Drawn thread work
Drawn thread work is a form of counted-thread embroidery based on removing threads from the warp and/or the weft of a piece of even-weave fabric. The remaining threads are bundled together into a variety of patterns; the more elaborate styles of drawn thread work use a variety of other stitches and techniques, but the drawn thread parts are their most distinctive element. It is grouped as whitework embroidery because it was traditionally done in white thread on white fabric and is combined with other whitework techniques; the most basic kind of drawn thread work is hemstitching. Drawn thread work is used to decorate the trimmings of clothes or household linens; the border between hemstitching gone fancy and more elaborate styles of drawn thread work isn't always clear. This easy type of drawn thread work is created by weaving the embroidering thread into the barelaid warp or weft threads to create patterns of light-colored threads and dark openings in the drawn-thread cloth. Needleweaving is most used for decorative borders.
It is nearly always used in combination with other types of embroidery stitches. Together they create a complete design and in ethnic embroidery, distinctive embroidery styles known as "needle-darning." In Ukrainian and some other Slavic languages, merezhka is the general term for "drawn-thread" work. "Merezhka", includes all types of drawn-thread work including those mentioned in the paragraphs above. In recent years, the term "myreschka", a variant of "merezhka", began to be used in some circles for a specific Ukrainian drawn-thread technique, traditionally used in the central lands of Ukraine, esp. in the regions of Poltava and Kyiv, areas along the Dniepro River, some have come to call it "Poltava-style" merezhka. The technique has its own descriptive name in the Ukrainian language, which might be translated into English as "layerings." The technique for doing Poltava-style'layerings'-merezhka involves withdrawing sets of parallel threads of weft while leaving others in place using the antique hem-stitch and this special "layerings" technique to create both the openwork'net' and the design of embroidering threads upon the "withdrawn" part of cloth.
The designs which can be created in this way can be simple and narrow, or as complex and wide as any one-colored embroidery design. "Prutyk" is the bunch, created when you pull together each bunch of three threads together using hem-stitch. In Ukrainian, "prutyk" is another name for'simple hemstitch', or it can mean each tiny'bunch' in the hemstitching. A form of double-drawnwork, where both warp and weft are removed at regular intervals, consists of wrapping the remaining threads into "bundles", using embroidery thread to secure them, thus creating something similar to a net. Embroidery threads are woven in patterns into that net using needle weaving or needle darning; the result is a pattern of the design in white embroidery on the "openwork" background of netted cloth. Hardanger embroidery is a style of drawn thread work, most popular today, it comes from Norway, from the traditional district of Hardanger. The backbone of Hardanger designs consists of satin stitches. In geometrical areas both warp and weft threads are removed and the remaining mesh is secured with simple weaving or warping or with a limited number of simple filling patterns.
The designs tend to be geometric, if they include flowers or such they are stylized due to the nature of the technique. Hardanger never includes Buttonhole stitches, except for securing the edges of a piece of fabric, it is executed using rather coarse fabric and thread. Much like Hardanger, Ukrainian cutwork belongs to the category of'cut-and-drawn' work, unlike merezhka, threads of the ground cloth are cut both vertically and horizontally and thus create larger cut-work openings in the body of the fabric, when compared with drawn-work; the Ukrainian word for cutwork embroidery is vyrizuvannya. There are several styles of Ukrainian cutwork, one of which resembles Hardanger cutwork. Reticella lace is a form of embroidery in which typical techniques of needlelace are used to embellish drawn thread work, it was first used in 16th century Italy. Needlelace evolved from this when the lacemakers realized that they can do the same things without any supporting fabric. High quality reticella is done with thread as thin as sewing silk.
