Early music comprises Medieval music and Renaissance music, but can include Baroque music. Early music is a broad musical era in the history of Western art music. Interpretations of historical scope of "early music" vary; the original Academy of Ancient Music formed in 1726 defined "Ancient" music as works written by composers who lived before the end of the 16th century. Johannes Brahms and his contemporaries would have understood Early music to range from the High Renaissance and Baroque, while some scholars consider that Early music should include the music of ancient Greece or Rome before 500 AD. Music critic Michael Kennedy excludes Baroque, defining Early music as "musical compositions from earliest times up to and including music of Renaissance period". Musicologist Thomas Forrest Kelly considers that the essence of Early music is the revival of "forgotten" musical repertoire and that the term is intertwined with the rediscovery of old performance practice. According to the UK's National Centre for Early Music, the term "early music" refers to both a repertory – and a informed approach to the performance of that music.
Today, the understanding of "Early music" has come to include "any music for which a appropriate style of performance must be reconstructed on the basis of surviving scores, treatises and other contemporary evidence." In the 20th century there was a resurgence of interest in the performance of music from the Medieval and Renaissance eras, a number of instrumental consorts and choral ensembles specialising in Early music repertoire were formed. Groups such as the Tallis scholars, the Early Music Consort and the Taverner Consort and Players have been influential in bringing Early music to modern audiences through performances and popular recordings; the revival of interest in Early music has given rise to a scholarly approach to the performance of music. Through academic musicological research of music treatises, urtext editions of musical scores and other historical evidence, performers attempt to be faithful to the performance style of the musical era in which a work was conceived. Additionally, there has been a rise in the use of original or reproduction period instruments as part of the performance of Early music, such as the revival of the harpsichord or the viol.
The practice of "historically informed performance" is dependent on stylistic inference. According to Margaret Bent, Renaissance notation is not as prescriptive as modern scoring, there is much, left to the performer's interpretation: "Renaissance notation is under-prescriptive by our standards. Accidentals … may or may not have been notated, but what modern notation requires would have been apparent without notation to a singer versed in counterpoint". Ancient music List of early music ensembles Early music festivals History of music Neo-Medieval music List of medieval composers List of Renaissance composers List of Baroque composers Davidson, Audrey Ekdahl. 2008. Aspects of Early Music and Performance. New York: AMS Press. ISBN 978-0-404-64601-1. Donington, Robert. 1989. The Interpretation of Early Music, new revised edition. London and Boston: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-15040-3. Epp and Brian E. Power. 2009. The Sounds and Sights of Performance in Early Music: Essays in Honour of Timothy J. Mcgee.
Farnham, Surrey. ISBN 978-0-7546-5483-4. Haskell, Harry. 1988. The Early Music Revival: A History. London and New York: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-01449-3. Haynes, Bruce. 2007. The End of Early Music: A Period Performer's History of Music for the Twenty-First Century. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-518987-2. Judd, Cristle Collins. 1998. "Introduction: Analyzing Early Music". In Tonal Structures in Early Music, edited by Cristle Collins Judd, 3–13. Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 1998. New York: Garland Publishing. ISBN 0-8153-2388-3. Kelly, Thomas Forrest. 2011. Early Music: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-973076-6. Roche and Elizabeth Roche. 1981. A Dictionary of Early Music: From the Troubadours to Monteverdi. London: Faber Music in association with Faber & Faber. ISBN 0-571-10035-X. Sherman, Bernard. 1997. Inside Early Music: Conversations with Performers. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509708-4. Stevens, Denis.
