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Lichenomphalia is both a basidiolichen and an agaric genus. Most of the species have inconspicuous lichenized thalli that consist of scattered, loose, nearly microscopic green balls or foliose small flakes containing single-celled green algae in the genus Coccomyxa, all interconnected by a loose network of hyphae; the agaric fruit bodies themselves are nonlichenized and resemble other types of omphalinoid mushrooms. These agarics do not form hymenial cystidia; the basidiospores are hyaline, thin-walled, nonamyloid. Most of the species were classified in the genera Omphalina or Gerronema; the species were classified with those other genera in the family, the Tricholomataceae together with the nonlichenized species. Lichenomphalia species can be grouped into brightly colored taxa, with vivid yellow and orange colors, versus the grey brown group, depending upon the microscopic pigmentation deposits. Molecular research comparing DNA sequences now place Lichenomphalia close to the redefined genus Arrhenia, which together with several other genera not traditionally considered to be related, fall within the newly redefined Hygrophoraceae.

Lichenomphalia is derived from the word lichen combined with the old, generic name Omphalia from whence the more familiar, diminutive generic name Omphalina was derived. It means the lichen omphalias. Long before the connection was made between the nonlichenized agaric fruitbodies and the lichenized thalli and lichenologists named the asexual lichen thalli of Lichenomphalia species several times in a number of genera. Linnaeus in 1753 described the lichen thallus of L. umbellifera as an'alga' named Byssus botryoides while including the fruitbodies of L. umbellifera within his concept of Agaricus umbelliferus, the basionym for the name L. umbellifera. Byssus botryoides is the type species of the now rejected generic names Phytoconis and Botrydina. Acharius in 1810 described the thalli of L. hudsoniana as a lichen, Endocarpon viride, the type of another rejected name, Coriscium. The names'Botrydina' and'Coriscium' are used to describe the thalli of different Lichenomphalia though they are rejected names listed in the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature.

Prior to rejecting these names, the names Botrydina and Phytoconis were both applied to describe Lichenomphalia species. Hence literature on these lichenized agarics appears under a myriad of names, such as Omphalina, Phytoconis and Coriscium. List of Agaricales genera Lichenomphalia umbellifera Lichenomphalia umbellifera Lichenomphalia alpina Lichenomphalia hudsoniana thalli called Coriscium viride Lichenomphalia chromacea from Australia. Lichenomphalia hudsoniana from China

Innateness hypothesis

The innateness hypothesis is an expression coined by Hilary Putnam to refer to a linguistic theory of language acquisition which holds that at least some knowledge about language exists in humans at birth. Putnam used the expression "the innateness hypothesis" to target linguistic nativism and the views of Noam Chomsky. Facts about the complexity of human language systems, the universality of language acquisition, the facility that children demonstrate in acquiring these systems, the comparative performance of adults in attempting the same task are all invoked in support. However, the validity of Chomsky's approach is still debated. Empiricists advocate that language is learned; some have criticized Chomsky's work, pinpointing problems with his theories while others have proposed new theories to account for language acquisition. Linguistic nativism is the theory that humans are born with some knowledge of language: they acquire a language not through learning. Human language is said to form one of the most complex areas of human cognition.

However, despite the complexity of language, children are able to acquire a language within a short period of time. Moreover, research has shown that language acquisition among children occurs in ordered developmental stages; this highlights the possibility of humans having an innate language-acquisition ability. According to Noam Chomsky, "he speed and precision of vocabulary acquisition leaves no real alternative to the conclusion that the child somehow has the concepts available before experience with language and is learning labels for concepts that are a part of his or her conceptual apparatus". Steven Pinker affirms Chomsky's view. Moreover, in his work The Language Instinct Pinker argued that language in humans is a biological adaptation—language is hard-wired into human minds by evolution. Furthermore, in contrast to children's ease in language acquisition, adult learners - having passed the critical age for language acquisition - find that a language's complexity makes it challenging to pick up a second language.

More than not, unlike children, adults are unable to acquire native-like proficiency. Hence, with this idea in mind, nativists advocate that the fundamentals of language and grammar are innate rather than acquired through learning; the innateness hypothesis supports language nativism and several reasons and concepts have been proposed to support and explain this hypothesis. In his work, Chomsky introduced the idea of a language acquisition device to account for the competence of humans in acquiring a language; the universal grammar - often credited to Chomsky - was introduced later. According to Chomsky, humans are born with a set of language-learning tools referred to as the LAD; the LAD is an abstract part of the human mind which houses the ability for humans to acquire and produce language. Chomsky proposed that children are able to derive rules of a language through hypothesis testing because they are equipped with a LAD; the LAD transforms these rules into basic grammar. Hence, according to Chomsky, the LAD explains why children seem to have the innate ability to acquire a language and accounts for why no explicit teaching is required for a child to acquire a language.

In his argument for the existence of a LAD, Chomsky proposed that for a child to acquire a language, sufficient innate language-specific knowledge is needed. These constraints were termed a universal grammar; this theory suggests that all humans have a set of limited rules for grammar that are universal to all natural human languages. These rules are genetically wired into human brains and can be altered in correspondence to the language children are exposed to. In other words, this theory sees language acquisition as a process of filtering through the set of possible grammatical structures in natural languages pre-programmed in one's mind and this is guided by the language input in one's environment. Chomsky introduced generative grammar, he argued that "properties of a generative grammar arise from an "innate" universal grammar". This theory of generative grammar describes a set of rules that are used to order words in order to form grammatically-sound sentences, it attempts to describe a speaker's innate grammatical knowledge.

