Pelican Point (Swan River)
Pelican Point is a geographical feature and nature reserve on the Swan River in Perth, located at Matilda Bay near the University of Western Australia. The point is named for the pelicans. Pelican Point was named Point Currie after Captain Currie, who in 1829 received an allotment of land in the area and which became known as Crawley; the area south of the point's axis is now a bird sanctuary. The northern side includes the Royal Perth Yacht Club, Mounts Bay Sailing Club, the 1st Pelican Point Sea Scouts and a public boat ramp. A road named. During World War II the area hosted a United States naval base which used the name Pelican Point, at which Catalina Flying Boats were based. Crawley for more regarding the Flying Boat Base The Double Sunrise
2000 Summer Paralympics
The 2000 Paralympic Games were held in Sydney, from 18 to 29 October. In September 1993, Sydney won the rights to host the 2000 Paralympic Games. To secure this right it was expected that the New South Wales Government would underwrite the budget for the games; the Sydney games were the 11th Summer Paralympic Games, where an estimated 3,800 athletes took part in the programme. They commenced with the opening ceremony on 18 October 2000, it was followed by the 11 days of fierce international competition and was the second largest sporting event held in Australia. They were the first Paralympic Games outside the Northern Hemisphere; this was the last edition of the Paralympic Summer Games, run independently of the Summer Olympics, although efforts to unify the two events had begun at that time and some areas of both such as the Olympic Village and the operational areas were merged for the first time. At the beginning of his candidacy for the Olympic Games, the city of Sydney showed no interest in hosting the Paralympic Games.
But in 1993, a few months before the final presentation in Monaco, Adrienne Smith, a sporting inclusion activist and the executive secretary of the newly founded Australia Paralympic Federation, along with Ron Finneran, the Federation President lobbied to ensure the Paralympics were part of Sydney’s bid for the 2000 Olympics and underwritten by the Federal and State Governments. They insured that the paralympic athletes would have the same treatment, the same conditions and the same support as their Olympic counterparts. Something that until was unprecedented and would become a point of no return in the Paralympic Games. After the win, Smith commented that, “We couldn’t go public because if we did it would have ruined the Olympic bid. We had no acknowledgement of financial support from the government until the day of the bid in September 1993; the games was estimated to cost AUS$157 million, with the NSW Government and Commonwealth Government contributing AUS$25 million each. The Sydney Organising Committee for the Olympic Games contributed $18 million, within the bid estimates.
The Sydney Paralympic Organising Committee entered into a Host City contract with the International Paralympic Committee, which outlines the SPOC’s obligations in hosting the Paralympic Games. To cover the costs, other revenue was raised via ticket sales; the 110,000 seat Stadium Australia was completed three months early in February 1999, this stadium was funded by the private sector at an estimated cost of $690 million, the Government contributed $124 million to this project. Though there is no budgeted profit, if any profit is made though the games, repayment to the Federal and State Governments is the first priority. In October 1998, governing bodies of the Paralympics including the SOCOG and the Sydney Paralympic Organising Committee initiated a call for volunteers. An estimated total of forty-one thousand Australians answered this call, non-including those sourced from specialist community groups; the major focus between 1999-2000 was completion of the first stage of the Millennium Parklands.
This is composed of 450 hectares of landscape, with up to 40 kilometers of pedestrian and cycle trails. This major first stage included focus on the surrounding Olympic facilities, providing a beautiful landscape for recreational activities and environmental education/preservation. During this time work on the Water Reclamation and Management Scheme will continue to progress; the WRAMS will be in use during the games with the first stage to be implemented. This system will continue after the games, will be developed after the games has been completed; the WRAMS system is only one of the many water saving management strategies to be used during the games period. Plans to use stormwater runoff from Newington to be used as irrigation and a requirement for Olympic venues to utilise water saving techniques and devices are some of the other water saving plans. Stormwater from the Stadium Australia roof is to be collected and used to irrigate the central stadium. An environmental education program is delivered throughout 1999-2000 to ensure that Homebush Bay and the Sydney Olympics and Paralympics continue to be recognised for their commitment to the environment.
