Royal Military Academy, Woolwich

The Royal Military Academy at Woolwich, in south-east London, was a British Army military academy for the training of commissioned officers of the Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers. It also trained officers of the Royal Corps of Signals and other technical corps. RMA Woolwich was known as "The Shop" because its first building was a converted workshop of the Woolwich Arsenal. An attempt had been made by the Board of Ordnance in 1720 to set up an academy within its Arsenal to provide training and education for prospective officers of its new Regiment of Artillery and Corps of Engineers. A new building was being constructed in readiness for the Academy and funds had been secured through investment in the South Sea Company. After this false start, the Academy was opened by authority of a Royal Warrant in 1741: it was intended, in the words of its first charter, to produce "good officers of Artillery and perfect Engineers". Its'gentlemen cadets' ranged in age from 10 to 30. To begin with they were attached to the marching companies of the Royal Artillery, but in 1744 they were formed into their own company, forty in number overseen by a Captain-Lieutenant.

To begin with the cadets were accommodated in lodgings in the town of Woolwich, but this arrangement was deemed unsatisfactory so in 1751 a Cadets' Barracks was built just within the south boundary wall of the Warren and the cadets had to adjust to a more strict military discipline. Education in the Academy focused at first on mathematics and the scientific principles of gunnery and fortification. In addition to their theoretical studies, the cadets shared in what was called'the Practice' of gunnery, bridge building, magazine technique and artillery work. While an Artillery officer attended each class to keep order, teaching in the Academy was provided by civilians: a First Master, a Second Master and additional tutors in French, Arithmetic and Drawing. In 1764 the Royal Academy had the word'Military' added to its title, at the same time a senior officer was appointed to serve as Lieutenant-Governor. Moreover, the institution was split: younger cadets entered the Lower Academy, where they were taught reading, arithmetic, Latin and drawing.

If they performed well in examinations they were allowed to proceed to the Upper Academy, where they learned military skills and sciences. The possibility of moving the Royal Military Academy out of the Warren was mooted as early as 1783, as it was fast outgrowing the available accommodation. At first costs precluded this possibility, but James Wyatt, the Board of Ordnance Architect, was commissioned to design a new complex of buildings to stand, on a site facing the Royal Artillery Barracks, at the southern edge of Woolwich Common. Wyatt's Academy was built of yellow brick in the Tudor Gothic style, it consisted of a central block flanked by a pair of accommodation blocks, linked by arcaded walkways. The central block contained a library and offices. Behind the central block Wyatt placed a large dining hall flanked by spacious quadrangles having service buildings around the sides.128 cadets moved to the new Academy: these comprised the four senior years. Of the younger cadets, sixty were kept at the Warren and another sixty were sent to a new college for junior cadets at Great Marlow.

Practical teaching continued to be given in the working context of the Arsenal. In 1810, military cadets of the East India Company, educated at the Academy, were moved to a new college at Addiscombe. During the years that followed the status of the cadets changed: rather than being considered military personnel, as had been the case, they were removed from the muster roll and they began to be charged fees for attendance. In this way the Academy took on something of the ethos of an English public school. In 1844 the Academy was described by Edward Mogg as accommodating: "about one hundred and thirty young gentlemen, the sons of military men, the more respectable classes, who are here instructed in mathematics, land-surveying, with mapping, engineering, the use of the musket and sword exercise, field-pieces; this department is under the direction of a lieutenant-general, an instructor, a professor of mathematics, a professor of fortification. Following the demise of the Board of Ordnance in the wake of the Crimean War the Academy was inspected by a commission which recommended changes: the minimum age for cadets was raised to fifteen and more specialist training was added.

As part of these reforms the Academy complex was enlarged in the 1860s, with a view to accommod

Men's 200 metres world record progression

The following table shows the world record progression in the men's 200 metres, as ratified by the IAAF. The current record of 19.19 seconds was set by Usain Bolt at the 2009 World Championships in Athletics. The IAAF maintained separate records for 200 m over a straight track and over a curved track until 1976, when records for the former were discarded; the IAAF ratified the first record for 200 m on a curved track in 1951. "y" denotes times for 220 yards which were ratified for the event. As of 2018, the IAAF has ratified 24 world records in the event. Plus sign denotes en route time during longer race. John Carlos ran 19.7 A seconds, at the 1968 US Olympic Trials in Echo Summit. The run was not ratified as a world record because Carlos was wearing shoes with'brush' spikes which did not have sanction as official footwear. Henry Carr's winning time at the 1964 Olympics was a hand timed 20.3 seconds. The electronic time was 20.36 seconds, the fastest auto time to that date. Tommie Smith ran 20.26 for 220 yards at Provo in 1967.

By deducting.12 seconds for the 200 metre equivalent, he is estimated to have run 20.14 for that distance. Beginning in 1975, the IAAF accepted separate automatically electronically timed records for events up to 400 metres. Starting on January 1, 1977, the IAAF required automatic timing to the hundredth of a second for these events. Tommie Smith's 1968 Olympic gold medal victory was the fastest recorded electronic 200 metre sprint up to that time; the record progressions for automatic times at low altitude were 20.30 seconds by Valeriy Borzov at Helsinki in 1971 Larry Black 20.28, 1972 at Munich, 20.00, 19.96, 19.75, 19.75 and 19.73, before Michael Johnson ran 19.66 in 1996. Women's 200 metres world record progression Men's 100 metres world record progression

Harry Hunter

Harry Hunter was an Australian rules footballer who played for Essendon in the Victorian Football League during the 1920s. Hunter, who started out in the Victorian Football Association with Footscray, played as a defender and spent most of his time at full-back, he was a late withdrawal due to a leg injury from Essendon's 1923 Grand Final team and missed the premiership but made up for it the following season when they went back to back. A regular Victorian interstate representative, Hunter transferred to Albury in 1928 and captain-coached them to the Ovens & Murray Football League premiership that year, he returned to Essendon for one final season in 1929. After retiring as a player, Hunter concentrated on his coaching career and had stints at both Yarraville and Preston, he was joint coach, alongside Dick Reynolds, of Essendon for two games in the 1939 VFL season, both of which they won. Holmesby and Main, Jim; the Encyclopedia of AFL Footballers. 7th ed. Melbourne: Bas Publishing. Harry Hunter's playing statistics from AFL Tables Harry Hunter at