Royal Proclamation of 1763

The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued by King George III on October 7, 1763, following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the Seven Years' War. It forbade all settlement west of a line drawn along the Appalachian Mountains, delineated as an Indian Reserve. Exclusion from the vast region of Trans-Appalachia created discontent between Britain and colonial land speculators and potential settlers; the proclamation and access to western lands was one of the first significant areas of dispute between Britain and the colonies and would become a contributing factor leading to the American Revolution. The Royal Proclamation continues to be of legal importance to First Nations in Canada; the 1763 proclamation line is similar to the Eastern Continental Divide's path running northwards from Georgia to the Pennsylvania–New York border and north-eastwards past the drainage divide on the St. Lawrence Divide from there northwards through New England; the Seven Years' War ended with the Treaty of Paris.

Under this treaty, France ceded ownership of all of continental North America east of the Mississippi River, including Quebec, the rest of Canada, to Britain. Spain received all French territory west of the Mississippi. Both Spain and Britain received some French islands in the Caribbean. France kept a few small islands used by fishermen, modern-day Haiti and the rich sugar island of Guadeloupe; the Proclamation of 1763 dealt with the management of inherited French colonies from the French and Indian War, as well as regulating colonial expansion. It established new governments for several areas: the province of Quebec, the new colonies of West Florida and East Florida, a group of Caribbean islands, Tobago, Saint Vincent, Dominica, collectively referred to as the British Ceded Islands; the Proclamation established the line at 45 degrees north latitude as the boundary between Quebec and New York. At the outset, the Royal Proclamation of 1763 defined the jurisdictional limits of the occupied territories of North America.

Explaining parts of the frontier expansion in North America, in Colonial America and Canada colony of New France, a diminutive new colony, the Province of Quebec was carved. The territory northeast of the St. John River on the Labrador coast was placed under the Newfoundland Colony; the lands west of Quebec and west of a line running along the crest of the Allegheny Mountains became Indian territory, temporarily barred to settlement, to the great disappointment of the land speculators of Virginia and Pennsylvania, who had started the Seven Years' War to gain these territories. The proclamation created a boundary line between the British colonies on the Atlantic coast and American Indian lands west of the Appalachian Mountains; the proclamation line was not intended to be a permanent boundary between the colonists and Aboriginal lands, but rather a temporary boundary which could be extended further west in an orderly, lawful manner. It was not designed as an uncrossable boundary, its contour was defined by the headwaters.

All land with rivers that flowed into the Atlantic was designated for the colonial entities, while all the land with rivers that flowed into the Mississippi was reserved for the native Indian population. The proclamation outlawed the private purchase of Native American land, which had created problems in the past. Instead, all future land purchases were to be made by Crown officials "at some public Meeting or Assembly of the said Indians". Furthermore, British colonials were forbidden to settle on native lands, colonial officials were forbidden to grant ground or lands without royal approval; the proclamation gave the Crown a monopoly on all future land purchases from American Indians. British colonists and land speculators objected to the proclamation boundary since the British government had assigned land grants to them. Many settlements existed beyond the proclamation line, some of, temporarily evacuated during Pontiac's War, there were many granted land claims yet to be settled. For example, George Washington and his Virginia soldiers had been granted lands past the boundary.

Prominent American colonials joined with the land speculators in Britain to lobby the government to move the line further west. The colonist's demands were met and the boundary line was adjusted in a series of treaties with the Native Americans; the first two of these treaties were completed in 1768. The Treaty of Hard Labour was followed by the Treaty of Lochaber in 1770, adjusting the border between Virginia and the Cherokee; these agreements opened much of what is now West Virginia to British settlement. Pontiac's Rebellion was a war involving Native American tribes from the Great Lakes region, the Illinois Country, Ohio Country who were dissatisfied with British postwar policies in the Great Lakes region after the end of the Seven Years' War, they were able to take over a large number of the forts which commanded the waterways involved in trade within the region and export to Great Britain. The Proclamation of 1763 had been in the works before Pontiac's Rebellion, but the outbreak of the conflict hastened the process.

