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Royal Observatory, Greenwich

The Royal Observatory, Greenwich is an observatory situated on a hill in Greenwich Park, overlooking the River Thames. It played a major role in the history of astronomy and navigation, because the prime meridian passes through it, it gave its name to Greenwich Mean Time; the ROG has the IAU observatory code of the first in the list. ROG, the National Maritime Museum, the Queen's House and Cutty Sark are collectively designated Royal Museums Greenwich; the observatory was commissioned in 1675 by King Charles II, with the foundation stone being laid on 10 August. The site was chosen by Sir Christopher Wren. At that time the king created the position of Astronomer Royal, to serve as the director of the observatory and to "apply himself with the most exact care and diligence to the rectifying of the tables of the motions of the heavens, the places of the fixed stars, so as to find out the so much desired longitude of places for the perfecting of the art of navigation." He appointed John Flamsteed as the first Astronomer Royal.

The building was completed in the summer of 1676. The building was called "Flamsteed House", in reference to its first occupant; the scientific work of the observatory was relocated elsewhere in stages in the first half of the 20th century, the Greenwich site is now maintained exclusively as a museum, although the AMAT telescope became operational for astronomical research in 2018. 1675 – 22 June, Royal Observatory founded. 1675 – 10 August, construction began. 1714 Longitude Act established the Board of Longitude rewards. The Astronomer Royal was, until the Board was dissolved in 1828, always an ex officio Commissioner of Longitude. 1767 Astronomer Royal Nevil Maskelyne began publication of the Nautical Almanac, based on observations made at the Observatory. 1818 Oversight of the Royal Observatory was transferred from the Board of Ordnance to the Board of Admiralty. 1833 Daily time signals began. 1838 – Sheepshanks equatorial, a 6.7 inch aperture refracting telescope installed. 1893 – The 28-inch Great refractor installed.

1899 The New Physical Observatory was completed. 1924 Hourly time signals from the Royal Observatory were first broadcast on 5 February. 1931 Yapp telescope ordered. 1957 Royal Observatory completed its move to Herstmonceux. The Greenwich site is renamed the Old Royal Observatory. 1990 RGO moved to Cambridge. 1998 RGO closed. Greenwich site is returned to its original name, the Royal Observatory, is made part of the National Maritime Museum. 2011 The Greenwich museums, including the ROG, become collectively the Royal Museums Greenwich. There had been significant buildings on this land since the reign of William I. Greenwich Palace, on the site of the present-day Maritime Museum, was the birthplace of both Henry VIII and his daughters Mary I and Elizabeth I. Greenwich Castle was a favourite place for Henry VIII to house his mistresses, so that he could travel from the Palace to see them. In 1676 Flamsteed's house on Greenwich hill was completed, the Royal astronomer's place of operation; the establishment of a Royal Observatory was proposed in 1674 by Sir Jonas Moore who, in his role as Surveyor-General of the Ordnance, persuaded King Charles II to create the observatory, with John Flamsteed installed as its director.

The Ordnance Office was given responsibility for building the Observatory, with Moore providing the key instruments and equipment for the observatory at his own personal cost. Flamsteed House, the original part of the Observatory, was designed by Sir Christopher Wren assisted by Robert Hooke, was the first purpose-built scientific research facility in Britain, it was built for a cost of £520 out of recycled materials on the foundations of Duke Humphrey's Tower, the forerunner of Greenwich Castle, which resulted in the alignment being 13 degrees away from true North, somewhat to Flamsteed's chagrin. Moore donated two clocks, built by Thomas Tompion, which were installed in the 20 foot high Octagon Room, the principal room of the building, they were of unusual design, each with a pendulum 13 feet in length mounted above the clock face, giving a period of four seconds and an accuracy unparalleled, of seven seconds per day. The original observatory housed the astronomer royal, his assistant and his family as well as the scientific instruments to be used by Flamsteed in his work on stellar tables.

Over time the institution became a more established institution, thanks to its links to long-lasting government boards and oversight by a Board of Visitors, founded in 1710 and made up of the President and Members of the council of the Royal Society. By the 18th century it incorporated additional responsibilities such as publishing the Nautical Almanac, advising government on technical matters, disseminating time, making meteorological and magnetic observations and undertaking astrophotography and spectroscopy; the physical site and the numbers of staff increased over time as a result. When the observatory was founded in 1675, one the best star catalogues was Tycho Brae's 1000 star catalog from 1598. However, this catalogue was not accurate enough to determine longitudes. One of Flamsteed'

Cloud suck

Cloud suck is a phenomenon known in paragliding, hang gliding, sailplane flying where pilots experience significant lift due to a thermal under the base of cumulus clouds towering cumulus and cumulonimbus. The vertical extent of a cumulus cloud is a good indicator of the strength of lift beneath it, the potential for cloud suck. Cloud suck most occurs in low pressure weather and in humid conditions. Cloud suck is associated with an increase in thermal updraft velocity near cloud base; as a parcel of air lifted in a thermal rises, it cools, water vapour will condense to form a cloud if the parcel rises above the lifted condensation level. As the water vapour condenses, it releases its latent heat of vaporization, thereby increasing the buoyancy of the parcel; the updraft is amplified by this latent heat release. Although the process that causes this amplification happens above cloud base height, the effect is noticeable as much as 300 m below cloud base. In fact, it is this effect below cloud base, not the effect within the cloud, referred to by pilots as cloud suck.

