Royal Naval Reserve

The Royal Naval Reserve is the volunteer reserve force of the Royal Navy in the United Kingdom. The present RNR was formed by merging the original Royal Naval Reserve, created in 1859, the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve, created in 1903; the Royal Naval Reserve has seen action in World War II, the Iraq War and Afghanistan. The Royal Naval Reserve has its origins in the Register of Seamen, established in 1835 to identify men for naval service in the event of war, although just 400 volunteered for duty in the Crimean War in 1854 out of 250,000 on the Register; this led to a Royal Commission on Manning the Navy in 1858, which in turn led to the Naval Reserve Act of 1859. This established the RNR as a reserve of professional seamen from the British Merchant Navy and fishing fleets, who could be called upon during times of war to serve in the regular Royal Navy; the RNR was a reserve of seamen only, but in 1862 was extended to include the recruitment and training of reserve officers. From its creation, RNR officers wore on their uniforms a unique and distinctive lace consisting of stripes of interwoven chain.

A number of drill-ships were established at the main seaports around the coasts of Great Britain and Ireland, seamen left their vessels to undertake gunnery training in a drill-ship for one month every year. After initial shore training, officers embarked in larger ships of the Royal Navy's fleet for one year, to familiarise themselves with gunnery and naval practice. Although under the operational authority of the Admiral Commanding, the RNR was administered jointly by the Admiralty and the Registrar General of Shipping and Seamen at the Board of Trade throughout its separate existence. In 1910, the RNR was formed to recruit and train fishermen for wartime service in minesweepers and other small warships. Officers and men of the RNR soon gained the respect of their naval counterparts with their professional skills in navigation and seamanship, served with distinction in a number of conflicts including the Boer War and the Boxer Rebellion. Prior to the First World War, one hundred RNR officers were transferred to permanent careers in the regular navy—later referred to as "the hungry hundred".

In their professional careers, many RNR officers went on to command the largest passenger liners of the day and some held senior positions in the shipping industry and the government. At the turn of the 20th century, there were concerns at the Admiralty and in parliament that the RNR was insufficient to bolster the manning of the greatly-expanded fleet in the event of large-scale war. Despite the huge growth in the number of ships in the British merchant service since the RNR's foundation, many of the additional seamen were from the colonies or were not British subjects; the pool of potential RNR officers had shrunk since 1859 and experience in the Boer War showed that it would not be possible to call up a sufficient number of reservists without negatively impacting the work of the merchant and fishing fleets. In 1903 an Act of Parliament was passed enabling the Admiralty to raise a second reserve force – the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve. While the RNR consisted of professional civilian sailors, the RNVR was open to civilians with no prior sea experience.

By the outbreak of the First World War there were six RNVR divisions in major ports around the UK. On mobilisation in 1914, the RNR consisted of men. Officers of the permanent RNR on general service took up seagoing appointments in the fleet, many in command, in destroyers, auxiliary cruisers and Q-ships. Others served in larger units of the battle fleet including a large number with the West Indies Squadron who became casualties at the Battle of Coronel and at Jutland. Fishermen of the RNR section served with distinction on board trawlers fitted out as minesweepers for mine clearance operations at home and abroad throughout the war, where they suffered heavy casualties and losses. One such casualty was armed naval drifter HMT Frons Olivae, which hit a mine off Ramsgate on 12 October 1915 in an explosion that killed at least five other seamen. One casualty, a Newfoundlander serving with the Royal Naval Reserve, was subsequently buried in the Hamilton Road Cemetery, Kent. A number of RNR officers qualified as pilots and flew aircraft and airships with the Royal Naval Air Service, whilst many RNR ratings served ashore alongside the RN and RNVR contingents in the trenches of the Somme and at Gallipoli with the Royal Naval Division.

Merchant service officers and men serving in armed merchant cruisers, hospital ships, fleet auxiliaries and transports were entered in the RNR for the duration of the war on special agreements. Although smaller than both the RN and the RNVR, the RNR had an exceptional war record, members being awarded twelve Victoria Crosses. On commencement of hostilities in the Second World War, the RN once again called upon the experience and professionalism of the RNR from the outset to help it to shoulder the initial burden until sufficient manpower could be trained for the RNVR and'hostilities only' ratings. Again, RNR officers found themselves in command of destroyers, sloops, landing craft and submarines, or as specialist navigation officers in cruisers and aircraft carriers. In convoy work, the convoy commodore or escort commander was an RNR officer; as in the First World War, the RNR acquitted itself well. On the outbreak of the Second World War, no more ratings were accepted into the RNVR and new intake to the RNR stopped.