1997. Early Music, revised edition. Yehudi Menuhin Music Guides. London: Kahn & Averill. ISBN 1-871082-62-5. First published as Musicology. Early Music FAQ Renaissance Workshop Company the company which has saved many rare and some unknown instruments from extinction. Celebrating Early Music Master Orlando Gibbons Early MusiChicago – Early Music in Chicago and Beyond, with many links and resources of general interest Ancient Tunes, Young Ears: Teaching Early Music to Kids
Jean Joseph Nicolas Guillaume Lekeu was a Belgian composer of classical music. Lekeu was born in a village near Verviers, Belgium, he studied piano and music theory under Alphonse Voss, the director of the brass band at the local conservatory. In 1879, his parents moved to France, he continued to pursue his music studies independently while at school, composing his first piece at the age of 15. From 1885 onwards, he composed new music for piano, studied harmony and violin from 1887 under Octave Grisard. In June 1888, his family moved to Paris, he continued his studies under Gaston Vallin. In August 1889, he traveled to Bayreuth to see the operas of Richard Wagner. On his return, he studied counterpoint and fugue with César Franck. Franck encouraged him to continue composing. In 1891, he won second prize in the competition for the cantata Andromède. In 1892, d'Indy introduced Lekeu to Octave Maus secretary of Brussels-based Le Cercle des XX. Eugène Ysaÿe commissioned a work from him, the Violin Sonata in G major, which premiered in March 1893, is "his most famous and oft-recorded work".
Lekeu contracted typhoid fever from a contaminated sorbet in October 1893. He died in his parents' home in Angers on 21 January 1894, the day after his 24th birthday. On 26 January 1894, he was buried in a small cemetery in Heusy. Lekeu's personal style was present in his earliest compositions. In 1887, he said "Bien plus, ce sera bizarre, détraqué, tout ce qu'on voudra. Lekeu's string quartets were inspired by Beethoven, exposure to Wagner's operas at Bayreuth influenced his approaches to melody, he described this as "des mélodies de telle longueur qu'un seul exposé suffisait à parfaire... un morceau de musique". His primary influence was Franck. Many of his works are characterized by a certain melancholy: in his own words, "la joie mille fois plus difficile à peindre que la souffrance". Lekeu composed about 50 works, left a number of unfinished compositions at the time of his death. Two of these, a Cello Sonata and his Piano Quartet, were completed by D'Indy. All have been recorded at least once, several of them more than once, notably the Violin Sonata in G Major and the Piano Trio in C minor.
The first time Piano Sonata in G minor had been performed on live by pianist Paweł Albiński in Kraków, Poland on 20 August 2014. His style, prophetic of early-twentieth-century avant-garde French composers like Satie and Milhaud, was influenced by Franck and Beethoven, though these influences did not manifest themselves as mere imitation. In general, Lekeu is regarded as a talented composer whose death cut short a promising musical career, his larger compositions are cyclic in structure. The recurring themes in the violin sonata have led some scholars to suggest that it was an inspiration for the Vinteuil Sonata, an imaginary work described by Marcel Proust in In Search of Lost Time. However, the structure imagined by Proust is similar to the violin sonata by Franck. Barberine opera Andromède, poème lyrique et symphonique for soloists, chorus, & orchestra, in 15 parts Chant lyrique for chorus & orchestra La fenêtre de la maison paternelle for mezzo-soprano & piano Les pavots for tenor & piano L'ombre plus dense for tenor & piano Quelque antique et lente danse for soprano & piano Chanson de Mai for tenor & piano Andromède for soprano & piano quintet Trois Poèmes for soprano & piano Trois Poèmes for unaccompanied soprano Trois Poèmes for soprano & piano quintet Chant de triomphale délivrance Etude symphonique no. 2: Hamlet et Ophelie Introduction symphonique aux Burgraves Overture after Victor Hugo's Les Burgraves Adagio for string orchestra Fantaisie sur deux airs populaires angevins Prelude from Act II of the opera Barberine Adagio op. 3 for orchestra with solo violin Epithalame for strings, 3 trombones, & organ Larghetto for solo cello & ensemble Introduction et Adagio for tuba & wind orchestra Fantaisie Contrapuntistique sur un Cramignon Liégeois for chamber orchestra Overture and Adagio for brass band Choral op. 3 for violin & piano Menuet for string quartet Thema con Variazioni for string trio Adagio molto espressivo for 2 violins & piano Minuetto for 2 violins Andante più tosto adagio for violin & piano Molto adagio sempre cantante doloroso for string quartet String Quartet in G major in six movements (18
Mont des Arts
The Mont des Arts or Kunstberg, meaning "hill/mount of the arts", is an urban complex and historic site in the centre of Brussels, including the Royal Library of Belgium, the National Archives of Belgium, the Square – Brussels Meeting Centre, a public garden. This site is located between rue Montagne de la Cour/Hofbergstraat and the Coudenberg in its'upper' part, Boulevard de l'Empereur/Keizerslaan and the Place de l'Albertine/Albertinaplein in its'lower' part, it is served by the Brussels Central Station. The area of the Mont des Arts knew different affectations over the centuries. Jews settled there until the 14th century, it used to be a densely populated neighbourhood, the Quartier Saint-Roch/Sint-Rochuswijk, centred around rue des Trois têtes. Between the 15th and the 18th century, the hill above it was known as the Montagne de la Cour/Hofberg. By the end of the 19th century, King Leopold II had the idea to convert the site into an arts' quarter and bought the whole neighbourhood. Various architects and urban planners were called upon to draw plans of the buildings which were to accommodate all kinds of cultural institutions.