Ruskin lace is in fact a near-modern form of it. Warp and weft threads are removed, the remaining threads are overcast with buttonhole stitches, as in needlelace. Another embroidery style that combines drawn thread work with needlelace techniques is Hedebo from Denmark, which originates from the area around Copenhagen and Roskilde, it uses techniques that are distinct from reticella and traditional Italian neddlelace on the one hand and Hardanger on the other. It does make extensive use of buttonhole stitches, but they are done differently than in Italian embroidery. Thérèse de Dillmont, Encyclopedia of Needlework Tania Diakiw O'Neill, Ukrainian Embroidery Techniques 1984 USA Nancy R. Ruryk, ed, Ukrainian Embroidery Designs and Stitches 1958 Canada Yvette Stanton, "Ukrainian Drawn Thread Embroidery: Merezhka Poltavska" 2007 Australia Thérèse de Dillmont's Encyclopedia of Needlework at Project Gutenberg basic reticella how-to basic hedebo how-to history of ruskin lace information on merezhka embroidery
Kensington is a district in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, West London, England. The district's commercial heart is Kensington High Street, running on an east-west axis; the north east is taken up by Kensington Gardens, containing the Albert Memorial, the Serpentine Gallery and Speke's monument. South Kensington is home to Imperial College London, the Royal College of Music and the Royal Albert Hall; the area is home to many European embassies. The manor of Chenesitone is listed in the Domesday Book of 1086, which in the Anglo-Saxon language means "Chenesi's ton". One early spelling is Kesyngton, as written in 1396; the manor of Kensington in the county of Middlesex, was one of several hundred granted by King William the Conqueror to Geoffrey de Montbray, Bishop of Coutances in Normandy, one of his inner circle of advisors and one of the wealthiest men in post-Conquest England. He granted the tenancy of Kensington to his follower Aubrey de Vere I, holding the manor from him as overlord in 1086, according to the Domesday Book.
The bishop's heir, Robert de Mowbray, rebelled against King William II and his vast feudal barony was forfeited to the Crown. Aubrey de Vere I thus became a tenant-in-chief, holding directly from the king after 1095, which increased his status in feudal England, he granted the church and an estate within the manor to Abingdon Abbey in Oxfordshire, at the deathbed request of his eldest son Geoffrey. As the de Veres became Earls of Oxford, their principal manor at Kensington came to be known as Earl's Court, as they were not resident in the manor, their manorial business was not conducted in the great hall of a manor house but in a court house. In order to differentiate it, the new sub-manor granted to Abingdon Abbey became known as Abbot's Kensington and the church St Mary Abbots; the original Kensington Barracks, built at Kensington Gate in the late 18th century, were demolished in 1858 and new barracks were built in Kensington Church Street. The focus of the area is Kensington High Street, a busy commercial centre with many shops upmarket.
The street was declared London's second best shopping street in February 2005 due to its wide range and number of shops. However, since October 2008 the street has faced competition from the Westfield shopping centre in nearby White City. Kensington's second group of commercial buildings is at South Kensington, where several streets of small to medium-sized shops and service businesses are situated close to South Kensington tube station; this is the southern end of Exhibition Road, the thoroughfare which serves the area's museums and educational institutions. The boundaries of Kensington are not well-defined. To the west, a border is defined by the line of the Counter Creek marked by the West London railway line. To the north, the only obvious border line is Holland Park Avenue, to the north of, the district of Notting Hill classed as within "North Kensington". In the north east is situated the large public Royal Park of Kensington Gardens; the other main green area in Kensington is Holland Park, on the north side of the eastern end of Kensington High Street.
Many residential roads have small communal garden squares, for the exclusive use of the residents. South Kensington largely comprises private housing. North Kensington and West Kensington are devoid of features to attract the visitor. Kensington is, in general, an affluent area, a trait that it shares with Chelsea, its neighbour to the south; the area has some of London's most expensive streets and garden squares, at about the turn of the 21st century the Holland Park neighbourhood became high-status. In early 2007 houses sold in Upper Phillimore Gardens east of Holland Park, for over £20 million. Brompton is another definable area of Kensington; the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea forms part of the most densely populated local government district in the United Kingdom. This high density has come about through the subdivision of large mid-rise Georgian and Victorian terraced houses into flats; the less-affluent northern extremity of Kensington has high-rise residential buildings, while this type of building in the southern part is only represented by the Holiday Inn's London Kensington Forum Hotel in Cromwell Road, a 27-storey building.