The RNVR became the route by which all new-entry commissioned officers joined the naval service during the

Black Chasm Cave

Black Chasm Cavern is a cave nestled in the hamlet of Volcano, located in Amador County, California. Black Chasm Cavern is a dissolution cave, formed by sulfuric acid resulting from Geo-thermal hydrogen sulfide reacting with down-moving oxygenated surface water; this erodes the limestone bedrock to form small to large chambers. It is considered part of the Calaveras Complex, the crystal structure of the rock has changed over time, classified as metamorphic and is now properly referred to as marble. Many lakes make up the lower levels of the cavern; the calcite formations in Black Chasm Cavern are derivative of the marble bedrock, containing calcium or calcium carbonate. There are a variety of formations in Black Chasm Cavern, including stalactites, columns, draperies, angel's wings, cave bacon, soda straws, false floors, others. Black Chasm Cavern is home to amphipods; the amphipods are adapted to life without light, having no eyesight. Living within the cave, adapted to total darkness, is the Banksula grubbsi arachnid.

Related to the harvestman, the Banksula grubbsi has a multi-segmented body that appears to be one single trunk at first glance, it has detached retinas, no pigmentation. It is found nowhere in the world except Black Chasm Cavern; as for bats, none have colonized the cave, there are many bats in the area. During the cool hours of the morning and evening, you will see the bats flying and diving through the air as they feed on insects. Black Chasm was known about by the local MiWok tribes, though gold miners were the first credited with exploring the cave in 1854; the miners described the cave as having "...vaulted chamber large enough to contain the largest trees..." and "... crystals stood out from the walls in every conceivable direction and bending into many shapes...". These turning and bending formations are known as helictites and are an unusual formation in cave systems throughout the world. Somewhere near the 1860s, the cave entrance was enlarged from its original 18" wide crack in order to accommodate stairs for tours.

The tours lasted only a short time. Following the gold rush, Black Chasm's name faded from recent memory amongst the population only to be rediscovered with a resurgence in caving interest in the 1950s. One early expedition is credited with discovering the rare and prolific display of helictites in the Landmark Room in 1954. In 1962, a diver entered into Lake Reflection, one of the many lakes in the cave, descended to 65' in depth before hitting bottom; this dive took place in summertime. In 2001, the lake was dived again, during it highest level. While there are no known deaths from early cave exploration, there has been at least one serious injury in 1974 which resulted in a six-hour-long rescue. Black Chasm Cavern has passed including Owens Illinois Cement Co.. American Cement Co. and Sierra Nevada Recreation Corporation. Black Chasm was selected for consideration as a National Natural Landmark in 1975 after National Park Service personnel entered into the cave and saw the helictite crystal display in the Landmark Room.

The park service personnel described Black Chasm as having, "The best helictites in the west.". At the time, Black Chasm was slated to be quarried, as an open pit mine, for the gravel that the bedrock would provide; the quarry company who owned the land was aware of the cave, but not of its rare display of helictites. After the NNL status was granted in January 1976, the quarry company still had legal rights to quarry the property, but there was a moral obligation placed on the landowners to preserve the cave in order to retain its NNL status; the quarry company chose to honor the NNL status, separating the cavern property from the remainder of the quarry, still in production today. SNRC purchased Black Chasm Cavern in 1996 and began offering 5 hour expedition trips, including rappelling, rafting and crawling through the wild areas of the cave; these trips ran for four summers before damage to the delicate areas of the cave was deemed too steep a price to continue offering tours through the wild cave.

In 1999, development began on the property, which included creating a road and utility installation, building storage facilities. Stair building into the cavern began in July 2000, with the first walking tours being offered on the last weekend in September 2000; the trail-building spanned just over 10 months, as the crew harnessed up and used ropes for the construction process. Though introductory tours were being conducted during the stair construction period, the grand opening of Black Chasm took place in April 2001. Future plans to extend the trail will allow guests to visit twice as many chambers as are seen on the walking tour. Early tour guests in December 2003 a 3,000 square feet. Visitor center was opened to the public. In the same year, an updated survey and exploration took place in one of the lakes. Using traditional tape measures and compass readings, as well as using a laser measuring device, the exploration team surveyed the original half mile of cave and discovered an additional half mile, doubling the length of known cave.