In the meantime, the mayor of Brussels, Charles Buls, had drawn up a modest plan for the Saint-Roch district. His urbanistic and aesthetic conceptions were opposed to those of Leopold II; the burgomaster wanted to preserve as much as possible of the old districts, while the king imagined grandiose projects for his capital. Isolated, Buls was not followed by the communal council which voted for the king's project on 19 November 1894. Sickened, Buls resigned. After the demolition of the old buildings in 1897–1898, the site turned into an urban void because the project lacked sufficient finance. To increase the area's appeal during the Brussels International Exposition of 1910, the king ordered the French landscape architect Pierre Vacherot to design a'temporary' garden on the hill, it featured a park and a monumental staircase with cascading fountains and terraces descending the gentle slope from the Place Royale down to Boulevard de l'Empereur/Keizerslaan. In 1910, a year after the death of Leopold II, the new park was inaugurated by his successor, King Albert I.
Although the garden was conceived as temporary, it became a well-appreciated green area in the heart of the capital, but when the plans for the Mont des Arts came back by the end of the 1930s, this park had to be demolished to create a new square as the centre of the urban renewal project. The project was entrusted jointly to architects Maurice Jules Ghobert. Between 1956 and 1958, the park and its surroundings gave way to massive, severe geometric structures such as the Royal Royal Library of Belgium and the Congress Palace; the new geometric garden was designed by landscape architect René Péchère and built upon the concrete slab covering the Albertine car park. The inauguration took place in 1969; the Mont des Arts offers one of Brussels' finest views. Though the glass and steel cube forming the new entrance to the convention center has modified the upper part of the complex, the perspective created by Péchère has been preserved. From the elevated vantage point, the famous tower of the Brussels Town Hall in the Grand Place is visible.
On a sunny day, the Koekelberg Basilica and the Atomium can be seen. From the other end, looking up towards the Royal Square, the dome of Saint-Jacques on the Coudenberg closes the perspective. Major tourist attractions are located within walking distance of the Mont des Arts: the Musical Instrument Museum, the Royal Museums of Fine Arts, the Royal Palace, the Cathedral of St. Michael and St. Gudula; the Mont des Arts at the Brussels Tourist Board website
Répertoire International des Sources Musicales
The Répertoire International des Sources Musicales is an international non-profit organization, founded in Paris in 1952, with the aim of comprehensively documenting extant sources of music all over the world. It is the largest organization of its kind and the only entity operating globally to document written musical sources. Shortly after its founding, A. H. King called RISM, "one of the boldest pieces of long-term planning undertaken for the source material of any subject in the humanistic field."The musical sources recorded are manuscripts or printed music, writings about music and libretti. They are stored in libraries, monasteries and private collections. RISM establishes where it is kept. RISM is recognized among experts as the key place for documenting music sources all over the world; the work of RISM in compiling a comprehensive index fulfills a twofold purpose: for one, music documents are protected from loss, for another, they are made available to scholars and performing musicians.