One of the most significant arguments generative grammarians had for language nativism is the poverty of the stimulus argument. Since 1980 the poverty of stimulus became integrated into the theory of generative grammar. In this argument, Noam Chomsky put forth that the amount of input a child receives during language acquisition is insufficient to account for the linguistic output. To be exact, he said that "the native speaker has acquired a grammar on the basis of restricted and degenerate evidence". Pinker concludes that humans have a system, more sophisticated than what they are being exposed to. Pullum and Scholz summarised the properties of a child's environment, they identified properties of positivity, degeneracy and idiosyncrasy. Under positivity, they assert. Moreover, there is lack in negative data that aids a child in identifying ungrammatical sentences that are unacceptable in the language, it is claimed that children are unable to acquire a language with positive evidence alone. In addition, under degeneracy, it is stated that children are exposed to linguistic data that are erroneous.

This is supported by Zohari, who states that in a

Leopold Hager

Leopold Hager is an Austrian conductor known for his interpretations of works by the Viennese Classics. Hager studied piano, harpsichord and composition at the Salzburg Mozarteum with Bernhard Paumgartner, Gerhard Wimberger, Cesar Bresgen, J. N. David, Egon Kornauth, he was appointed assistant conductor at the Stadttheater Mainz and, after conducting the Linz Landestheater, he was appointed first conductor of the Cologne Opera. He served as Generalmusikdirektor in Freiburg im Breisgau, chief conductor of the Mozarteum Orchestra and of the Landestheater in Salzburg. In October 1976 he debuted at the Metropolitan Opera in New York, he appeared as a guest conductor with other opera houses as well as orchestras in Europe and the United States. In 1981, he became music director of the Orchestre Symphonique de Radio-Télé-Luxembourg, concluded his tenure there in 1996; until 2004, Hager taught Orchestral Conducting at University of Music and Performing Arts, continuing a direct line of renowned teachers including Clemens Krauss, Hans Swarowsky, succeeding Österreicher.

From 2005 to 2008, Leopold Hager served as Chief Conductor at the Vienna Volksoper, conducting their new productions of The Magic Flute, La Traviata, Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg, Les Contes d'Hoffman and Turandot. A frequent conductor at the Vienna State Opera, Leopold Hager has worked with such orchestras as the Vienna Philharmonic, Vienna Symphony, Czech Philharmonic Orchestra, Gewandhausorchester Leipzig, Staatskapelle Dresden, Munich Philharmonic, Münchner Rundfunkorchester, Bamberger Symphoniker, North German Radio Symphony Orchestra, MDR Leipzig Radio Symphony Orchestra, Berlin Symphony Orchestra, Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra, Accademia di Santa Cecilia, Danish National Radio Symphony Orchestra, Orchestre de Paris, Orchestre national de Lille and the National Symphony Orchestra in Washington, D. C

Willoughby Condominium

The Willoughby of Chevy Chase is a large high-rise condominium building in Montgomery County, Maryland, on the outskirts of Washington, D. C, it was designed by award-winning, modernist architect Vlastimil Koubek and opened in 1969 as the Willoughby Apartments. The Willoughby Apartments was built for luxury rentals, when it opened, it was the largest residential building in the DC area; the Willoughby changed ownership hands several times and was sold to First Condominium Development Company of Chicago, specialists in condominium conversions. Apartment sales and control of the condominium turned over to unit owners in 1982. There are 815 units including efficiencies, one-, two- and three-bedroom apartments, commercial office space, a convenience store, 701 parking spaces, a restaurant; the building allows smoking but prohibits pets and was built with many luxury amenities: an exercise room, 24-hour staffed desk, laundry rooms, party room, rooftop lounge, pool. The Willoughby is part of the high-density Village of Friendship Heights census-designated neighborhood in the town of Chevy Chase, Maryland.

It is adjacent to Willoughby Park and on the edge of a high-end commercial district

Erythronium citrinum

Erythronium citrinum known as citrus fawn lily or cream fawn lily, is a member of the lily family, endemic to the Klamath Mountains. It is found in adjacent northwest California; the genus Erythronium, which can be found across northern North America and Asia, is most diverse in California, home to fifteen of about twenty-eight members of the genus. Erythronium citrinum grows in open woods and shrubby slopes, is more or less confined to serpentine soils, it can sometimes be seen blooming in profusion. The flowers of Erythronium citrinum are borne on stems, it has a pair of broad mottled leaves up to about six inches long. The stigma is shallowly three lobed, its anthers are white, it grows in the vicinity of Erythronium oregonum, Erythronium howellii, Erythronium hendersonii. The flower of cream fawn lily is creamy-white with a yellow center; the tips of the tepals turn pinkish. The similar E. howellii is more restricted in its range and can be distinguished by its lacking of nectariferous appendages on the bases of the inner petals.

E. hendersonii, which has a distribution that ends just at the northern boundary of the cream fawn lily, is similar, but is distinguished by its purple flowers. E. oregonum, wide ranging and abundant in southwest Oregon can be distinguished by its divided three-lobed stigma. Eastwood, Donald C. Rare and Endangered Plants of Oregon. Beautiful America, 1990 My Erythronium "Big Year" Calflora Database: Erythronium citrinum Jepson Manual eFlora treatment of Erythronium citrinum UC CalPhotos gallery of Erythronium citrinum