Notable attractions and institutions in Kensington include: Kensington Palace in Kensington Gardens. The Olympia Exhibition Hall is just over the western border in West Kensington. Kensington is administered within the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, lies within the Kensington parliamentary constituency; the head office of newspaper group DMGT is located in Northcliffe House off Kensington High Street in part of the large Barkers department store building. In addition to housing the offices for the DMGT newspapers Daily Mail, Mail on Sunday and Metro, Northcliffe House accommodates the offices of the newspapers owned by Evgeny Lebedev: The Independent, The Independent on Sunday, the Evening Standard; the i newspaper, sold to Johnston Press in 2016, is still produced from offices in Northcliffe House. Most of these titles were for many decades produced and printed in Fl
Duchess of Cornwall
Duchess of Cornwall is a courtesy title held by the wife of the Duke of Cornwall. The Dukedom of Cornwall is a non-hereditary peerage title held by the British monarch's eldest son and heir; the current Duchess of Cornwall is Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, since her 9 April 2005 marriage to Charles, Prince of Wales. Prior to their marriage, the title was used only in Cornwall, since customarily the monarch's eldest son and heir is created Prince of Wales and his wife is styled as Princess of Wales, those titles are used to refer to them. In Scotland, the titles of Duke and Duchess of Rothesay are used instead. Since the title of Duke of Cornwall can be held only by an heir apparent, the eldest son of the monarch, no woman can be Duchess of Cornwall in her own right. However, this may change now; the first Duchess of Cornwall was Joan of Kent, who, in October 1361, married Edward, the Black Prince. Catherine of Aragon was Duchess of Cornwall through her marriage to Arthur, Prince of Wales, the Duke of Cornwall.
Prior to the current holder of the title, the most recent Duchess of Cornwall was Diana, Princess of Wales. During her marriage, she was styled as Princess of Wales, as have been most Duchesses of Cornwall. Before the present Duchess, the only Duchesses of Cornwall to be styled as such were Caroline of Ansbach, wife of the future King George II, styled as "Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Cornwall and Cambridge" from 1 August to 27 September 1714, Mary of Teck, wife of the future King George V, styled as "Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Cornwall and York" from 22 January to 9 November 1901. In both cases, they were known by the title for only a few months between their respective father-in-law's accession to the throne and their respective husband's creation as Prince of Wales. Prior to the marriage of Camilla Parker Bowles with the Prince of Wales, it was stated that she would be styled as Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Cornwall, she does not use the title of Princess of Wales, because it is still popularly associated with Diana, Princess of Wales, the former wife of the Prince of Wales.
Upon her husband's accession to the throne, it is intended that Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, will be styled as Her Royal Highness The Princess Consort, although she would be entitled to the title of Queen. Shakespeare's King Lear includes the character "Lear's second daughter. Marion Zimmer Bradley's The Mists of Avalon included the fictional character Morgaine as the Duchess of Cornwall through inheritance. Igraine, mother of King Arthur, was Duchess of Cornwall when she caught the eye of King Uther Pendragon in many retellings of Arthurian legend. Duke of Cornwall Duchy of Cornwall The Duchess of Cornwall's Official Website BBC News report
Jacobean embroidery refers to embroidery styles that flourished in the reign of King James I of England in first quarter of the 17th century. The term is used today to describe a form of crewel embroidery used for furnishing characterized by fanciful plant and animal shapes worked in a variety of stitches with two-ply wool yarn on linen. Popular motifs in Jacobean embroidery curtains for bed hangings, are the Tree of Life and stylized forests rendered as exotic plants arising from a landscape or terra firma with birds, stags and other familiar animals. Early Jacobean embroidery featured scrolling floral patterns worked in colored silks on linen, a fashion that arose in the earlier Elizabethan era. Embroidered jackets were fashionable for both men and women in the period 1600-1620, several of these jackets have survived. Jacobean embroidery was carried by British colonists to Colonial America; the Deerfield embroidery movement of the 1890s revived interest in colonial and Jacobean styles of embroidery.