One or several RISM working groups in more than 35 countries take part in the project. Around 100 individuals from those working groups catalogue the musical sources preserved in their countries, they pass their results on to the RISM Zentralredaktion in Frankfurt am Main, where the entries are edited and published. RISM working groups are active in the following countries and cities: Austria: Bregenz, Innsbruck and Vienna Belarus: Minsk Belgium: Brussels and Louvain Brazil: Bahia, Brasília, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo Canada: London China: Beijing and Shanghai Croatia: Zagreb Czech Republic: Prague Denmark: Copenhagen Estonia: Tallinn Finland: Åbo/Turku France: Paris Germany: Dresden and Munich Greece: Thessaloniki Hong Kong: Hong Kong Hungary: Budapest Ireland: Waterford Italy: Milan and Rome Japan: Tokyo Latvia: Riga Lituania: Vilnius Mexico: Mexico City Netherlands: Amsterdam Norway: Oslo Poland: Gdansk, Warsaw, Wrocław Portugal: Lisbon Romania: Bucharest Russia: Moscow and St Petersburg Slovakia: Bratislava Slovenia: Ljubljana South Korea: Seoul Spain: Barcelona Sweden: Stockholm Switzerland: Bern Taiwan: Taipei Turkey: Istanbul Ukraine: Kiev and Lviv United Kingdom: London United States: Cambridge Venezuela: CaracasThe RISM Zentralredaktion and the working groups in Germany are projects funded by the Academy of Sciences and Literature in Mainz.
The other working groups receive independent funding in their own countries. RISM publications are divided into the following series: Series A: arranged by composer Series B: arranged by topic Series C: index of music librariesIn addition to these, working groups conduct projects to document libretti surviving in their respective countries. RISM Series A/I Individual Prints before 1800 documents printed music of works by a single composer published between 1500 and 1800. Collected prints are published in RISM series B; each individual entry contains the following information: Name of composer An opus or catalogue number if there is one Title of the print Format – e.g. score, parts or piano reduction Place of publication Publisher Year of publication, if possible List of libraries where is the item preservedSeries A/I is available through the RISM online catalog, after having appeared in print and as a CD-ROM. Apart from the stated intention of opening the way to the primary source for researchers and performers, this sort of catalogue provides attractive possibilities for other areas of interest and inquiry as well.
For example, one can gain insight into many different topics while researching the reception of a piece. One way could be to find out. Over 78,000 printed editions by 7,616 composers from 2,178 libraries were documented in the nine volumes of the series. Four supplementary volumes appeared between 1986 and 1999, in 2003, an index volume followed listing publishers, printers and places of publication. All volumes of RISM series A/I were published by Bärenreiter in Kassel; the CD-ROM was published by Bärenreiter-Verlag at the end of 2012, the CD-ROM data were incorporated into the online catalog in 2015. RISM series A/II Music Manuscripts after 1600 lists only handwritten music, they are described in detail according to a uniform scheme containing more than 100 fields. There are more than 917,000 entries on pieces by around 27,000 composers available; the total number of music manuscripts extant worldwide is many times that large. The entries are from more than 900 libraries in 37 countries: Australia, Belarus, Brazil, China, the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Italy, Latvia, Mexico, New Zealand, Poland, Romania, Sweden, Slovakia, South Korea, Uruguay, the United Kingdom, the United States, Venezuela.
This makes RISM’s database by far the most extensive accessible set of records in the field. The RISM database has been available free of charge online since June 2010. Access to this online catalog is through the Internet via the RISM online catalog or the RISM website; the catalogue was made possible through cooperation between RISM, the Bavarian State Library, the Berlin State Library. The CD-ROM version of the accumulated database produced
Albert Charles Paul Marie Roussel was a French composer. He spent seven years as a midshipman, turned to music as an adult, became one of the most prominent French composers of the interwar period, his early works were influenced by the impressionism of Debussy and Ravel, while he turned toward neoclassicism. Born in Tourcoing, Roussel's earliest interest was not in music but mathematics, he spent time in the French Navy, in 1889 and 1890, he served on the crew of the frigate Iphigénie and spent several years in Cochin, China. These travels affected him artistically, as many of his musical works would reflect his interest in far-off, exotic places. After resigning from the Navy in 1894, he began to study harmony in Roubaix, first with Julien Koszul, who encouraged him to pursue his formation in Paris with Eugène Gigout continued his studies until 1908 at the Schola Cantorum de Paris where one of his teachers was Vincent d'Indy. While studying, he taught, his students included Edgard Varèse. See: List of music students by teacher: R to S#Albert Roussel.