Total surveyed length of Black Chasm is 3,136 feet, the overall depth, including the lake, is 225 feet, with 146 feet above lake level. Black Chasm Cavern offers Landmark walking tours for all ages, a self-guided nature hike through the rock Zen Garden. From 2011-2015, Black Chasm Ca

Princess Nokia

Destiny Nicole Frasqueri, better known by their stage name Princess Nokia, is an American rapper and actor of Puerto Rican descent. Princess Nokia released their debut album Metallic Butterfy in 2014, followed by the 2015 mixtape, Honeysuckle. Frasqueri, as Princess Nokia released the 1992 EP, followed by their debut album, 1992 Deluxe, which served as their breakthrough album. In 2018, they released the emo-rap mixtape, A Girl Cried Red, before releasing two albums in 2020, Everything sucks and Everything is beautiful. Princess Nokia has hosted an Apple Music radio show and acted in the independent film, Angelfish. At the age of three, Frasqueri lost their mother to AIDS. Between the ages of 9 and 16, they were in foster care. During their time in foster care, their foster mother was physically abusive. After they left foster care, they went to live with their grandmother. At the age of sixteen, Frasqueri started writing rhymes, they lived around the Lower East Side of New York City at the time.

Frasqueri recorded their first song, "Destiny", in 2010, released it under the name "Wavy Spice" on their SoundCloud page and their YouTube channel in mid-2012. It was autobiographical and gained modest popularity. Subsequently, they released their second track, "Bitch I'm Posh"; the track went viral, as of December 2017, received 110,000 plays on SoundCloud. Frasqueri released YAYA as a commentary of perceptions of colonial history. Frasqueri continued to release singles, such as Dragons, a Game of Thrones inspired piece and Vicki Gotti until changing their moniker to Princess Nokia, they released 1992, on Soundcloud. They began touring. Frasqueri has been praised for their feminism, they founded the Smart Girls Club, a podcast where they discuss healthy living and urban feminism."Frasqueri claims Princess Nokia is an alter ego, which they introduced with the track "Nokia". They released an album named Metallic Butterfly on May 12, 2014, was debuted on Vice and Soundcloud. In February 2017, Frasqueri confronted a member of the audience at a charity concert at Cambridge University whom they accused of "mouthing dirty obscenities like'show me your tits'."

The alleged harasser denied yelling such obscenities and told The Cambridge Student: "I was standing in the audience and was told by a fellow audience member that the name of the performer was'Abigail'. Given that I was enjoying the performance, I shouted out'Let's go Abigail!'. After I shouted this, they came down from the stage, they slapped me and threw drinks on me." After returning to the stage, Nokia told the crowd "that's what you do when a White boy disrespects you". On September 8, 2017, they released their debut studio album, 1992 Deluxe, an expanded version of their 2016 mixtape, 1992, it peaked at #25 on Billboard's Heatseekers Albums chart. NME listed it as the 32nd best album of 2017. In October 2017, Frasqueri made headlines again when a viral video surfaced of them throwing hot soup in a man's face whilst on a subway journey to Brooklyn; the rapper heard a white man shouting racial slurs at a group of teenagers, decided to take action against the racist remarks by slapping the man and throwing their hot soup on him.

They took to Twitter saying: "this bigot called this group of teenage boys'n****s' on the train so I stood up and slapped him and everybody on the train backed me up". Nokia has debuted a new radio show on Apple's Beats 1 Radio on February 18, 2018. Episodes will air every other Sunday and allow listeners to get acquainted with the inner workings of Nokia's mind, they have a total of 6 episodes labelled: "The Voices in My Head with Princess Nokia."In September 2018, Nokia was chosen as one of the six ambassadors by Maison Margiela to promote their new fragrance, Mutiny. In December 2018, Nokia rereleased the album Metallic Butterfly under the label Rough Trade. In 2019 they had their debut performance as an actor in the indie movie “Angelfish". In February 2020, Nokia released two albums: Everything Is Beautiful, they are a strong supporter of intersectional feminism, founding the Smart Girl Club with Milah Libin. Frasqueri identifies as bisexual and has stated such in a past interview, they have talked about how growing up near the queer community of New York City was an important part of their life.

The early stages of their musical career began through performing at gay clubs, they gained popularity among the gay nightlife scene. Frasqueri opened up about their identity as a gender non-conforming person and uses they/them pronouns. Metallic Butterfly 1992 Deluxe Everything sucks Everything is beautiful Honeysuckle A Girl Cried Red Ratking – "Puerto Rican Judo" from So It Goes Mykki Blanco – "Wish You Would" from Spring/Summer 2014 Ratking – "Steep Tech" from 700-Fill K. Michelle – "Outro" from Kimberly: The People I Used to Know Show Me the Body – "Spit" from Corpus I Josh Forehead – "Fanta" from Summer 2014 Silverstein - "Madness" from A Beautiful Place to Drown Delivered since 2010, the GAFFA Awards are a Swedish award that rewards popular music awarded by the magazine of the same name. LGBT culture in New York City List of self-identified LGBTQ New Yorkers Nuyorican Puerto Ricans in New York City Princess Nokia's channel on YouTube Princess Nokia's official website