The Paralympic Games are governed by the International Paralympic Committee. The Games were organised by the Sydney Paralyampic Organising Committee led by President Dr John Grant and Chief Executive Officer Lois Appleby; the SOCOG was established at the same time as the Sydney Paralympic organising Committee on 12 November 1993 by the Office of Olympic Co-ordination. In January 1995, SPOC became a public company controlled by the Government, receiving support by both State and Commonwealth Governments. A board of directors including the Premier, Minister for the Olympics, the Treasurer and the Minister for Sport, Recreation conducted administration; the Sydney Paralympic Organising Committee was responsible for planning and staging the Sydney 2000 Paralympic Games including tickets, information on events and disability categorisation, converting Olympic venues to Paralympic venues, conducting events, facilitating drug testing, arranging broadcasting, housing for athletes, arranging medal ceremonies, transporting athletes and conducting the Paralympic torch relay.
The Sydney Paralympic Organising Committee regulated the use of Paralympic Games indicia and images. A committee known as the Joint Working Group was established in June 1997, linking the Boards of both the Sydney Paralympic Organising Committee and the Sydney Organising Committee for the Olympic Games. On 29 November, the Sydney Games Administration Act 2000 was passed; the leg
Royal Warrant of Appointment (United Kingdom)
Royal warrants of appointment have been issued since the 15th century to those who supply goods or services to a royal court or certain royal personages. The warrant enables the supplier to advertise the fact that they supply to the royal family, so lending prestige to the brand and/or supplier. In the United Kingdom, grants are made by the three most senior members of the British royal family to companies or tradesmen who supply goods and services to individuals in the family. Suppliers continue to charge for their goods and services – a warrant does not imply that they provide goods and services free of charge; the warrant is advertised on billboards, letter-heads and products by displaying the coat of arms or the heraldic badge of the royal personage as appropriate. Underneath the coat of arms will appear the phrase "By Appointment to..." followed by the title and name of the royal customer, what goods are provided. No other details of what is supplied may be given; the granting of royal patronage or royal charter was practised across Europe from the early Medieval period.
However, royal patronage was granted to those working in the arts. Royal charters began to replace royal patronage in around the 12th century; the earliest charters were granted to the trade guilds, with the first recorded British royal charter being granted to the Weavers’ Company in 1155 by Henry II of England. By the 15th century, the Royal Warrant of Appointment replaced the Royal Charter in England, providing a more formalised system of recognition. Under a Royal Warrant, the Lord Chamberlain appointed tradespeople as suppliers to the Royal household; the printer William Caxton was one of the first recipients of a Royal Warrant when he became the King's printer in 1476. One of the early monarchs to grant a warrant was King Charles II of England. A Royal warrant sent a strong public signal that the holder supplied goods of a quality acceptable for use in the Royal household, by inference, inspired the confidence of the general public. At a time when product quality was a public issue, a royal warrant imbued suppliers with an independent sign of value.
By the 18th century, mass market manufacturers such as Josiah Wedgwood and Matthew Boulton, recognised the value of supplying royalty at prices well below cost, for the sake of the publicity and kudos it generated. Royal Warrants became keenly sought-after and manufacturers began displaying the royal arms on their premises and labelling. By 1840, the rules surrounding the display of royal arms were tightened to prevent fraudulent claims. By the early 19th century, during the reign of Queen Victoria, the number of Royal Warrants granted rose with the granting of 2,000 warrants. Since 1885, an annual list of warrant holders has been published in the London Gazette. Food and drink manufacturers have been some of the most important warrant holder suppliers to the palace. High profile food and beverage suppliers with a Royal Warrant include Cadbury. Non-food suppliers with Royal Warrants include: Aston Martin. Warrants are granted for the Queen, the Duke of Edinburgh and the Prince of Wales. Warrants issued by the Queen Mother automatically expired no than 2007, five years after her death.
Royal Warrants are only awarded to tradesmen, such as carpenters, cabinet makers, dry-cleaners chimney sweeps. Some are well-known companies; the professions, employment agencies, party planners, the media, government departments, "places of refreshment or entertainment" do not qualify. Today, some 850 individuals and companies, including a few non-UK companies, hold more than 1,100 warrants to the British Royal Family; the Royal Warrant signifies there is a satisfactory trade relation in place between the grantor and the company and that the goods nominated are suitable for supply to the Royal household. Within the company, there is a nominated person called the grantee; that person is in all respects responsible for all aspects of the Royal Warrant. It takes at least five years of supplying goods or services to the member of the Royal Family before a company is eligible to have its application considered for recommendation; that application is presented to the Royal Household and goes to the buyer who makes its recommendation for inclusion.
It goes in front of the Royal Household Warrants Committee, chaired by the Lord Chamberlain, which decides whether to accept the recommendation. It goes to the grantor, who signs it; the grantor is empowered to reverse the Committee's decision, therefore the final decision to accept or withhold a grant is a personal one. Some Royal Warrants have been held for more than a hundred years. Goods need not be for the use of the grantor. For example, cigarettes were only bought for the use of guests of the Royal Family, but these Warrants were cancelled in 1999 as a matter of public policy. For business, the granting of a Royal Warrant is a huge boost, because royal approval may be displayed in public with the coat of royal arms of the grantor, indicating that their services or products are of high quality. Most Warrant holders are members of the Royal Warrant Holders Association, which liaises with the palace, its secretary, Richard Peck, is a former submarine commander. Royal warrant of appointment, warrant to tradespeople who supply goods or services to a royal court Royal charter, a formal document issued by a monarch to es
2016 Summer Paralympics
The 2016 Summer Paralympics, the 15th Summer Paralympic Games, were a major international multi-sport event for athletes with disabilities governed by the International Paralympic Committee, held in Rio de Janeiro, from 7 September to 18 September 2016. The Games marked the first time a Latin American and South American city hosted the event, the second Southern Hemisphere city and nation, the first one being the 2000 Summer Paralympics in Sydney, the first time a Lusophone country hosted the event; these Games saw the introduction of two new sports to the Paralympic program: canoeing and the paratriathlon. The lead-up to these Paralympics were met with financial shortcomings attributed to tepid sponsor interest and ticket sales, which resulted in cuts to volunteer staffing and transport, the re-location of events and the partial deconstruction of the Deodoro venue cluster. However, ticket sales began to increase as the Games drew nearer, over 2 million tickets were sold in total—overtaking Beijing 2008 as the second-most-attended Paralympic Games on record.
The Russian doping scandal affected these Paralympics. A team of two refugee athletes participated in Rio, "hosted" by the Greek and American Paralympic Committees. For the fourth consecutive Summer Paralympics, China topped the medal table, winning 107 gold medals, while Georgia, Malaysia and Vietnam won their first Paralympic gold medals. For the first time in Paralympic history, the first time in the Olympics or Paralympics since 1960, an athlete—Iranian cyclist Bahman Golbarnezhad—died during competition; as part of a formal agreement between the International Paralympic Committee and the International Olympic Committee first established in 2001, the winner of the bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics was to host the 2016 Summer Paralympics. Following the third and final round of voting at the 121st IOC Session in Copenhagen on 2 October 2009, the right to host the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics were awarded to Rio de Janeiro; the 2007 Pan American Games and Parapan American Games in Rio de Janeiro marked the first time that the Pan Am Games and Parapan Am Games were hosted as parallel events in the same host city.