During World War I, he served as an ambulance driver on the Western Front. Following the war, he bought a summer house in Normandy and devoted most of his time there to composition. Starting in 1923, another of Roussel's students was Bohuslav Martinů, who dedicated his Serenade for Chamber Orchestra to Roussel, his sixtieth birthday was marked by a series of three concerts of his works in Paris that included the performance of a collection of piano pieces, Homage to Albert Roussel, written by several composers, including Ibert and Honegger. Roussel died in the village of Royan, in western France, in 1937, was buried in the churchyard of Saint Valery in Varengeville-sur-Mer. By temperament Roussel was predominantly a classicist. While his early work was influenced by impressionism in music, he arrived at a personal style, more formal in design, with a strong rhythmic drive, with a more distinct affinity for functional tonality than is found in the work of his more famous contemporaries Debussy, Ravel and Stravinsky.
Roussel's training at the Schola Cantorum, with its emphasis on rigorous academic models such as Palestrina and Bach, left its mark on his mature style, characterized by contrapuntal textures. On the whole Roussel's orchestration is rather heavy compared to the subtle and nuanced style of other French composers like Debussy or, Gabriel Fauré, he preserved something of the romantic aesthetic in his orchestral works, this sets him apart from Stravinsky and Les Six. However, Roussel's music can hardly be called heavy when compared with the sound of the German romantic orchestral tradition represented by Anton Bruckner and Gustav Mahler, he was interested in jazz. This interest led to his writing a piano-vocal composition entitled Jazz dans la nuit, similar in its inspiration to other jazz-inspired works such as the second movement of Ravel's Violin Sonata, or Milhaud's La création du monde. Roussel's most important works were the ballets Le festin de l'araignée, Bacchus et Ariane, Aeneas and the four symphonies, of which the Third in G minor, the Fourth in A major, are regarded and epitomize his mature neoclassical style.
His other works include numerous ballets, orchestral suites, a piano concerto, a concertino for cello and orchestra, a psalm setting for chorus and orchestra, incidental music for the theatre, much chamber music, solo piano music, songs. In 1929, one French critic, Henry Prunières, described Roussel's search for his own voice: Albert Roussel for a long period sought his true self among varied and contradictory influences, he seemed to waver between the tendencies of Cesar Franck and Vincent d'Indy and those of Claude Debussy. The violin sonata, the trio, the Poème de la Forêt derived more or less directly from the Franckian school, the Festin de l'Araignée and the Evocations from Debussyan impressionism. With Padmâvatî, the new Roussel begins to realize his possibilities and his individual technique... Came works of perfect homogeneity and notable originality; the composer no longer is seeking his way — he has found it. The Prélude pour une Fête de Printemps, the suite in F, the concerto, the Psalm No. 80 are the masterpieces which mark the last stage of this great artist.
Arturo Toscanini included the suite from the ballet Le festin de l'araignée in one of his broadcast concerts with the NBC Symphony Orchestra. Rene Leibowitz recorded that suite in 1952 with the Paris Philharmonic, Georges Prêtre recorded it with the Orchestre National de France for EMI in 1984. One brief assessment of his career says: Roussel will never attain the popularity of Debussy or Ravel, as his work lacks sensuous appeal....yet he was an important and compelling French composer. Upon repeated listening, his music becomes more and more intriguing because of its subtle rhythmic vitality, he can be alternately brilliant, tender, biting and humorous. His splendid Suite for Piano shows his mastery of old dance forms; the ballet scores Le Festin de l'araignée and Bacchus et Ariane are vibrant and pictorial, while the Third and Fourth Symphonies are among the finest contributions to the French symphony. One 21st-century critic, in the course of discussing the Third Symphony, wrote: For the general public, Roussel remains famous, his work just beyond the pool of repertory universally drawn from.
Microforms are scaled-down reproductions of documents either films or paper, made for the purposes of transmission, storage and printing. Microform images are reduced to about one twenty-fifth of the original document size. For special purposes, greater optical reductions may be used. All microform images may be provided as positives or negatives, more the latter. Three formats are common: microfilm and aperture cards. Microcards known as "microopaques" a format no longer produced, were similar to microfiche, but printed on cardboard rather than photographic film. Using the daguerreotype process, John Benjamin Dancer was one of the first to produce microphotographs, in 1839, he achieved a reduction ratio of 160:1. Dancer perfected his reduction procedures with Frederick Scott Archer's wet collodion process, developed in 1850–51, but he dismissed his decades-long work on microphotographs as a personal hobby, did not document his procedures; the idea that microphotography could be no more than a novelty was an opinion shared by the 1858 Dictionary of Photography, which called the process "somewhat trifling and childish".
