The Royal National Theatre in London known as the National Theatre, is one of the United Kingdom's three most prominent publicly funded performing arts venues, alongside the Royal Shakespeare Company and the Royal Opera House. Internationally, it is known as the National Theatre of Great Britain. From its foundation in 1963 until 1976, the company was based at The Old Vic theatre in Waterloo; the current building is located next to the Thames in the South Bank area of central London. In addition to performances at the National Theatre building, the National Theatre tours productions at theatres across the United Kingdom. Permission to add the "Royal" prefix to the name of the theatre was given in 1988, but the full title is used; the theatre presents a varied programme, including Shakespeare, other international classic drama, new plays by contemporary playwrights. Each auditorium in the theatre can run up to three shows in repertoire, thus further widening the number of plays which can be put on during any one season.
In June 2009, the theatre began National Theatre Live, a programme of simulcasts of live productions to cinemas, first in the United Kingdom and internationally. The programme began with a production of Phèdre, starring Helen Mirren, screened live in 70 cinemas across the UK. NT Live productions have since been broadcast to over 2,500 venues in 60 countries around the world; the NT had an annual turnover of £105 million in 2015–16, of which earned income made up 75%. Support from Arts Council England provided 17% of income, 1% from Learning and Participation activity, the remaining 9% came from a mixture of companies, individuals and foundations. In 1847, a critic using the pseudonym Dramaticus published a pamphlet describing the parlous state of British theatre. Production of serious plays was restricted to the patent theatres, new plays were subjected to censorship by the Lord Chamberlain's Office. At the same time, there was a burgeoning theatre sector featuring a diet of low melodrama and musical burlesque.
There was a demand to commemorate serious theatre, with the "Shakespeare Committee" purchasing the playwright's birthplace for the nation demonstrating a recognition of the importance of'serious drama'. The following year saw more pamphlets on a demand for a National Theatre from London publisher Effingham William Wilson; the situation continued, with a renewed call every decade for a National Theatre. Attention was aroused in 1879 when the Comédie-Française took a residency at the Gaiety Theatre, described in The Times as representing "the highest aristocracy of the theatre"; the principal demands now coalesced around: a structure in the capital that would present "exemplary theatre". The Shakespeare Memorial Theatre was opened in Stratford upon Avon on 23 April 1879, with the New Shakespeare Company; this still left the capital without a national theatre. A London Shakespeare League was founded in 1902 to develop a Shakespeare National Theatre and – with the impending tri-centenary in 1916 of his death – in 1913 purchased land for a theatre in Bloomsbury.
This work was interrupted by World War I. In 1910, George Bernard Shaw wrote a short comedy, The Dark Lady of the Sonnets, in which Shakespeare himself attempts to persuade Elizabeth I of the necessity of building a National Theatre to stage his plays; the play was part of the long-term campaign to build a National Theatre. In 1948, the London County Council presented a site close to the Royal Festival Hall for the purpose, a "National Theatre Act", offering financial support, was passed by Parliament in 1949. Ten years after the foundation stone had been laid in 1951, the Government declared that the nation could not afford a National Theatre. Still, the Government tried to apply unacceptable conditions to save money. Following some initial inspirational steps taken with the opening of the Chichester Festival Theatre in Chichester June 1962, the developments in London proceeded. In July 1962, with agreements reached, a board was set up to supervise construction, a separate board was constituted to run a National Theatre Company and lease the Old Vic theatre.
The "National Theatre Company" opened on 22 October 1963 with Hamlet. The current building was designed by architects Sir Denys Lasdun and Peter Softley and structural engineers Flint & Neill and contains three stages, which opened individually between 1976 and 1977; the construction work was carried out by Sir Robert McAlpine. The Company remained at the Old Vic until 1977; the National Theatre building houses three separate theatres. Additionally, a temporary structure was added in April 2013 and closed in May 2016. Named after the theatre's first artistic director, Laurence Olivier, this is the main auditorium, modelled on the ancient Greek theatre at Epidaurus. A'drum revolve' is operated by a single staff member; the drum has two rim revolves and two platforms, each
Waldo Lonsbury Semon was an American inventor born in Demopolis, Alabama. He is credited with inventing methods for making polyvinyl chloride useful, he was born on September 10, 1898. Semon is best known for the world's second most used plastic, he found the formula for vinyl by mixing a few synthetic polymers, the result was a substance, elastic, but wasn't adhesive. Semon worked on methods of improving rubber, developed a synthetic substitute. On December 11, 1935, he created Koroseal from salt and limestone, a polymer that could be made in any consistency. Semon made more than 5,000 other synthetic rubber compounds, achieving success with Ameripol in 1940 for the B. F. Goodrich company. In all, Semon held 116 patents, was inducted into the Invention Hall of Fame in 1995 at age 97. While at B. F. Goodrich, Semon reported to Harry L. Fisher and supervised Benjamin S. Garvey, both of whom received the Charles Goodyear Medal. Semon is sometimes credited with inventing bubble gum, he did invent an indigestible synthetic rubber substance that could be used as a bubble gum, but the product remained a curiosity and was never sold.
Semon graduated from the University of Washington earning a BS in chemistry and a PhD in chemical engineering. He was awarded the Charles Goodyear Medal in 1944 and the Elliott Cresson Medal in 1964. After retiring from B. F. Goodrich, he served as a research professor at Kent State University in Ohio, he died in Hudson, Ohio, on May 26, 1999, at the age of 100. Waldo Semon Woods Conservation Area, is named in honor of the inventor, for his donation of land to Metro Parks, serving Summit County, Ohio, it is over 100 acres, with a pond where herons and amphibians are seen. Audio interview with Waldo Semon. UW Alumni Magazine Profile Metro Parks, Serving Summit County Biography at Bouncing-Balls.com
The Complicated Futility of Ignorance is the third and final studio album by English rock band Fudge Tunnel, released in September 1994 by Earache Records. The album is notable for being the band's heaviest; the Complicated Futility of Ignorance is noted for being the heaviest and most extreme album of the band. While being a sludge album, it is leaning towards groove metal and in particular, the song "Six Eight" is played in a doom metal style. AllMusic's Vincent Jeffries gave the album four stars out of five, noted the release as being "the best of this group's many fine offerings". All lyrics are written by Fudge Tunnel. Track 12 includes five minutes of silence before the song starts. Alex Newport – vocals, guitars David Ryley – bass guitar Adrian Parkin – drums, percussion Dave Buchanan – engineering John Cornfield – engineering