Andrew Parsons, president of the Brazilian Paralympic Committee, remarked that the organizing teams responsible for the Olympics and Paralympics were maintaining a good relationship and "speaking the same language" in relation to their organizational duties. Parsons praised how well-organized the 2012 Summer Paralympics were, felt that his team had learned lessons from London that could be applied in Rio; as had been common practice since the Olympics and Paralympics began to formally share host cities, the Paralympics' venues were shared with those of the 2016 Summer Olympics. Barra da Tijuca hosted most of the venues, with the remainder located in Copacabana Beach, Maracanã and Deodoro. Barra da Tijuca housed the athletes' village. Carioca Arena 1 – Wheelchair basketball, wheelchair rugby Carioca Arena 2 – Boccia Carioca Arena 3 – Judo, wheelchair fencing Future Arena – Goalball Olympic Aquatics Stadium – Swimming Olympic Tennis Centre – 5-a-side football, wheelchair tennis Pontal Beach – Road cycling Riocentro – Powerlifting, Sitting volleyball, table tennis Rio Olympic Arena – Wheelchair basketball Rio Olympic Velodrome – Track cycling National Shooting Center – shooting National Equestrian Center – equestrian Deodoro Stadium - 7-a-side football Maracanã Stadium – opening and closing ceremonies Estádio Olímpico João Havelange – athletics Sambadrome Marquês de Sapucaí – archery Fort Copacabana – Athletics and Road Cycling Marina da Glória – sailing Lagoa Rodrigo de Freitas – canoeing and rowing The medal design for the 2016 Olympics and Paralympics were unveiled on 14 June 2016.
The bronze and silver medals contain 30% recycled materials, while the gold medals were produced using gold, mined and extracted using means that met a series of sustainability criteria, such as being extracted without the use of mercury. The obverse of the Paralympic medals feature the Paralympic emblem and an inscription in braille, while each medal contains differing numbers of metal balls to allow the visually impaired to audibly distinguish their color by shaking them, they are accompanied by a wooden carrying box, a plush toy of Paralympic mascot Tom with hair leaves that match the medal's color. The initial financial shortcomings of the 2016 Paralympics were attributed to slow ticket sales, along a poor public interest, despite the cheapest tickets only costing a quarter of those for the Olympics. During the Olympics, organizers stated that only 12% of an original target of 3.3 million tickets had been sold. By early September, only half of the tickets to medal events had been sold. On 23 August 2016, Greg Nugent, head of marketing of the 2012 Summer Olympics and 2012 Summer Paralympics, began a campaign on Twitter known as "#FillTheSeats", encouraging users to donate money to supply local youth and people with disabilities with tickets to the Paralympics.
Nugent began the campaign after noticing the large number of empty seats at competition venues during the 2016 Summer Olympics. Following endorsements of the campaign by prominent figures, such as British band Coldplay, it raised over US$15,000 by 30 August. On 31 August 2016, the IPC an
Australia II is an Australian 12-metre-class America's Cup challenge racing yacht, launched in 1982 and won the 1983 America's Cup for the Royal Perth Yacht Club. Skippered by John Bertrand, she was the first successful Cup challenger, ending a 132-year tenure by the New York Yacht Club. Australia II was designed by Ben Lexcen, built by Steve Ward, owned by Alan Bond and helmed by John Bertrand. Lexcen's Australia II design featured a reduced waterline length and a short chord winged keel which gave the boat a significant advantage in manoeuvrability and heeling moment but it was a significant disadvantage in choppy seas; the boat was very quick in stays. The winged keel was a major design advance, its legality was questioned by the New York Yacht Club. During the summer of 1983, as selection trials took place for the Cup defence that autumn, the New York Yacht Club challenged the legality of the keel design; the controversy was decided in Australia II's favour. Australia II sported a number of other innovative features that contributed to her success, including radical vertical sail designs, all-kevlar running rigging and a lightweight carbon fibre boom.
In 2009, Dutch naval architect Peter van Oossanen claimed that the winged keel was designed by him and his group of Dutch designers, not Ben Lexcen. If true, this would have been reason to disqualify Australia II, since the rules state that the yacht is to be designed by citizens of the nation it represents; the controversy arose due to cup rules allowing designers to use model basins for testing that are not located in the challenging country. Model testing was performed in the Netherlands and Peter van Oossanen and another Dutch engineer, Joop Sloof, performed measurements and analyses related to evaluation of winged keel designs; the suggestion that the vessel was not designed by Australians has been refuted by both John Bertrand and project manager John Longley. Furthermore, it is well established that Lexcen had been experimenting with wing adaptations to the undersurface appendages of boats before, including his 1958 skiffs Taipan and Venom, although in the latter application they were not determined to be effective and not further adopted.