British officials hoped the proclamation would reconcile American Indians to British ru

Perisher Ski Resort

Perisher Ski Resort is the largest ski resort in the Southern Hemisphere. Located in the Australian Snowy Mountains, the resort is an amalgamation of four villages and their associated ski fields, covering 12 square kilometres, with the base elevation at 1,720 metres AHD, the summit elevation of 2,054 metres at the top of Mount Perisher. 4.4 square kilometres of this area is covered by 240 snow guns, which are used to artificially supplement the natural snowfall. Perisher was acquired by Vail Resorts, United States on March 30, 2015 for a sum of AU$177 million; the resort is accessible by road and by the Skitube from Jindabyne, Australia's only underground rack railway. The main skiing period is in July and August, with the official season running from the second weekend in June to the first weekend of October. Perisher consists of 47 lifts: The Village Eight Express, an eight-seater chairlift, two high-speed quad detachable chairlifts, five fixed-grip quad chairlifts, four double chairlifts, two triple chairlifts, 21 T-Bars, three J-bars, seven ski carpets, 2 rope tows.

The run difficulties are graded 60 % intermediate and 18 % advanced. The Snowy Mountains region is thought to have had Aboriginal occupation for some twenty thousand years. Large scale intertribal gatherings were held in the High Country during summer for collective feasting on the Bogong moth; this practice continued until around 1865. The area was first explored by Europeans in 1835, in 1840, Edmund Strzelecki ascended Mount Kosciuszko and named it after a Polish patriot. High country stockmen followed. Banjo Paterson's famous poem The Man From Snowy River recalls this era; the cattle graziers have left a legacy of mountain huts scattered across the area. The Kosciuszko National Park in which Perisher ski resort is situated, came into existence as the National Chase Snowy Mountains on 5 December 1906. In 1944 this became the Kosciuszko State Park, the Kosciuszko National Park in 1967; the four resort bases of Perisher had their origins as separate ski resorts, which developed between 1939 and 1987.

Smiggins had its origins as a service point for the journey to Charlotte Pass, while the development of Perisher and Guthega were spurred by construction of the Snowy Mountains Scheme and Blue Cow was the last resort development in the Snowy Mountains. In 1995, Perisher Smiggins and Alpine Australia Group merged to form Perisher Blue, which merged all four resorts as they are today, now known as Perisher. In 2009 Perisher had 47 lifts covering 1,245 hectares and four village base areas: Perisher Valley, Blue Cow, Smiggin Holes and Guthega. A story, which may be apocryphal, credits James Spencer, who settled in the area in the 1840s with saying'What a perisher' when caught in a storm; the area was used by mountain graziers during the summer months for many years. It was the construction of the vast Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electric Scheme from 1949 that opened up the Snowy Mountains for large scale development of a ski industry and led to the establishment of Perisher as a leading Australian resort.

The first ski lodges opened by 1957, a number of ski clubs operating. As the number of skiers increased, services and means of access were improved, Perisher's first lodges were constructed. Telemark and the Snow Revellers Club being completed in 1952. In the winter of 1953 the first oversnow transport operated to Perisher Valley, it was greeted by the inhabitants with celebrations. In 1958, Svere Kaaten, another pioneer of the mountains, built a sophisticated rope tow at North Perisher. Ken Murray, an old friend of Svere's built another rope Perisher's first T-bar. Development continued and Mount Perisher Double Chair was opened in 1961. After the opening of the first chairlift, T-bar expansion and rope tows, the Perisher area thrived. Murray Publishers Pty Limited was taken over by Australian Consolidated Press in 1972 and Kosciuszko Alpine Resorts was formed. Murray Publishers traded under the name of Perisher Ski Resort which incorporated the resorts of Perisher and Smiggins. In 1995, Murray Publishers Pty Limited and the Alpine Australia Group Pty Limited merged to form Perisher Blue Pty Limited.

By 2008, Perisher Valley had 30 interconnecting ski lifts, over 100 ski instructors, extensive snow making facilities, a large ski-resort village providing winter accommodation. The high Snowy Mountains were long used by graziers for summer pasturelands; the name "Smiggin Holes" is said to be of Scottish origin and a reference to the effects of trampling cattle causing depressions that filled with water. The first Kosciuszko Chalet was built at Charlotte Pass in 1930, giving comfortable access to Australia's highest terrain; the growing number of ski enthusiasts heading to Charlotte Pass led to the establishment of a cafe at Smiggin Holes around 1939, where horse-drawn sleighs would deliver skiers to be begin the arduous ski to the Kosciusko Chalet. The Kosciuszko National Park came into existence as the National Chase Snowy Mountains on 5 December 1906. In 1944 this became the Kosciuszko State Park, the Kosciuszko National Park in 1967; the name was misspelt as Kosciusko until 1997. The existence of the Park ensured the decline of the summer grazing industry, but the Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electric Scheme development of 1949-1974 ensured the opening up and development of Skiing in New South Wales, including the steeper and higher terrain around Mount Perisher, near Smiggins.