Microphotography was first suggested as a document preservation method in 1851 by James Glaisher, an astronomer, in 1853 by John Herschel. Both men attended the 1851 Great Exhibition in London, where the exhibit on photography influenced Glaisher, he called it "the most remarkable discovery of modern times", argued in his official report for using microphotography to preserve documents. The pigeon post was in operation while Paris was besieged during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871. Charles Barreswil, proposed the application of photographic methods with prints of a reduced size; the prints were on photographic paper and did not exceed 40mm to permit insertion in the pigeon's quill. The developments in microphotography continued through the next decades, but it was not until the turn of the century that its potential for practical usage was seized by a wider audience. In 1896, Canadian engineer Reginald A. Fessenden suggested microforms were a compact solution to engineers' unwieldy but consulted materials.
He proposed that up to 150,000,000 words could be made to fit in a square inch, that a one-foot cube could contain 1.5 million volumes. In 1906, Paul Otlet and Robert Goldschmidt proposed the livre microphotographique as a way to alleviate the cost and space limitations imposed by the codex format. Otlet’s overarching goal was to create a World Center Library of Juridical and Cultural Documentation, he saw microfiche as a way to offer a stable and durable format, inexpensive, easy to use, easy to reproduce, compact. In 1925, the team spoke of a massive library where each volume existed as master negatives and positives, where items were printed on demand for interested patrons. In the 1920s microfilm began to be used in a commercial setting. New York City banker George McCarthy was issued a patent in 1925 for his "Checkograph" machine, designed to make micrographic copies of cancelled checks for permanent storage by financial institutions. In 1928, the Eastman Kodak Company bought McCarthy's invention and began marketing check microfilming devices under its "Recordak" division.
Between 1927 and 1935, the Library of Congress microfilmed more than three million pages of books and manuscripts in the British Library. Binkley, which looked at microform’s potential to serve small print runs of academic or technical materials. In 1933, Charles C. Peters developed a method to microformat dissertations, in 1934 the United States National Agriculture Library implemented the first microform print-on-demand service, followed by a similar commercial concern, Science Service. In 1935, Kodak's Recordak division began filming and publishing The New York Times on reels of 35 millimeter microfilm, ushering in the era of newspaper preservation on film; this method of information storage received the sanction of the American Library Association at its annual meeting in 1936, when it endorsed microforms. Harvard University Library was the first major institution to realize the potential of microfilm to preserve broadsheets printed on high-acid newsprint and it launched its "Foreign Newspaper Project" to preserve such ephemeral publications in 1938.
Roll microfilm proved far more satisfactory as a storage medium than earlier methods of film information storage, such as the Photoscope, the Film-O-Graph, the Fiske-O-Scope, filmslides. The year 1938 saw another major event in the history of microfilm when University Microfilms International was established by Eugene Power. For the next half century, UMI would dominate the field and distributing microfilm editions of current and past publications and academic dissertations. After another short-lived name change, UMI was made a part of ProQuest Information and Learning in 2001. Systems that mount microfilm images in punched cards have been used for archival storage of engineering information. For example, when airlines demand archival engineering drawings to support purchased equipment, they specify punch-card-mounted microfilm with an industry-standard indexing system punched into the card; this permits automated reproduction, as well as permitting mechanical card-sorting equipment to sort and select microfilm drawings.
Aperture card mounted microfilm is 3% of the size and space of conventional paper or vellum engineering drawings. Some military contracts aroun
François-Joseph Fétis was a Belgian musicologist, composer and one of the most influential music critics of the 19th century. His enormous compilation of biographical data in the Biographie universelle des musiciens remains an important source of information today. Fétis was born in Mons, eldest son of Antoine-Joseph Fetis and Elisabeth Desprets, daughter of a famous chirurgical doctor, he had 9 sisters. His father was titular organist of the noble chapter of Saint-Waltrude, his grandfather was an organ manufacturer. He was trained as a musician by his father and played at young age on the Choir organ of Saint Waltrude. In October 1806 he married to Adélaïde-Louise-Catherine Robert, daughter of the French politician Pierre-François-Joseph Robert and Louise de Keralio, friend of Robespierre, they had 2 sons: most famous was Édouard Fétis, his eldest son who helpen his father with the editions of Revue Musicale and became member of the Royal Academy. In 1866 his wife died, he had the request to withdraw from the Brussels society and Court.