1600–1650 in fashion Crewel embroidery Margaret Laton's embroidered jacket Christie, Mrs. Archibald and Tapestry Weaving, John Hogg, 1912, online at Project Gutenberg Fitzwilliam, Ada Wentworth and A. F. Morris Hands, Jacobean Embroidery, Its Forms and Fillings Including Late Tudor, Keegan Paul, 1912 Surviving Jacobean embroidered jacket as the Museum of Costume Jacobean Embroidery, by Ada Wentworth Fitzwilliam and A. F. Morris Hands, 1912, from Project Gutenberg
A chancellor is a leader of a college or university either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system. In most Commonwealth and former Commonwealth nations, the chancellor is a ceremonial non-resident head of the university. In such institutions, the chief executive of a university is the vice-chancellor, who may carry an additional title, such as "president & vice-chancellor"; the chancellor may serve as chairman of the governing body. In many countries, the administrative and educational head of the university is known as the president, principal or rector. In the United States, the head of a university is most a university president. In U. S. university systems that have more than one affiliated university or campus, the executive head of a specific campus may have the title of chancellor and report to the overall system's president, or vice versa. In both Australia and New Zealand, a chancellor is the chairman of a university's governing body.
The chancellor is assisted by a deputy chancellor. The chancellor and deputy chancellor are drawn from the senior ranks of business or the judiciary; some universities have a visitor, senior to the chancellor. University disputes can be appealed from the governing board to the visitor, but nowadays, such appeals are prohibited by legislation, the position has only ceremonial functions; the vice-chancellor serves as the chief executive of the university. Macquarie University in Sydney is a noteworthy anomaly as it once had the unique position of Emeritus Deputy Chancellor, a post created for John Lincoln upon his retirement from his long-held post of deputy chancellor in 2000; the position was not an honorary title, as it retained for Lincoln a place in the University Council until his death in 2011. Canadian universities and British universities in Scotland have a titular chancellor similar to those in England and Wales, with day-to-day operations handled by a principal. In Scotland, for example, the chancellor of the University of Edinburgh is Anne, Princess Royal, whilst the current chancellor of the University of Aberdeen is Camilla, Duchess of Rothesay.
In Canada, the vice-chancellor carries the joint title of "president and vice-chancellor" or "rector and vice-chancellor." Scottish principals carry the title of "principal and vice-chancellor." In Scotland, the title and post of rector is reserved to the third ranked official of university governance. The position exists in common throughout the five ancient universities of Scotland with rectorships in existence at the universities of St Andrews, Aberdeen and Dundee, considered to have ancient status as a result of its early connections to the University of St Andrews; the position of Lord Rector was given legal standing by virtue of the Universities Act 1889. Rectors appoint a rector's assessor a deputy or stand-in, who may carry out their functions when they are absent from the university; the Rector chairs meetings of the university court, the governing body of the university, is elected by the matriculated student body at regular intervals. An exception exists at Edinburgh, where the Rector is elected by staff.
In Finland, if the university has a chancellor, he is the leading official in the university. The duties of the chancellor are to promote sciences and to look after the best interests of the university; as the rector of the university remains the de facto administrative leader and chief executive official, the role of the chancellor is more of a social and historical nature. However some administrative duties still belong to the chancellor's jurisdiction despite their arguably ceremonial nature. Examples of these include the appointment of new docents; the chancellor of University of Helsinki has the notable right to be present and to speak in the plenary meetings of the Council of State when matters regarding the university are discussed. Despite his role as the chancellor of only one university, he is regarded as the political representative of Finland's entire university institution when he exercises his rights in the Council of State. In the history of Finland the office of the chancellor dates all the way back to the Swedish Empire, the Russian Empire.