In 1983 Lexcen commented on the controversy: "I have in mind to admit it all to the New York Yacht Club that I owe the secret of the design to a Greek guy who helped me out and was invaluable. He's been dead for 2000 years. Bloody Archimedes..." Australia II dominated the 1983 Louis Vuitton Cup before defeating Azzurra in the semi finals and Victory'83 in the final to win the trophy and earn the right to challenge for the America's Cup. Australia II, bearing sail number KA6, represented the Royal Perth Yacht Club of Australia in its September 1983 challenge for the America's Cup; the defender, the New York Yacht Club, had held the cup since 1851, dominating challengers and sustaining the longest winning streak in sport. Australia II, skippered by John Bertrand, faced Dennis Conner sailing the 12-metre Liberty in the ocean off Newport, Rhode Island. Australia II came from behind to prevail 4 races to 3; the victory on 26 September 1983 was a landmark event for the nation of Australia, not to mention the Royal Perth Yacht Club.
The achievement was underscored when Australia II was awarded the ABC Wide World of Sports Athlete of the Year for 1983. The crew of Australia II for the America's Cup races was John Bertrand, Will Baillieu, Colin Beashel, Rob Brown, Peter Costello, Damian Fewster, James Hardy, Ken Judge, Skip Lissiman, John Longley, Scott McAllister, Brian Richardson, Phil Smidmore, Grant Simmer, Hugh Treharne. Beashel was an Olympic medal winning sailor. Richardson was an dual-Olympian oarsman who had stroked the Australian men's eight at the Moscow 1980 Olympics; the Boxing Kangaroo was the official mascot of the Australia II effort. The win was received with much enthusiasm in Australia, with the Men at Work song Down Under becoming the official anthem for the crew. In the mid-1980s, Australia II was sold by Alan Bond to the Australian government, she was lent to the Australian National Maritime Museum in Sydney for display in 1991. In 2000, Australia II was removed from the National Maritime Museum and transferred to the Western Australian Maritime Museum in Fremantle.
For the 150th anniversary celebrations of the America's Cup in 2001, she was removed from the museum and shipped to the Isle of Wight, sailing with the original crew for several days of commemorative regattas. Australia II was returned to the Western Australian Maritime Museum, where she is on permanent display. Schmitt, Hugh. Australia II – details on the housing of the yacht The West Australian 28 May 1987, p. 16a-c b 33rd America's Cup: Where are they now: Australia II KA 6
The Blue Ensign is a flag, one of several British ensigns, used by certain organisations or territories associated with the United Kingdom. It is used either plain, or defaced with a other emblem; the evolution of the Blue Ensign followed that of the Union Jack. The ensign originated in the 17th century with the St George's cross in the canton, with a blue field; the Acts of Union 1707 united England and Wales with Scotland in the Kingdom of Great Britain, thus producing a new Blue Ensign with the new Union Flag in the canton. With the Act of Union 1800, Ireland joined the United Kingdom and St Patrick's Cross was added to the Union Flag and, accordingly, to the cantons of all British ensigns from 1 January 1801. Prior to the reorganisation of the Royal Navy in 1864, the plain blue ensign had been the ensign of one of three squadrons of the Royal Navy, the Blue Squadron; this changed in 1864, when an order in council provided that the Red Ensign was allocated to merchantmen, the Blue Ensign was to be the flag of ships in public service or commanded by an officer in the Royal Naval Reserve, the White Ensign was allocated to the Navy.
Thus, after 1864, the plain blue ensign is permitted to be worn, instead of the Red Ensign, by three categories of civilian vessel: British merchant vessels whose officers and crew include a certain number of retired Royal Navy personnel or Royal Navy reservists, or are commanded by an officer of the Royal Naval Reserve in possession of a Government warrant. The number and rank of such crew members required has varied over the years, as have the additional conditions required, since the system was first introduced in 1864. Royal Research Ships by warrant whether manned by former Royal Navy personnel or Merchant Navy personnel. British-registered yachts belonging to members of the following yacht clubs:Permission for yachts to wear the blue ensign was suspended during both World War I and World War II. Since 1864, the Blue Ensign is defaced with a badge or emblem, to form the ensign of United Kingdom government departments or public bodies. Current defaced Blue Ensigns are: Yachting Blue Ensigns defaced by the badge of the club were recorded in the Navy List until 1985, now they are administered by the Royal Yachting Association for the Ministry of Defence.