The telltale signs for a pilot climbing in the thermal under a "sucking" cloud are lift strengthening, lift getting smoother, widening of the thermal. Paraglider pilots have reported being unable to descend in strong cloud suck after bringing their canopies into deep spiral, which would result in a rapid vertical descent. Cloud suck is dangerous for paraglider pilots, whose maximum speed is less than 30 knots, because storm clouds can expand and develop over a large area with accompanying large areas of strong lift. On 14 February 2007 while practising for a paragliding contest in Australia, Polish-born German team pilot Ewa Wiśnierska-Cieślewicz was sucked into a cumulonimbus cloud, climbing at up to 20 m per second to an altitude of 9,946 m, she lost consciousness due to hypoxia, but regained consciousness after 30 minutes to an hour, landed still covered in ice after a three and a half hour flight. 42 year old Chinese paraglider pilot He Zhongpin died in 2007 after being sucked into the same storm system and struck by lightning at 5900 m.

His body was found the next day 15 km from his last known position prior to entering the cloud. In 2014 Italian paraglider Paolo Antoniazzi, 66 years old retired Army general, died after being sucked into a thunderstorm. Compared with hang-gliders and paragliders, sailplanes have much higher top speeds, can more escape powerful cumulonimbus clouds by flying away or by using effective air brakes. A sailplane has the added benefit of the pilot being able to put the sailplane into a spin to descend without over speeding. Cloud suck is a concern for powered aircraft but is not a lethal hazard, except in extreme weather situations; the USS Shenandoah, the first rigid airship built in the United States, the first in the world to be inflated with helium, was lost in a cloud suck accident associated with a squall line. At about 6:00 AM on 3 September 1925, near Ava in northern Noble County, the Shenandoah was caught in a violent updraft while at an altitude of 2,100 feet, rising at the rate of a meter per second.

At about 6,200 feet the ascent was checked. When halfway to the ground it was hit by another updraft and began to rise at an faster rate; the keel snapped, the ship broke up while still more than a mile above the ground. Shenandoah's commanding officer and 13 other officers and men were killed. Twenty-nine members of the crew survived the break-up. Cumulonimbus and aviation Steve Roti: How to Avoid Cloud Suck article on USHPA website, first published in Paragliding Magazine, January 2001

Second Treaty of Buffalo Creek

There are four treaties of Buffalo Creek, named for the Buffalo River in New York. The Second Treaty of Buffalo Creek known as the Treaty with the New York Indians, 1838, was signed on January 15, 1838 between the Seneca Nation, Mohawk nation, Cayuga nation, Oneida Indian Nation, Onondaga and the United States, it covered land sales of tribal reservations under the U. S. Indian Removal program, by which they planned to move most eastern tribes to Kansas Territory west of the Mississippi River. Treaty of Buffalo Creek-January 15, 1838-Article I-The New York Indians agreed to "cede and relinquish to the United States all their right and interest to the lands secured to them at Green Bay by the Menominee Treaty of 1831, excepting the following tract, on which a part of the New York Indians now reside." The tract was eight by twelve miles consisting of 65, 436 acres or equal to 100 acres for each of the 654 Oneida that were presently living there. This established the original boundaries of the Oneida Reservation of Wisconsin.

The Seneca nation, represented by certain chiefs including Red Jacket, Handsome Lake, Governor Blacksnake, agreed to the following. Based on the terms of the accord, the US was to sell the five remaining Seneca reservations and provide for the Seneca to relocate to a tract of land in present-day Kansas, west of Missouri. A section of the treaty acknowledged that the Ogden Land Company would buy the five reservations occupied by the Seneca Nation; the understanding was. The treaty was met with some controversy and resistance by Quakers residing in New York and Philadelphia; these groups filed charges of fraud against the Ogden Company. Some Seneca groups claimed that most Iroquois did not support the treaty and that only a minority signed it; some of these grievances helped lead to another meeting between these two parties and the creation of the further treaties. The Ogden Land Company abandoned its attempts to purchase the Allegany and Oil Spring reservations, leading to the Third Treaty of Buffalo Creek in 1842.

Treaty of Fort Stanwix Treaty of Canandaigua Treaty of Big Tree First Treaty of Buffalo Creek Third Treaty of Buffalo Creek Fourth Treaty of Buffalo Creek List of treaties Fellows v. Blacksmith New York ex rel. Cutler v. Dibble Laurence M. Hauptman, Conspiracy of Interests: Iroquois Dispossession and the Rise of New York State. Encyclopedia of American Indian Removal. Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood. 2011. Pp. 241–243. ISBN 978-0-313-36041-1. TREATY WITH THE ONEIDA, 1838. Feb. 3, 1838. | 7 Stat. 566. Treaty of Buffalo Creek, Jan. 15, 1838, 7 Stat. 550