Erlandsen. It was repeatedly attacked by Wend pirates and the Hanseatic League and again the town was besieged and laid waste by the Hanseatic League. In 1369 they tore down the castle, but a new castle—Copenhagen Castle was built in its place, at the same time the Danish king was attempting to take Copenhagen back from the bishop. The crown succeeded in 1416, when King Erik of Pomerania took control of the town, thenceforth Copenhagen belonged to the Danish Crown
Valby is one of the 10 official districts of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is in the corner of Copenhagen Municipality, and has a mixture of different types of housing. Valby Hill marks the boundary between Valby and the — more central and more urban — neighbouring Vesterbro district, the expression west of Valby Hill is in Danish often used as a metonym for the provinces or outside Copenhagen. With the progressing redevelopment of the Carlsberg area into a new lively, high-density neighbourhood, other former industrial sites are under redevelopment and Valby is today one of the districts in Copenhagen with the fastest growing population. Valby covers an area of 9.23 km² and has a population of 46,161, the most distinctive geographical features of the district are Valby Hill in its north-eastern corner and Harrestrup Å which marks its western boundary. Valby borders on Damhus Lake in its extreme north-western corner, the Danshøj tumulus, along with many other archeological finds in the area, provides evidence that the Valby area has been inhabited since ancient times.
Modern Valby has developed around the two villages of Valby and Vigerslev, the first recorded mention of the name Valby is from 1186, as Walbu, but the history of both settlements probably goes back considerably longer. Valby means village/house on the plain, in the early Middle Ages both villages came under Utterslev, a Crown estate which included most of the area around Havn, the small market town which became Copenhagen. In 1682, Valby had 13 farms and 25 houses with no more land than a modest garden, at the time, the Valby community did not have its own church but instead, since 1628, belonged to Hvidovre Parish. In 1675, Hvidovre Church was extended with a Valby nave, in the 17th century, the road to Roskilde was taken through Valby and an inn opened. The first holder of the license was Hans Pedersen Bladt, a merchant who was elected mayor of Copenhagen in 1675. Valby profited from the proximity of Frederiksberg Palace which was constructed from 1699 to 1703 atop Valby Hill as a new residence for King Frederick IV.
The royal presence in the area brought along more activity in the village and it is said that Queen Marie Sophie, consort of King Frederick VI, often rode through Valby, handing out candy to the children. In 1721, the granted the community new trading privileges and a Rytterskole. Valby became particularly associated with raising poultry which the Valby women sold beside the Caritas Well on Gammeltorv in Copenhagen, the trade took place on Wednesdays and Saturdays, which were market days, until 1857. Instead Valby began to develop into an area where members of the bourgeoisie took up summer residency, one of the first to arrive in Valby proper was the actor James Price who spent his first summer there in 1795, shortly after his arrival in Denmark. He was followed by members of the bourgeoisie. When the first railway out of Copenhagen opened in 1847, a 30 km rail line to Roskilde, it had an intermediate station slightly east of where Valby station lies today
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Art Deco, sometimes simply referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. It took its name, short for Arts Decorators, from the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925 and it combined modernist styles with fine craftsmanship and rich materials. During its heyday, Art Deco represented luxury, exuberance, Art Deco was a pastiche of many different styles, sometimes contradictory, united by a desire to be modern. It featured rare and expensive materials such as ebony and ivory, the Chrysler Building and other skyscrapers of New York were the most visible monuments of the new style. In the 1930s, during the Great Depression, the became more subdued. New materials arrived, including chrome plating, stainless steel and plastic, a more sleek form of the style, called Streamline Moderne, appeared in the 1930s, it featured curving forms and smooth, polished surfaces. Art Deco became one of the first truly international architectural styles, with examples found in European cities, the style came to an end with the beginning of World War II.
Deco was replaced as the dominant global style by the functional and unadorned styles of modernism. The term arts décoratifs was first used in France in 1858, in 1868, Le Figaro newspaper used the term art décoratifs with respect to objects for stage scenery created for the Théâtre de lOpéra. In 1875, furniture designers, textile and glass designers and it took its present name of ENSAD in 1927. The term Art déco was used in a 1966 newspaper article by Hillary Gelson in the Times, describing the different styles at the exhibit. Art Deco gained currency as a broadly applied stylistic label in 1968 when historian Bevis Hillier published the first major book on the style. Hillier noted that the term was already being used by art dealers and cites The Times, in 1971, Hillier organized an exhibition at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, which he details in his book about it, The World of Art Deco. The emergence of Art Deco was closely connected with the rise in status of decorative artists, the term arts décoratifs had been invented in 1875, giving the designers of furniture and other decoration official status.
The Société des artistes décorateurs, or SAD, was founded in 1901, a similar movement developed in Italy. The first international exhibition devoted entirely to the arts, the Esposizione international dArte decorative moderna, was held in Turin in 1902. Several new magazines devoted to decorative arts were founded in Paris, including Arts et décoration, Decorative arts sections were introduced into the annual salons of the Sociéte des artistes français, and in the Salon dautomne. French nationalism played a part in the resurgence of decorative arts, in 1911 the SAD proposed the holding of a major new international exposition of decorative arts in 1912
The Pantomime Theatre is an open-air theatre located in the Tivoli Gardens in Copenhagen, Denmark. As indicated by the name, it is used for pantomime theatre in the classical Italian commedia dellarte tradition which is performed daily. Besides this original function, the leads a second life as a venue for ballet. When the Tivoli Gardens first opened in 1874, a theatre was already found at the site of the current building just inside the main entrance. It was made out of timber and painted canvas and after a series of rebuilding and major repairs, dahlerup had never been to China but he sought inspiration from pictures of buildings, borrowed from an engineer who had been stationed in the Far East. The technical side of the project was constructed by the director and Pierrot Niels Hendrik Volkersen and timber. It is a toy-like Historicist theatre built in Chinese style and noted for its mechanical front curtain that takes five men to operate, the repertoire consists of a mixture of traditional pantomimes, ballet performances and contemporary and more experimental performances.
The pantomime tradition of the theatre is a mixture of elements that are apparently quite unrelated. When the peacock folds down its wings, the stage is set somewhere in old Copenhagen, at the home of stodgy Cassander who lives alone with his beautiful daughter. It remains unclear what has happened to her mother, Cassander is assisted by his servant, who has a white face like the clown he really is. Like the characters, the music comes from different sources. It includes Strauss and Gounod – and, needless to say, Tivoli’s in-house composer at one time. The music has been selected to underpin the plot and movements of each pantomime, the programme include ballet performances, including examples of the distinctive Danish Bournonville style and modern dance. HM Queen Magrethe created costumes and scenography several times, including for ballets based on Hans Christian Andersens The Little Match Girl, choreographers who have created works for the Pantomimeteatret include Dinna Bjørn, Louise Midjord, Paul James Rooney and Ian Rowe.
Since 2003 the programme has involved more contemporary genre like jazz dance and hip hop pantomimes