Current defaced Blue Ensigns are: Current flags: Flag of Anguilla Government Ensign of Bermuda Flag of the British Virgin Islands Flag of the Cayman Islands Flag of the Falkland Islands Government Ensign of Gibraltar Flag of Montserrat Flag of Pitcairn Islands Flag of Saint Helena Flag of Turks and Caicos IslandsFormer flags: The defaced blue ensign was used as: The jack of the Royal Canadian Navy from its inception until the adoption of the Maple Leaf flag in 1965. The blue ensign was approved by the British Admiralty in 1868 for use by ships owned by the Canadian government; the ensign and the jack of the Royal Indian Navy: Flag of The United States of the Ionian Islands Flag of British Hong Kong and the ensign of the Royal Hong Kong Police Force were based on the Blue Ensign. Flag of Weihaiwei. Newfoundland The badge in the flag consists of Mercury, the god of Commerce and Merchandise, presenting to Britannia, a fisherman who, in a kneeling attitude, is offering the harvest of all the sea.
Above the device in a scroll are the words Terra Nova, below the motto Haec Tibi Dona Fero or "These gifts I bring thee." The seal was redesigned by Adelaine Lane, niece of Governor Sir Cavendish Boyle in 1903. These include: Flag of Australia Flag of New South Wales Flag of Queensland Flag of South Australia Flag of Tasmania Flag of Victoria Flag of Western Australia Flag of Fiji Flag of New Zealand Flag of the Cook Islands Flag of Tuvalu Flag of Ceylon Ensign of The Royal Hospital School George Rex Flag Tanganyika Territory blue ensign British ensign Australian flag debate New Zealand flag debate Green Ensign Historical flags of the British Empire and the overseas territories Red Ensign White Ensign Ensign Notes Footnotes Blue Ensign page on the "Flags of the World" website UK, Government, Yacht clubs on flags.net
Crawley, Western Australia
Crawley is a suburb of Perth, Western Australia, located within the City of Subiaco and City of Perth. The earlier name of the locality was Crawley Park, it was named by an early landowner Henry Charles Sutherland. It is home to the University of the state's oldest university; the Crawley Edge Boatshed is a well-recognised and photographed site in Crawley. It is thought to have been constructed in the early 1930s, it has changed hands several times, after being refurbished in the early 2000s, it was re-launched by triple solo-circumnavigator of the world, Jon Sanders, single solo-circumnavigator David Dicks. A statue called Eliza is located in Matilda Bay in the Swan River, in Crawley. Created by Tony and Ben Jones, the statue was unveiled on 15 October 2007, to commemorate Crawley Baths, Perth's prime competition and recreational swimming venue from 1914-1964. Eliza is dressed up in clothing to represent special occasions; the Royal Perth Yacht Club re-established on the shore of Pelican Point in Crawley, after moving from its location in Perth, in 1953.
The Swan River at Crawley was utilised before the war as a flying boat landing locationDuring World War II, the bay in the Swan River at Crawley was the location of a flying boat base, for Patrol Wing 10 which had to leave Surabaya in Java. The base was known as Pelican Point due to the feature in the river being the defining and identifiable location from the air, at the end of the bay. After the war and decommissioned as a base a move to re-develop and expand the base was opposedIt was the start point for The Double Sunrise squadron, formed in 1943 to keep the air route between Australia and the United Kingdom open. In the 2016 census, there were 4,095 people in Crawley. 35.6% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were China 15.8%, Singapore 7.1%, Malaysia 5.1%, England 3.5% and Indonesia 3.1%. 47.9% of people spoke only English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Mandarin 19.3%, Cantonese 3.6% and Indonesian 2.9%. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 42.0% and Catholic 11.9%.
Williams, A. E. Nedlands: from campsite to city, Nedlands, W. A: City of Nedlands. ISBN 0-9590898-0-2