When his father died Eduard enherited his complete collection of music instruments. His talent for composition manifested itself at the age of seven, at nine years old he was an organist at Saint Waltrude, Mons. In 1800 he went to Paris and completed his studies at the Conservatory under such masters as Boïeldieu, Jean-Baptiste Rey and Louis-Barthélémy Pradher. In 1806 he undertook the revision of the Roman liturgical chants in the hope of discovering and establishing their original form. In this year he began his Biographie universelle des musiciens, the most important of his works, which did not appear until 1834. In 1821 he was appointed professor at the Paris Conservatory. In 1827 he founded the Revue musicale, the first serious paper in France devoted to musical matters. Fétis remained in the French capital till 1833, when at the request of Leopold I, he became director of the Royal Conservatory of Brussels and the king's chapelmaster, he was the founder, until his death, the conductor of the celebrated concerts attached to the conservatory of Brussels, he inaugurated a free series of lectures on musical history and philosophy.
Fétis produced a large quantity of original compositions, from the opera and the oratorio to the simple chanson, including several musical hoaxes, the most famous of, the "Lute concerto by Valentin Strobel", premiered with Fernando Sor as soloist. Carcassi, as well as Sor, participated in the performance; the work is attributed NOT to the Alsascian lutenist Valentin Strobel, but to Jean Strobach, a member of a prominent Bohemian family of musicians. This Strobach served Leopold I, there is no evidence that Fetis's score is a hoax; the composition was published in 1698, although no copy is known to have survived, except Fetis' manuscript score, in the Royal Conservatory Library in Brussels. In 1856, he worked with Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume in writing a fascinating treatise about Antonio Stradivari, it includes detailed chapters on the history and development of the violin family, old master Italian violin makers and an analysis of the bows of François Tourte. His interest in instruments can be gathered from his substantial collection, which includes the oldest surviving Arab oud.
Fetis had the privilege to have Paganini and Berlioz as contemporaries and to work with the violin maker and dealer, Jean Baptiste Vuillaume. Fetis's work provides a unique window into the times and as such is a valuable reference for the modern researcher and player. More important than his compositions are his writings on music, they are historical, such as the Curiosités historiques de la musique, the Histoire générale de la musique. While Fétis's critical opinions of contemporary music may seem reactionary, his musicological work was ground-breaking, unusual for the 19th century in attempting to avoid an ethnocentric and present-centered viewpoint. Unlike many others at the time, he did not see music history as a continuum of increasing excellence, moving towards a goal, but rather as something, continually changing, neither becoming better nor worse, but continually adapting to new conditions, he believed that all cultures and times created art and music which were appropriate to their times and conditions.
Thus Fétis built the foundation for what would be termed comparative musicology. Fétis died in Brussels, his valuable library was purchased by the Belgian government and presented to the Brussels conservatory. His historical works, despite many inaccuracies, remain of great value for historians, his pupils included Luigi Agnesi, Jean-Delphin Alard, Juan Crisóstomo Arriaga, Louise Bertin, William Cusins, Julius Eichberg, Ferdinand Hérold, Frantz Jehin-Prume, Jacques-Nicolas Lemmens, Adolphe Samuel, Charles-Marie Widor. See: List of music students by teacher: C to F#François-Joseph Fétis. Kingdom of Belgium: Master of the Royal Music. Grand Officer in the Order of Leopold. Kingdom of the Netherlands: Commander in the Order of the Oak Crown. Kingdom of Prussia: Knight of the Order of the Red Eagle. Kingdom of France: Officer of the Legion of Honour. Academic HonoursMember of the Royal Academy of Science and Fine Arts of Belgium. Member of the Academy of Rome. Member of the Academy of Berlin. Member of the Academy