Royal Pavilion

The Royal Pavilion known as the Brighton Pavilion, is a Grade I listed former royal residence located in Brighton, England. Beginning in 1787, it was built in three stages as a seaside retreat for George, Prince of Wales, who became the Prince Regent in 1811, it is built in the Indo-Saracenic style prevalent in India for most of the 19th century. The current appearance of the Pavilion, with its domes and minarets, is the work of architect John Nash, who extended the building starting in 1815; the Prince of Wales, who became George IV, first visited Brighton in 1783, at the age of 21. The seaside town had become fashionable as a result of the residence of George's uncle, Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland, whose tastes for fine cuisine, the theatre, general fast living the young prince shared, with whom he lodged in Brighton at Grove House. In addition, the Prince of Wales was advised by his physician that the seawater and fresh air would be beneficial for his gout. In 1786, under a financial cloud with investigation by Parliament for the extravagances incurred in building Carlton House, the Prince rented a modest, erstwhile farmhouse facing the Old Steine, a grassy area of Brighton used as a promenade by visitors.

Remote from the Royal Court in London, the Pavilion was a discreet location for the Prince to enjoy private liaisons with his long-time companion, Maria Fitzherbert. The Prince had wished to marry her, did so in secrecy as her Roman Catholic religion prohibited his marrying her under the Royal Marriages Act 1772. In 1787, the Prince commissioned the designer of Carlton House, Henry Holland, to enlarge the existing building, it became one wing of the Marine Pavilion, flanking a central rotunda, which contained three main rooms: a breakfast room, dining room, library, fitted out in Holland's French-influenced neoclassical style, with decorative paintings by Biagio Rebecca. In 1801–02, the Pavilion was enlarged with a new dining room and conservatory, to designs of Peter Frederick Robinson, who worked in Holland's office; the Prince purchased land surrounding the property, on which a grand riding school and stables were built in an Indian style in 1803–08, to designs by William Porden. These provided dwarfed the Marine Pavilion.

Between 1815 and 1822, the designer John Nash redesigned and extended the Pavilion, it is his work, still visible today. The palace is striking in the middle of Brighton; the fanciful interior design by Frederick Crace and the little-known decorative painter Robert Jones, was influenced by both Chinese and Indian fashion. It is a prime example of the exoticism, an alternative to more classicising mainstream taste in the Regency style. After the death of George IV in 1830, his successor King William IV stayed in the Pavilion on his frequent visits to Brighton. Queen Victoria, disliked Brighton and the lack of privacy at the Pavilion. Brighton became accessible to Londoners by rail in 1841. In addition, the Pavilion was cramped for her growing family. Famously, Queen Victoria disliked the constant attention she attracted in Brighton, saying "the people here are indiscreet and troublesome", she purchased an estate and land, redeveloped for Osborne House in the Isle of Wight, which became the summer home of the royal family.

After her last visit to Brighton in 1845, the Government planned to sell grounds. The Brighton Commissioners and the Brighton Vestry petitioned the Government to sell the Pavilion to the town for £53,000 in 1850 under the Brighton Improvement Act 1850; the sale helped fund furnishing of Osborne House. In 1860, the adjacent royal stables were converted to a concert hall, now known as the Brighton Dome; the town used the building as assembly rooms. Many of the Pavilion's original fixtures and fittings were removed on the order of the royal household at the time of the sale, most ending up either in Buckingham Palace or Windsor Castle. In the late 1860s, Queen Victoria returned to Brighton large quantities of unused fittings. George V and Queen Mary returned more furnishings after the First World War. Since the end of the Second World War, the municipality of Brighton has worked to restore the Pavilion to its state at the time of King George IV; the city was encouraged in the 1950s by the permanent loan of over 100 items of furniture from Queen Elizabeth II.

It has undertaken an extensive programme of restoring the rooms, reinstating stud walls, creating replicas of some original fittings and pieces of furniture. During the First World War, the Pavilion, along with other sites in Brighton, was transformed into a military hospital. From December 1914 to January 1916, sick and wounded soldiers from the Indian Army were treated in the former palace; the Pavilion hospital incorporated the adjacent Dome and Corn Exchange. The Pavilion hospital was set up with over 720 beds. Over 2,300 men were treated at the hospital. Elaborate arrangements were made to cater for the patients' variety of cultural needs. Nine different kitchens were set up in the grounds of the hospital, so that food could be cooked by the soldiers' fellow caste members and co-religionists. Muslims were given space on the eastern lawns to pray facing towards Mecca, while Sikhs were provided with a tented gurdwara in the grounds; the imperial government highlighted the Pavilion as showing that wounded countrymen of India were being well treated.

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Methodist Girls' School, Ipoh

The Methodist Girls' School, Ipoh is an all-girls secondary school in Ipoh, Malaysia. It was founded by the Reverend William Edward Horley in 1895 as the Anglo-Chinese Girls' School Ms. Grace Towers Mrs. Luering Mrs. Rutledge Ms. Ethel Parks Ms. Lydia Urech Ms. Carrie C. Kenyon Ms. Minnie L. Rank Ms. Thelma Ashley Ms. Florence Kleinhenn Ms. Thirza E. Bunce Ms. Virginia Lake Ms. Gazelle Traeger Ms. Edna Dahlin Ms. Daisy Moreira Ms. Ann Harder Ms. Ruth Ho A. M. N. Mrs. Gloriosa Rajendran Ms. Chong Nyuk Mui P. J. K. Ms. Yin Kam Yoke P. P. N. Mrs. Lily Chin Mdm. Lee Ah Kim Mrs. Siva Prasanna d/o Krishnan Mrs. Soot Mooy Ching Mdm. Nalini d/o Achuthan Nair Datin Mungit Kaur d/o Dalip Singh Mrs. Gan Lee Lee Ho, Seng Ong, Methodist Schools in Malaysia: their record and history, Board of Education, Malaya Annual Conference Khoo, Salma Nasution.

Dragon's teeth (mythology)

In Greek myth, dragon's teeth feature prominently in the legends of the Phoenician prince Cadmus and in Jason's quest for the Golden Fleece. In each case, the dragons are breathe fire, their teeth, once planted, would grow into armed warriors. Cadmus, the bringer of literacy and civilization, killed the sacred dragon that guarded the spring of Ares; the goddess Athena told him to sow the teeth, from which sprang a group of ferocious warriors called the spartoi. He threw a precious jewel into the midst of the warriors, who turned on each other in an attempt to seize the stone for themselves; the five survivors joined with Cadmus to found the city of Thebes. The classical legends of Cadmus and Jason have given rise to the phrase "to sow dragon's teeth." This is used as a metaphor to refer to doing something that has the effect of fomenting disputes