Today, Smiggins operates within the greater Perisher Ski Resort and provides accommodati

Gerard Warren

Gerard Thurston Warren is an American former college and professional football player, a defensive tackle in the National Football League for eleven seasons. He played college football for the University of Florida, he was drafted by the Cleveland Browns third overall in the 2001 NFL Draft, has played professionally for the Denver Broncos, Oakland Raiders and New England Patriots of the NFL. Warren was born in Florida, he attended Union County High School in Lake Butler, where he played for the Union County Tigers high school football team. He finished his high school career with 36 sacks, was ranked among the top ten defensive linemen nationally. During his four years in high school, the Union County High School Tigers had an overall win-loss record of 49–4 and won three consecutive Florida Class 3A state championships in 1994, 1995 and 1996. Warren was named to the Prep USA Today high school All-America teams. In 2007, ten years after he graduated from high school, the Florida High School Athletic Association recognized Warren as one of the "100 Greatest Players of the First 100 Years" of Florida high school football.

Warren attended the University of Florida in Gainesville, where he played for coach Steve Spurrier's Florida Gators football team from 1998 to 2000. As a junior team captain in 2000, Warren posted 76 tackles and 4.5 quarterback sacks at defensive tackle and was a second-team All-Southeastern Conference selection and a second-team All-American. He finished his three-season career as a Gator with 159 tackles, 9.5 sacks, 30 tackles for a loss in 35 games and 22 starts. Warren was drafted by the Cleveland Browns with the third overall selection in the 2001 NFL Draft, he played in 15 games a rookie in 2001, all starts, finished with 83 tackles and five sacks. In 2002, Warren started all 16 games, recording 56 tackles, two sacks, two forced fumbles, he started 15 games for the Browns in 2003, picking up a career-high 5.5 sacks. In his final season in Cleveland, 2004, Warren played in and started 13 games, missing three to injury, finished with 38 tackles and four sacks. In March 2005, Warren was traded to the Denver Broncos for a fourth-round pick in the 2005 NFL Draft.

In addition to Warren, the Broncos acquired defensive linemen Michael Myers, Ebenezer Ekuban, Courtney Brown from the Browns, leading some to dub the new Broncos defensive line the "Browncos." Warren finished the 2005 season with three sacks in 16 starts. In 2006, Warren recorded 30 tackles and 2.5 sacks on the season. In August 2007, during the preseason, Warren was traded by the Broncos to the Oakland Raiders in exchange for a conditional fifth-round draft pick in the 2008 NFL Draft. In 2007, Warren played in 12 games for the Raiders, posting 22 tackles, four sacks, one forced fumble. Warren started all 16 games in the 2008 season, finishing with 39 tackles, four sacks, one forced fumble. In his final season with the Raiders, 2009, Warren again started all 16 games and finished the year with 35 tackles and two sacks, he was released by the Raiders on March 11, 2010. On April 24, 2010, during the final day of the 2010 NFL Draft, Warren signed with the New England Patriots. Despite being a late free agent signing, Warren made the Patriots' roster and began the season as a starter at defensive end before moving to nose tackle in Week 6.

After two games at nose tackle, Warren moved back to defensive end but did not start the team's Week 8 game against the Minnesota Vikings. He returned to the starting lineup in Week 12 against the Detroit Lions on Thanksgiving Day, went on to start four of the team's final five games after Thanksgiving. Warren finished the regular season with 3.5 sacks in 16 games. The Patriots re-signed him on August 8, 2011 after he had been a free agent for most of the offseason. During the 2011 season, he played in eleven games, all off the bench, compiled a sack and 15 tackles. Afterward, he again became a free agent, but he re-signed with the Patriots on April 30, 2012, he was again released on August 26, 2012. Gerard Warren is the second-cousin of Mahailya Reeves, the weightlifting sensation from Lake Butler, who, at only 15 years of age set a Florida women's bench press record of 355 pounds. 2000 College Football All-America Team Florida Gators football, 1990–99 List of Cleveland Browns first-round draft picks List of Florida Gators football All-Americans List of Florida Gators football players in the NFL List of New England Patriots players Gerard Warren – Florida Gators player profile Gerard Warren – New England Patriots player profile