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Royal Palace of Caserta

The Royal Palace of Caserta is a former royal residence in Caserta, southern Italy, constructed by the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies as their main residence as kings of Naples. It is one of the largest palaces erected in Europe during the 18th century. In 1997, the palace was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In terms of volume, the Royal Palace of Caserta is one of the largest royal residences in the world with over 1 million m³ and covering an area of 47,000 m²; the construction of the palace was begun in 1752 for Charles VII of Naples, who worked with his architect, Luigi Vanvitelli. When Charles saw Vanvitelli's grandly scaled model for Caserta, it filled him with emotion "fit to tear his heart from his breast". In the end, he never slept a night at the Reggia, as he abdicated in 1759 to become King of Spain, the project was carried to only partial completion for his third son and successor, Ferdinand IV of Naples; the political and social model for Vanvitelli's palace was Versailles, though strikingly different in its variety and disposition, solves similar problems of assembling and providing for king and government in a massive building with the social structure of a small city, confronting a baroque view of a subordinated nature, la nature forcée.

This was part of the entire concept of the palace when it was first proposed by Mario Gioffredo sometime in 1750. According to Hersey, the proposal envisaged a palace "that was a virtual city, housing not just the court and king but all the main political and cultural elites of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies - university, library, cabinet bureaus, military high commands, so on."The population of Caserta Vecchia was moved 10 kilometers to provide a work force closer to the palace. A silk manufactory at San Leucio resort was disguised as a pavilion in the immense parkland. Another of the king's primary objects was to have a magnificent new royal court and administrative center for the kingdom in a location protected from sea attack, distant from the revolt-prone and congested city of Naples. To provide the king with suitable protection, troop barracks were housed within the palace; the Royal Palace of Madrid, where Charles had grown up, devised by Filippo Juvarra for Charles' father, Philip V of Spain, Charlottenburg Palace provided models.

A spacious octagonal vestibule seems to have been inspired by Basilica di Santa Maria della Salute in Venice, while the palatine chapel is most compared to the Royal Chapel at Versailles. Vanvitelli died in 1773: the construction was continued by his son Carlo and by other architects. From 1923 to 1943 the palace was the location of the Accademia Aeronautica, the Italian Air Force Academy. From 1943, during the allied invasion the royal palace served as Allied Force Headquarters for the Supreme Allied Commander in the Mediterranean area. In April 1945 the palace was the site of the signing of terms of the unconditional German surrender of forces in Italy; the agreement covered between 600,000 and 900,000 soldiers along the Italian Front including troops in sections of Austria. The first Allied war crimes trial took place in the palace in 1945. In the left hand arc behind the façade, a set of barracks were built. During World War II the soldiers of the US Fifth Army recovered here in a "rest centre".

The palace has 5 floors, 1,200 rooms, including two dozen state apartments, a large library, a theatre modelled after the Teatro San Carlo of Naples. A monumental avenue that would run 20 kilometers between the palace and Naples was planned but never realized; the palace has a rectangular plan, measuring 247 × 184 m, the four sides are connected by two orthogonal arms, forming four inner courts. Each floor measures 47,000 m2, but considering the five floors, the whole palace measures 235,000 m2. Caserta is by far the largest royal palace in the world in terms of volume, with more than 2 million m³. Behind the façades of its matching segmental ranges of outbuildings that flank the giant forecourt, a jumble of buildings arose to facilitate daily business; the palace encloses four courts that feature what scholars describe as well-proportioned interior that evoke a monotonous dignity, unique in its time. Of all the royal residences inspired by the Palace of Versailles, the Reggia of Caserta is the one that bears the greatest resemblance to the original model: the unbroken balustraded skyline and the slight break provided by pavilions within the long, somewhat monotonous façade.

As at Versailles, a large aqueduct was required to bring water for the prodigious water displays. Like its French predecessor, the palace was intended to display the power and grandeur of an absolute Bourbon monarchy. A solecism at Caserta is that above the piano reale, the King's floor, is another floor of equal magnificence; the enfilades of Late Baroque saloni were the heart and seat of government, as well as displays of national wealth. Caserta provided a royal refuge from the dust and factions of the capital, just as Versailles had freed Louis XIV from Paris; the royal palace has more than 40 monumental rooms decorated with frescoes when, in comparison, Versailles counts only 22 monumental rooms. The garden, a typical

Martin Morgan

Martin Morgan is a former Irish politician for the Social Democratic and Labour Party. Married to Dympna, a double graduate from the Queen's University of Belfast and a qualified Master's Level Social Worker, Morgan has been a political activist since his teenage years. A former Vice-Chairperson of the SDLP and Executive member. In 1996 he was an unsuccessful candidate in the Northern Ireland Forum election in North Belfast, he was a councillor on Belfast City Council until 2005. Morgan was the youngest Nationalist and Catholic to be elected Lord Mayor of Belfast until the election of Niall Ó Donnghaile, he stood for the party in the 2004 European Parliament elections. He was the youngest Belfast councillor when first elected, he questioned. The PSNI was accused by Morgan and representatives of the local community of using heavy-handed policing to force an Orange Order parade through the Catholic Ardoyne area of North Belfast. Morgan left the SDLP after seeing out his third term of office, he writes a weekly "Straight Talking" column in the Belfast newspaper North Belfast News.

This column deals with current affairs and social responsibility matters but not in North Belfast. Morgans grandfather William Mullan was a member of the Irish Army colour party which accompanied 1916 rebel Padraig Pearse’s body to the graveyard

List of human endocrine organs and actions

The pituitary gland is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing 0.5 grams in humans. It is a protrusion off the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain, rests in a small, bony cavity covered by a dural fold; the pituitary is functionally connected to the hypothalamus by the median eminence via a small tube called the infundibular stem or pituitary stalk. The anterior pituitary is connected to the hypothalamus via the hypothalamo–hypophyseal portal vessels, which allows for quicker and more efficient communication between the hypothalamus and the pituitary. Oxytocin and anti-diuretic hormone are not secreted in the posterior lobe stored; the pancreas is a heterocrine gland as it functions both as an exocrine gland. In 1998, skeletal muscle was identified as an endocrine organ due to its now well-established role in the secretion of myokines; the use of the term myokine to describe cytokines and other peptides produced by muscle as signalling molecules was proposed in 2003.

Signalling molecules released by adipose tissue are referred to as adipokines