The chancellor's duty was to function as the official representative of the monarch in the autonomous university. The number of chancellors in Finnish universities has declined over the years, in vast majority of Finnish universities the highest official is the rector; the remaining universities with chancellors are University of Åbo Akademi University. In France, chancellor is one of the titles of the rector, a senior civil servant of the Ministry of Education serving as manager of a regional educational district. In his capacity as chancellor, the rector awards academic degrees to the university's gradua
Toye, Kenning & Spencer
Toye, Kenning & Spencer plc is a British jewellery and clothing manufacturer based in the Jewellery Quarter, Birmingham. Founded in 1685, the company remains family-run by members of the Toye family; the firm holds a Royal Warrant to Queen Elizabeth II for Supply of Gold and Silver laces and embroidery. It supplies Honours badges and ribbons presented at investitures and is sole supplier of the buttonhole Honours emblem; the company has been commissioned to produce semi-official commemorative coins for politically important events aimed at improving diplomatic relations with the UK. The Toyé family arrived in England in 1685 as Huguenot refugees after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV; the Toyé family sailed into the Thames in 1685 disguised as cattle-dealers. They now known as Bethnal Green, close to Spitalfields. Here they resumed the traditional family business of weaving, lace-making and gold and silver wire making. In 1784 Guillaume Henry Toyé was engaged in this living with his family in Hope Town.
He had three daughters. In 1835 William Toyé acquired larger premises at Bethnal Green. At first he applied himself to broad weaving but other forms of weaving soon appealed to him the making of ribbons, as there was a far larger demand for this commodity, it was found necessary to open retail establishments further west in London in addition to the factories. A shop was opened in 1888 at 18 Little Britain and a short time a further establishment was opened up at 17 Clerkenwell Road. By 1890 the weaving of heavy, double-twilled silks, nine-feet wide, for trade-union and Friendly Societies became an important part of the business; the banner department used embroidery to illuminate the designs. With increased and varied activities it became apparent that the factory at 186 Old Ford Road was inadequate; the Masonic section was becoming more important, therefore it was essential to move the factory nearer to the headquarters of Freemasonry in Great Queen Street. Premises were acquired in 1898 at 57 Theobalds Road where showrooms were opened, the factory being placed at the rear and continuing right through the block into Red Lion Square.
In 1903 Herbert Toye joined the business, a step made necessary by the considerable expansions that had taken place. In 1909 it became necessary, in accordance with the Companies Act 1908, to register the firm as a Company. From on all business was transacted as Toye & Co. In 1910 William Toye, Senior died and in the terms of his will his sons William and Herbert and Timothy J Mister, all became partners in the business. In 1930 it was necessary to enlarge the main factory in Red Lion Square, London. Came a fresh crisis. Britain was hit by the Depression and three million people were thrown out of work. During these dismal days of dole queues and empty larders Toye maintained full employment, an accolade for the management. In 1937 the coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth gave the company another great trade boost and provided an outlet for the skilled crafts of their staff, they worked day and night for six months producing banners, emblems and insignia for that historic occasion. The velvet cushions on which the Royal Crowns were carried into Westminster Abbey were made by women at Toye in conjunction with the Royal School of Needlework.
In 1949 Miss H E Toye, who had completed thirty years' service on the sales side, was elected to the Board. Few firms at that time had elected women to the board level. In 2010 Toye lost a multimillion-pound contract with the Ministry of Defence due to pricing concerns. Toye’s factory, W. J. Dingley Ltd, in Birmingham's Jewellery Quarter is home to the group's metal manufacturing; every stage in the manufacture of a metal product takes place there. Products include medals and buttons, chains of office and insignia for heads of state and dignitaries and cufflinks, presentation cups for sporting organisations and commemorative plaques; the FA Cup medals were made by Toye. The group's textile production is near Coventry. There Toye specialises in narrow fabric weaving, manufacturing coloured ribbons and laces for military, homeland security, association and fashion markets worldwide. Bedworth specialises in hand and machine embroidery, making crafted hats and caps for the military, homeland security, corporate and show business markets.
Customers range from the MOD and overseas defence forces, to international fashion houses, sporting organisations and local schools. Honours caps for the Rugby Football Union, buttons for Henley Royal Regatta and Grand National ties were produced there. Media related to Toye, Kenning & Spencer at Wikimedia Commons Homepage of Toye, Kenning & Spencer
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma