I. M. Pei
Ieoh Ming Pei, FAIA, RIBA known as I. M. Pei, is a Chinese American architect. Born in Guangzhou and raised in Hong Kong and Shanghai, Pei drew inspiration at an early age from the gardens at Soochow. In 1935, he moved to the United States and enrolled in the University of Pennsylvania's architecture school, but transferred to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he was unhappy with the focus at both schools on Beaux-Arts architecture, spent his free time researching emerging architects Le Corbusier. After graduating, he joined the Harvard Graduate School of Design and became a friend of the Bauhaus architects Walter Gropius and Marcel Breuer. In 1948, Pei was recruited by New York City real estate magnate William Zeckendorf, for whom he worked for seven years before establishing his own independent design firm I. M. Pei & Associates in 1955, which became I. M. Pei & Partners in 1966 and in 1989 became Pei Cobb Freed & Partners. Pei retired from full-time practice in 1990. Since he has taken on work as an architectural consultant from his sons' architectural firm Pei Partnership Architects.
Pei's first major recognition came with the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Colorado. His new stature led to his selection as chief architect for the John F. Kennedy Library in Massachusetts, he went on to design the East Building of the National Gallery of Art. He returned to China for the first time in 1975 to design a hotel at Fragrant Hills, designed Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong, a skyscraper in Hong Kong for the Bank of China fifteen years later. In the early 1980s, Pei was the focus of controversy when he designed a glass-and-steel pyramid for the Musée du Louvre in Paris, he returned to the world of the arts by designing the Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center in Dallas, the Miho Museum in Japan, the Suzhou Museum in Suzhou, Museum of Islamic Art in Qatar, the Grand Duke Jean Museum of Modern Art, abbreviated to Mudam, in Luxembourg. Pei has won a wide variety of prizes and awards in the field of architecture, including the AIA Gold Medal in 1979, the first Praemium Imperiale for Architecture in 1989, the Lifetime Achievement Award from the Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum in 2003.
In 1983, he won. Pei's ancestry traces back to the Ming Dynasty. Finding wealth in the sale of medicinal herbs, the family stressed the importance of helping the less fortunate. Ieoh Ming Pei was born on 26 April 1917 to Tsuyee and Lien Kwun, the family moved to Hong Kong one year later; the family included five children. As a boy, Pei was close to his mother, a devout Buddhist, recognized for her skills as a flautist, she invited him to join her on meditation retreats. His relationship with his father was less intimate, their interactions were respectful but distant. Pei's ancestors' success meant that the family lived in the upper echelons of society, but Pei said his father was "not cultivated in the ways of the arts"; the younger Pei, drawn more to music and other cultural forms than to his father's domain of banking, explored art on his own. "I have cultivated myself," he said later. At the age of ten, Pei moved with his family to Shanghai. Pei attended Saint Johns Middle School, run by Protestant missionaries.
Academic discipline was rigorous. Pei enjoyed playing billiards and watching Hollywood movies those of Buster Keaton and Charlie Chaplin, he learned rudimentary English skills by reading the Bible and novels by Charles Dickens. Shanghai's many international elements gave it the name "Paris of the East"; the city's global architectural flavors had a profound influence on Pei, from the Bund waterfront area to the Park Hotel, built in 1934. He was impressed by the many gardens of Suzhou, where he spent the summers with extended family and visited a nearby ancestral shrine; the Shizilin Garden, built in the 14th century by a Buddhist monk, was influential. Its unusual rock formations, stone bridges, waterfalls remained etched in Pei's memory for decades, he spoke of his fondness for the garden's blending of natural and human-built structures. Soon after the move to Shanghai, Pei's mother developed cancer; as a pain reliever, she was prescribed opium, assigned the task of preparing her pipe to Pei. She died shortly after his thirteenth birthday, he was profoundly upset.
The children were sent to live with extended family. Pei said: "My father began living his own separate life pretty soon after that." His father married a woman named Aileen, who moved to New York in her life. As Pei, neared the end of his secondary education, he decided to study at a university, he decided to enroll at the University of Pennsylvania. Pei's choice had two roots. While studying in Shanghai, he had examined the catalogs for various institutions of higher learning around the world; the architectural program at the University of Pennsylvania stood out to him. The other major factor was Hollywood. Pei was fascinated by the representations of college life in the films of Bing Crosby, which differed tremendously from the academic atmosphere in China. "College life in the U. S. seemed to me to be fun and games", he said in 2000. "Since I was too young to be serious, I wanted to be part of it... You could get a feeling for it in Bing Crosby's movies. College life in America seemed
2008 in architecture
The year 2008 in architecture involved some significant architectural events and new buildings. February 10–11 – 2008 Namdaemun fire: The wooden superstructure of the 550-year-old Namdaemun gate in Seoul is destroyed by arson. June 20 – The Architects Regulations 2008 comes into force in the UK. July 8 – The first in Francesco da Mosto's television series Francesco's Mediterranean Voyage is broadcast. October 2 – The William L. Slayton House, designed by I. M. Pei in 1958, is listed in the United States National Register of Historic Places. October – The inaugural World Architecture Festival is held in Barcelona. January 1 – China Central Television Headquarters building in Beijing, by Rem Koolhaas and OMA opens. January 12 – New Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station inaugurated. January – Fuglsang Art Museum in Denmark, designed by Tony Fretton, inaugurated. March 26 – Terminal 3 of the Beijing Capital International Airport opens, designed by Foster + Partners. March 27 – London Heathrow Terminal 5, designed by the Richard Rogers Partnership, opens.
April 12 – New National Opera House in Oslo opens. April – Maggie's Centre in London, a drop-in cancer care centre designed by Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners, opens. June – Contemporary Jewish Museum in San Francisco, designed by Daniel Libeskind, opened. June 25 – Chords Bridge in Jerusalem, designed by Santiago Calatrava, inaugurated. June 28 – Beijing National Stadium designed by Herzog & de Meuron, opened for the 2008 Summer Olympics. August 1 – Beijing South Railway Station, designed by Terry Farrell, opened. September A. P. Møller School, Germany, designed by C. F. Møller Architects. Darwin Centre II, Natural History Museum, designed by C. F. Møller Architects. September 11 – Ponte della Costituzione in Venice, designed by Santiago Calatrava, inaugurated. September 27 – California Academy of Sciences in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, designed by Renzo Piano. October 16 — Weill Hall, Cornell University, designed by Richard Meier November – New Ahus, Akershus University Hospital, Norway, designed by C. F. Møller Architects, opened.
November 11 – Curve in Leicester, designed by Rafael Viñoly, is opened. November 20 – Peter B. Lewis Library at Princeton University, by Frank Gehry dedicated. November 22 – Museum of Islamic Art, Doha, in Qatar, designed by I. M. Pei, is opened; the Public, West Bromwich, designed by Will Alsop, opens first stages to public. January 28 – Beijing National Aquatics Center, known as the "Water Cube", in readiness for the 2008 Summer Olympics. August 28 – Shanghai World Financial Center in Pudong, China, designed by William Pedersen. November – Transformation AGO renovation by Frank Gehry. December – Assut de l'Or Bridge in Valencia, designed by Santiago Calatrava. Date unknown Mountain Dwellings, Denmark, designed by Bjarke Ingels. Linked Hybrid, a nine-tower high-rise housing project by Steven Holl Architects, in Beijing, China. 459 West 18th Street, Manhattan, a high-rise condominium designed by Della Valle + Bernheimer. Living Shangri-La in Vancouver, Canada Torre Caja Madrid, designed by Foster and Partners.
Westside shopping and leisure complex, Switzerland, designed by Daniel Libeskind. Olnik Spanu House, New York, United States, designed by Alberto Campo Baeza. Moliner House, Spain, designed by Alberto Campo Baeza. American Academy of Arts and Letters Gold Medal – Richard Meier AIA Gold Medal – Renzo Piano. Architecture Firm Award – KieranTimberlake Associates. Driehaus Architecture Prize – Andrés Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk. Emporis Skyscraper Award – Mode Gakuen Cocoon Tower in Shinjuku, Tokyo. Grand Prix de l'urbanisme – David Mangin. Lawrence Israel Prize – AvroKO LEAF Award, Grand Prix – schmidt hammer lassen for Performers House Praemium Imperiale Architecture Award – Peter Zumthor. Pritzker Prize – Jean Nouvel. Rome Prize for architecture - Frederick B. Fisher RAIA Gold Medal – Richard Johnson. Royal Gold Medal – Edward Cullinan. Stirling Prize – Feilden Clegg Bradley Studios & Alison Brooks Architects & Maccreanor Lavington. Thomas Jefferson Medal in Architecture – Gro Harlem Brundtland.
Twenty-five Year Award – The Atheneum. UIA Gold Medal – Teodoro Gonzalez de Leon. Vincent Scully Prize – Robert A. M. Stern. January 1 – Harald Deilmann, German architect January 30 – Fernando Higueras, Spanish architect March 5 – Nader Khalili, Iranian architect and humanitarian March 24 – Victor Christ-Janer, American modernist architect March 29 – Ralph Rapson, American architect March 31 – David Todd, American architect May 30 – Rodney Gordon, English architect June 15 – Walter Netsch, American architect July 6 – George Tibbits, Australian composer and architect September 18 – Abdur Rahman Hye, Pakistani architect November 14 – Sir Bernard Feilden, English conservation architect November 29 – Jørn Utzon, Danish architect
Frank Lloyd Wright
Frank Lloyd Wright was an American architect, interior designer and educator, who designed more than 1,000 structures, 532 of which were completed. Wright believed in designing structures that were in harmony with humanity and its environment, a philosophy he called organic architecture; this philosophy was best exemplified by Fallingwater, called "the best all-time work of American architecture". His creative period spanned more than 70 years. Wright was the pioneer of what came to be called the Prairie School movement of architecture, he developed the concept of the Usonian home in Broadacre City, his unique vision for urban planning in the United States. In addition to his houses, Wright designed original and innovative offices, schools, hotels and other structures, he designed interior elements for these buildings, as well, including furniture and stained glass. Wright was a popular lecturer in the United States and Europe. Wright was recognized in 1991 by the American Institute of Architects as "the greatest American architect of all time".
His colorful personal life made headlines, notably for leaving his first wife, Catherine Lee "Kitty" Tobin for Mamah Borthwick Cheney, the murders at his Taliesin estate in 1914, his tempestuous marriage with second wife Miriam Noel, his relationship with Olga Lazovich Hinzenburg, who became his third wife in 1928. Frank Lloyd Wright was born Frank Lincoln Wright in the farming town of Richland Center, United States, in 1867, his father, William Cary Wright, was an orator, music teacher, occasional lawyer, itinerant minister. Wright's mother, Anna Lloyd Jones, met William Cary Wright while working as a county school teacher when William was the superintendent of schools for Richland County. From Massachusetts, William Wright had been a Baptist minister, but he joined his wife's family in the Unitarian faith. Anna was a member of the well-known Lloyd Jones family who had emigrated from Wales to Spring Green, Wisconsin. One of Anna's brothers was Jenkin Lloyd Jones, an important figure in the spread of the Unitarian faith in the Midwest.
Both of Wright's parents were strong-willed individuals with artistic interests that they passed on to him. According to Wright's autobiography, his mother declared when she was expecting that her first child would grow up to build beautiful buildings, she decorated his nursery with engravings of English cathedrals torn from a periodical to encourage the infant's ambition. In 1870, the family moved to Weymouth, where William ministered to a small congregation. In 1876, Anna visited the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia, where she saw an exhibit of educational blocks created by Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel; the blocks, known as Froebel Gifts, were the foundation of his innovative kindergarten curriculum. Anna, a trained teacher, was excited by the program and bought a set with which young Wright spent much time playing; the blocks in the set were geometrically shaped and could be assembled in various combinations to form three-dimensional compositions. In his autobiography, Wright described the influence of these exercises on his approach to design: "For several years, I sat at the little kindergarten table-top… and played… with the cube, the sphere and the triangle—these smooth wooden maple blocks… All are in my fingers to this day… " Many of Wright's buildings are notable for their geometrical clarity.
The Wright family struggled financially in Weymouth and returned to Spring Green, where the supportive Lloyd Jones clan could help William find employment. They settled in Madison, where William taught music lessons and served as the secretary to the newly formed Unitarian society. Although William was a distant parent, he shared his love of music the works of Johann Sebastian Bach, with his children. Soon after Wright turned 14, his parents separated. Anna had been unhappy for some time with William's inability to provide for his family and asked him to leave; the divorce was finalized in 1885. William left Wisconsin after the divorce, Wright claimed he never saw his father again. At this time he changed his middle name from Lincoln to Lloyd in honor of his mother's family, the Lloyd Joneses. Wright attended Madison High School. In 1886 he was admitted to the University of Wisconsin–Madison as a special student. While there, Wright joined Phi Delta Theta fraternity, took classes part-time for two semesters, worked with Allan D. Conover, a professor of civil engineering.
Wright left the school without taking a degree, although he was granted an honorary doctorate of fine arts from the university in 1955. In 1887, Wright arrived in Chicago in search of employment; as a result of the devastating Great Chicago Fire of 1871 and a population boom, new development was plentiful. Wright recalled that while his first impressions of Chicago were that of grimy neighborhoods, crowded streets, disappointing architecture, he was determined to find work. Within days, after interviews with several prominent firms, he was hired as a draftsman with the architectural firm of Joseph Lyman Silsbee. Wright collaborated with Silsbee—accredited as the draftsman and the construction supervisor—on the 1886 Unity Chapel for Wright's family in Spring Green. While with the firm, he worked on two other family projects: All Souls Church in Chicago for his uncle, Jenkin Lloyd Jones, the Hillside Home School I in Spring Green for two of his aunts. Other draftsmen who worked for Silsbee in 1887 included future architects Cecil Corwin, George W. Maher, George G
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe was a German-American architect. He was referred to as Mies, his surname. Along with Alvar Aalto, Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius and Frank Lloyd Wright, he is regarded as one of the pioneers of modernist architecture. Mies was a director of a seminal school in modern architecture. After Nazism's rise to power, with its strong opposition to modernism, Mies went to the United States, he accepted the position to head the architecture school at the Armour Institute of Technology, in Chicago. Mies sought to establish his own particular architectural style that could represent modern times just as Classical and Gothic did for their own eras, he created his own twentieth-century architectural style, stated with extreme clarity and simplicity. His mature buildings made use of modern materials such as industrial steel and plate glass to define interior spaces, as conducted by other modernist architects in the 1920's and 1930's such as Richard Neutra. Mies strove toward an architecture with a minimal framework of structural order balanced against the implied freedom of unobstructed free-flowing open space.
He called his buildings "bones" architecture. He sought an objective approach that would guide the creative process of architectural design, but was always concerned with expressing the spirit of the modern era, he is associated with his fondness for the aphorisms, "less is more" and "God is in the details". Mies was born March 1886 in Aachen, Germany, he worked in his father's stone carving shop and at several local design firms before he moved to Berlin, where he joined the office of interior designer Bruno Paul. He began his architectural career as an apprentice at the studio of Peter Behrens from 1908 to 1912, where he was exposed to the current design theories and to progressive German culture, he worked alongside Le Corbusier and Walter Gropius, also involved in the development of the Bauhaus. Mies served as construction manager of the Embassy of the German Empire in Saint Petersburg under Behrens. Ludwig Mies renamed himself as part of his transformation from a tradesman's son to an architect working with Berlin's cultural elite, adding "van der" and his mother's maiden name "Rohe" and using the Dutch "van der", because the German form "von" was a nobiliary particle restricted to those of genuine aristocratic lineage.
He began his independent professional career designing upper-class homes. In 1913, Mies married the daughter of a wealthy industrialist; the couple separated in 1918, after having three daughters: Dorothea, an actress and dancer, known as Georgia and Waltraut, a research scholar and curator at the Art Institute of Chicago. During his military service in 1917, Mies fathered a son out of wedlock. In 1925 Mies began a relationship with designer Lilly Reich that ended when he moved to the United States. Mies carried on a romantic relationship with sculptor and art collector Mary Callery for whom he designed an artist's studio in Huntington, Long Island, New York, he was rumored to have a brief relationship with Edith Farnsworth, who commissioned his work for the Farnsworth House. Marianne's son Dirk Lohan studied under, worked for, Mies. After World War I, Mies began, while still designing traditional neoclassical homes, a parallel experimental effort, he joined his avant-garde peers in the long-running search for a new style that would be suitable for the modern industrial age.
The weak points of traditional styles had been under attack by progressive theorists since the mid-nineteenth century for the contradictions of hiding modern construction technology with a facade of ornamented traditional styles. The mounting criticism of the historical styles gained substantial cultural credibility after World War I, a disaster seen as a failure of the old world order of imperial leadership of Europe; the aristocratic classical revival styles were reviled by many as the architectural symbol of a now-discredited and outmoded social system. Progressive thinkers called for a new architectural design process guided by rational problem-solving and an exterior expression of modern materials and structure rather than what they considered the superficial application of classical facades. While continuing his traditional neoclassical design practice, Mies began to develop visionary projects that, though unbuilt, rocketed him to fame as an architect capable of giving form, in harmony with the spirit of the emerging modern society.
Boldly abandoning ornament altogether, Mies made a dramatic modernist debut in 1921 with his stunning competition proposal for the faceted all-glass Friedrichstraße skyscraper, followed by a taller curved version in 1922 named the Glass Skyscraper. He continued with a series of pioneering projects, culminating in his two European masterworks: the temporary German Pavilion for the Barcelona exposition in 1929 and the elegant Villa Tugendhat in Brno, Czech Republic, completed in 1930, he joined the German avant-garde, working with the progressive design magazine G, which started in July 1923. He developed prominence as architectural director of the Werkbund, organizing the influential Weissenhof Estate prototype modernist housing exhibition, he was one of the founders of the architectural association De
Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton, known as Sir Frederic Leighton between 1878 and 1896, was an English painter and sculptor. His works depicted historical and classical subject matter. Leighton was bearer of the shortest-lived peerage in history. Leighton was born in Scarborough to Dr. Frederic Septimus Leighton, he had two sisters including Alexandra, Robert Browning's biographer. He was educated at London, he received his artistic training on the European continent, first from Eduard von Steinle and from Giovanni Costa. At age 17, in the summer of 1847, he met the philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer in Frankfurt and drew his portrait, in graphite and gouache on paper — the only known full-length study of Schopenhauer done from life; when he was 24 he was in Florence. From 1855 to 1859 he lived in Paris, where he met Ingres, Delacroix and Millet. In 1860, he moved to London, he designed Elizabeth Barrett Browning's tomb for Robert Browning in the English Cemetery, Florence in 1861. In 1864 he became an associate of the Royal Academy and in 1878 he became its President.
His 1877 sculpture, Athlete Wrestling with a Python, was considered at its time to inaugurate a renaissance in contemporary British sculpture, referred to as the New Sculpture. American art critic Earl Shinn claimed at the time that "Except Leighton, there is scarce any one capable of putting up a correct frescoed figure in the archway of the Kensington Museum." His paintings represented Britain at the great 1900 Paris Exhibition. Leighton was knighted at Windsor in 1878, was created a baronet, of Holland Park Road in the Parish of St Mary Abbots, Kensington, in the County of Middlesex, eight years later, he was the first painter to be given a peerage, in the 1896 New Year Honours. The patent creating him Baron Leighton, of Stretton in the County of Shropshire, was issued on 24 January 1896. Leighton remained a bachelor, he enjoyed an intense and romantically tinged relationship with the poet Henry William Greville whom he met in Florence in 1856. The older man showered Leighton in letters, but the romantic affection seems not to have been reciprocated.
Enquiry is furthermore hindered by the fact that Leighton left no diaries and his letters are telling in their lack of reference to his personal circumstances. No definite primary evidence has yet come to light that dispels the secrecy that Leighton built up around himself, although it is clear that he did court a circle of younger men around his artistic studio. On his death his barony was extinguished after existing for only a day, his house in Holland Park, London has been turned into the Leighton House Museum. It contains many of his drawings and paintings, as well as some of his former art collection including works by Old Masters and his contemporaries such as a painting dedicated to Leighton by Sir John Everett Millais; the house features many of Leighton's inspirations, including his collection of Iznik tiles. Its centrepiece is the magnificent Arab Hall; the Hall is featured in issue ten of Cornucopia. A blue plaque commemorates Leighton at Leighton House Museum. Leighton was an enthusiastic volunteer soldier, enrolling with the first group to join the 38th Middlesex Rifle Volunteer Corps on 5 October 1860.
His qualities of leadership were identified, he was promoted to command a Company within a few months. On 6 January 1869 Captain Leighton was elected to command the Artists Rifles by a general meeting of the corps. In the same year he was promoted in 1875 to lieutenant colonel. Leighton resigned as commanding officer in 1883; the painter James Whistler famously described the Sir Frederic Leighton, the commanding officer of the Artists Rifles, as the: “Colonel of the Royal Academy and the President of the Artists Rifles – aye, he paints a little!" At his funeral, on 3 February 1896, his coffin was carried into St Paul's Cathedral, past a guard of honour formed by the Artists Rifles. 1864 – Associate of the Royal Academy 1868 – Royal Academy Academician 1878 – President of the Royal Academy 1878 – Légion d'honneur Officer 1878 – Knight Bachelor 1886 – Created a baronet in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom 1889 – Associate member of the Institute of France 1896 – Created a baron in the Peerage of the United Kingdom Death of Brunelleschi, oil on canvas The Fisherman and the Siren, c.
1856–58 Cimabue's Celebrated Madonna is carried in Procession through the Streets of Florence, oil on canvas. The Discovery of Juliet Apparently Lifeless The Villa Malta, oil on canvas The Painter's Honeymoon, c. 1864 Mother and Child, c. 1865, the Nymph of the Shore, oil on canvas, National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa. Daedalus and Icarus, c. 1869, Hercules Wrestling with Death for the Body of Alcestis After Vespers 1871, Princeton University Art Museum Greek Girls Picking up Pebbles by the Sea, 1871 Teresina Christchurch Art Gallery Te Puna o Waiwhetu, New Zealand Music Lesson, c. 1877, An Athlete Wrestlin
Herzog & de Meuron
Herzog & de Meuron Basel Ltd. or Herzog & de Meuron Architekten, BSA/SIA/ETH, is a Swiss architecture firm with its head office in Basel, Switzerland. The careers of founders and senior partners Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron paralleled one another, with both attending the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, they are best known for their conversion of the giant Bankside Power Station in London to the new home of Tate Modern. Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron have been visiting professors at the Harvard University Graduate School of Design since 1994 and professors at ETH Zürich since 1999. Herzog & de Meuron was founded in Basel in 1978. In 2001, Herzog & de Meuron were awarded the highest of honours in architecture. Jury chairman J. Carter Brown commented, "One is hard put to think of any architects in history that have addressed the integument of architecture with greater imagination and virtuosity." This was in reference to HdM's innovative use of exterior materials and treatments, such as silkscreened glass.
Architecture critic and Pritzker juror Ada Louise Huxtable summarized HdM's approach concisely: "They refine the traditions of modernism to elemental simplicity, while transforming materials and surfaces through the exploration of new treatments and techniques." In 2006, The New York Times Magazine called them "one of the most admired architecture firms in the world." HdM's early works were reductivist pieces of modernity that registered on the same level as the minimalist art of Donald Judd. However, their recent work at Prada Tokyo, the Barcelona Forum Building and the Beijing National Stadium for the 2008 Olympic Games, suggest a changing attitude; the shapes and forms of some of the works suggest art glass and objects d'art that one would see on a coffee table, like an art deco ashtray or quirky container for chocolates - a building becomes a blown-up version of desk art because the computer can do it, mimic the plasticity of the medium, make it possible as a feat of engineering. HdM's commitment of articulation through materiality is a common thread through all their projects.
Their formal gestures have progressed from the purist simplicity of rectangular forms to more complex and dynamic geometries. The architects cite Joseph Beuys as an enduring artistic inspiration and collaborate with different artists on each architectural project, their success can be attributed to their skills in revealing unfamiliar or unknown relationships by utilizing innovative materials. Completed1992 Goetz Collection, Germany 1997: Rudin House, France 1998 Dominus Winery, Napa Valley, California 1999 Swiss Federal Railways switchtower, Switzerland 2000 Tate Modern, London, UK 2002 St. Jakob-Park, Switzerland 2003 Laban Dance Centre, Deptford Creek, London, UK 2003 Prada Aoyama, Japan 2004 Forum Building, Barcelona 2004 IKMZ, Germany 2005 M. H. de Young Memorial Museum, San Francisco, California 2005 Walker Art Center expansion, Minnesota 2005 Allianz Arena football stadium, Munich 2007 40 Bond Street, New York City, USA 2008 Beijing National Stadium, China 2008 CaixaForum Madrid, Spain 2008 Tenerife Espacio de las Artes, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain 2009 VitraHaus, Weil am Rhein, Germany 2010 1111 Lincoln Road parking garage, Miami Beach, Florida, USA 2010 Museum der Kulturen, Switzerland 2012 Serpentine Gallery Pavilion, London, UK 2012 Parrish Art Museum, Water Mill, New York 2013 Pérez Art Museum Miami, Florida 2013 Messe Basel, Switzerland 2015 Roche Tower Basel, Switzerland 2015 Blavatnik School of Government, University of Oxford, UK 2015 Nouveau Stade de Bordeaux, France 2015 BBVA headquarters, Spain 2015 Unterlinden Museum, France 2016 Tate Modern 2, London 2016 Feltrinelli Porta Volta, Italy 2016 Elbe Philharmonic Hall, GermanyCurrentBerggruen Institute, Los Angeles, California El Punto Religious-Community Center, Ciudad Juárez, Mexico Contemporary Art Museum Barranca de Huentitán, Mexico Plaza de España, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Tenerife Kinderspital Zürich, Switzerland 56 Leonard Street, New York City Beirut Terraces, Lebanon M+, Hong Kong – with TFP Farrells National Library of Israel Roche tower, the 2º tallest Swiss skyscraper with 178m, Switzerland Vancouver Art Gallery Tai Kwun, Hong Kong – with Purcell and Rocco Design 1999 Schock Prize 2001 Prix de l'Équerre d'Argent, Rue Des Suisses, Paris 2001 Pritzker Prize 2003 Stirling Prize, for the Laban Dance Centre 2007 RIBA Royal Gold Medal and Praemium Imperiale 2009 Lubetkin Prize for the Beijing National Stadium Herzog & de Meuron Official Website Pritzker Architecture Prize profile Herzog & de Meuron: archeology of the mind exhibition at the Canadian Centre for Architecture Serpentine Gallery Pavilion 2012 Rue des Suisses in Paris
Peter Zumthor is a Swiss architect whose work is described as uncompromising and minimalist. Though managing a small firm, he is the winner of the 2009 Pritzker Prize and 2013 RIBA Royal Gold Medal. Zumthor was born in Switzerland, his father was a cabinet-maker, which exposed him to design from an early age and he became an apprentice for a carpenter in 1958. He studied at the Kunstgewerbeschule in his native city starting in 1963. In 1966, Zumthor studied industrial design and architecture as an exchange student at Pratt Institute in New York. In 1968, he became conservationist architect for the Department for the Preservation of Monuments of the canton of Graubünden; this work on historic restoration projects gave him a further understanding of construction and the qualities of different rustic building materials. As his practice developed, Zumthor was able to incorporate his knowledge of materials into Modernist construction and detailing, his buildings explore the tactile and sensory qualities of spaces and materials while retaining a minimalist feel.
Zumthor founded his own firm in 1979. His practice grew and he accepted more international projects. Zumthor has taught at University of Southern California Institute of Architecture and SCI-ARC in Los Angeles, the Technical University of Munich, Tulane University, the Harvard Graduate School of Design. Since 1996, he has been a professor at the Accademia di Architettura di Mendrisio, his best known projects are the Kunsthaus Bregenz, a shimmering glass and concrete cube that overlooks Lake Constance in Austria. In 1993 Zumthor won the competition for a museum and documentation center on the horrors of Nazism to be built on the site of Gestapo headquarters in Berlin. Mr. Zumthor’s submission called for an extended three-story building with a framework consisting of concrete rods; the project, called the Topography of Terror, was built and abandoned when the government decided not to go ahead for financial reasons. The unfinished building was demolished in 2004. In 1999, Zumthor was selected as the only foreign architect to participate in Norway’s National Tourist Routes Project, with two projects, the Memorial in Memory of the Victims of the Witch Trials in Varanger, a collaboration with Louise Bourgeois, a rest area/museum on the site of an abandoned zinc mine.
For the Dia Art Foundation in Beacon, New York, Zumthor designed a gallery, to house the “360° I Ching” sculpture by Walter de Maria. Zumthor is the only foreign architect to participate, with two projects, the Memorial in Memory of the Victims of the Witch Trials in Varanger, a collaboration with Louise Bourgeois, a rest area/museum on the site of the abandoned Allmannajuvet zinc mines, in operation from 1882 to 1898, in Norway. In November 2009, it was revealed that Zumthor is working on a major redesign for the campus of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, he turned down an opportunity to consider a new library for Magdalen College, Oxford. He was selected to design the Serpentine Gallery's annual summer pavilion with designer Piet Oudolf in 2011. Zumthor works out of his small studio with around 30 employees, in Haldenstein, near the city of Chur, in Switzerland. In 1994, he was elected to the Academy of Berlin. In 1996, he was made an honorary member of the Bund Deutscher Architekten. In 1998, Zumthor received the Carlsberg Architectural Prize for his designs of the Kunsthaus Bregenz in Bregenz and the Thermal Baths at Vals, Switzerland.
He won the Mies van der Rohe Award for European Architecture in 1999. He was awarded Praemium Imperiale in and the Pritzker Architecture Prize. In 2012, he was awarded the RIBA Royal Gold Medal. Zumthor's work is unpublished in part because of his philosophical belief that architecture must be experienced first hand, his published written work is narrative and phenomenological. In Thinking Architecture Peter Zumthor expresses his motivation in designing buildings that have an emotional connection and possess a powerful and unmistakable presence and personality, it is illustrated throughout with color photographs by Laura Padgett of Zumthor's new home and studio in Haldenstein. “To me, buildings can have a beautiful silence that I associate with attributes such as composure, self-evidence, durability and integrity, with warmth and sensuousness as well. The sense that I try to instil into materials is beyond all rules of composition, their tangibility and acoustic qualities are elements of the language we are obliged to use.
Sense emerges when I succeed in bringing out the specific meanings of certain materials in my buildings, meanings that can only be perceived in just this way in this one building. When I concentrate on a specific site or place for which I am going to design a building, when I try to plumb its depths, its form, its history, its sensuous qualities, images of other places start to invade this process of precise observation: images of places I know and that once impressed me, images of ordinary or special places places that I carry with me as inner visions of specific moods and qualities.