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Royal Society of Edinburgh

The Royal Society of Edinburgh is Scotland's national academy of science and letters. It is a registered charity, operating on a wholly independent and non-party-political basis and providing public benefit throughout Scotland, it was established in 1783. As of 2017, it has more than 1,660 Fellows; the Society covers a broader selection of fields than the Royal Society of London including literature and history. Fellowship includes people from a wide range of disciplines – science & technology, humanities, social science and public service. At the start of the 18th century, Edinburgh's intellectual climate fostered many clubs and societies. Though there were several that treated the arts and medicine, the most prestigious was the Society for the Improvement of Medical Knowledge referred to as the Medical Society of Edinburgh, co-founded by the mathematician Colin Maclaurin in 1731. Maclaurin was unhappy with the specialist nature of the Medical Society, in 1737 a new, broader society, the Edinburgh Society for Improving Arts and Sciences and Natural Knowledge was split from the specialist medical organisation, which went on to become the Royal Medical Society.

The cumbersome name was changed the following year to the Edinburgh Philosophical Society. With the help of University of Edinburgh professors like Joseph Black, William Cullen and John Walker, this society transformed itself into the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1783 and in 1788 it issued the first volume of its new journal Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh; as the end of the century drew near, the younger members such as Sir James Hall embraced Lavoisier's new nomenclature and the members split over the practical and theoretical objectives of the society. This resulted in the founding of the Wernerian Society, a parallel organisation that focused more upon natural history and scientific research that could be used to improve Scotland's weak agricultural and industrial base. Under the leadership of Prof. Robert Jameson, the Wernerians first founded Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society and the Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, thereby diverting the output of the Royal Society's Transactions.

Thus, for the first four decades of the 19th century, the RSE's members published brilliant articles in two different journals. By the 1850s, the society once again unified its membership under one journal. During the 19th century the society contained many scientists whose ideas laid the foundation of the modern sciences. From the 20th century onward, the society functioned not only as a focal point for Scotland's eminent scientists, but the arts and humanities, it still continues to promote original research in Scotland. In February 2014, Dame Jocelyn Bell Burnell was announced as the society's first female president, taking up her position in October; the Royal Society has been housed in a succession of locations: 1783–1807 – College Library, University of Edinburgh 1807–1810 – Physicians' Hall, George Street. The Royal Medals are awarded annually, preferably to people with a Scottish connection, who have achieved distinction and international repute in either Life Sciences and Engineering Sciences, Arts and Social Sciences or Business and Commerce.

The Medals were instituted in 2000 by Queen Elizabeth II, whose permission is required to make a presentation. Past winners include: The Lord Kelvin Medal is the Senior Prize for Physical and Informatics Sciences, it is awarded annually to a person who has achieved distinction nationally and internationally, who has contributed to wider society by the accessible dissemination of research and scholarship. Winners are required to deliver a public lecture in Scotland; the award is named after William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, a famous mathematical physicist and engineer, Professor of Natural Philosophy at the University of Glasgow. Senior Prize-winners are required to have a Scottish connection but can be based anywhere in the world; the Keith medal has been awarded every four years for a scientific paper published in the society's scientific journals, preference being given to a paper containing a discovery. It is awarded alternately for papers on Environmental Sciences; the medal was founded in 1827 as a result of a bequest by Alexander Keith of Dunnottar, the first Treasurer of the Society.

The Makdougall Brisbane Prize has been awarded biennially, preferably to people working in Scotland, with no more than fifteen years post-doctoral experience, for particular distinction in the promotion of scientific research and is awarded sequentially to research workers in the Physical Sciences, Engineering Sciences and Biological Sciences. The prize was founded in 1855 by Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane, the long-serving fourth President of the Society. The'Gunning Victoria Jubilee Prize Lectureship' is a quadrennial award to r

Strasbourg Cathedral bombing plot

In December 2000, an al-Qaeda-linked plot to bomb the Strasbourg Christmas market, at the feet of the Strasbourg Cathedral on New Year's Eve was discovered. The plot was foiled by French and German police after a terrorist network based in Frankfurt, the "Frankfurt group", was unravelled. A total of fourteen people were convicted as part of the plot; the alleged mastermind of the plot was thought to have been Abu Doha, detained in the United Kingdom. After being tipped off by British intelligence, German police on 26 December 2000 discovered bomb-making equipment during a raid of an apartment in Frankfurt. Four men were arrested. Among the findings were several pressure cookers, 30 kg of chemicals that could be used to make explosives, a notebook describing how to mix homemade bombs. A video was discovered, showing a crowded Christmas market in Strasbourg, with a voiceover in Arabic calling the people in the video "enemies of Allah." The voiceover, attributed to one of the suspects, further said "This cathedral is Allah's enemy," and "You will go to hell, Allah willing."

The call that had alerted British intelligence had been made by one in the group asking Abu Doha, the alleged mastermind of the plot, for more cash. Members of the Frankfurt group were found to have trained in al-Qaeda camps in Afghanistan, to have connections to Islamist networks in Spain, Italy and the United Kingdom, to the Algerian terrorist group Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat; the discovery of the plot in Frankfurt led to further arrests in the United Kingdom, where another plot of killing members of the European Parliament was discovered, in which MEPs were to be killed with sarin nerve gas during session in Strasbourg in February 2001. British police arrested twelve people including Doha in February 2001 as a result of the Frankfurt operation. All British suspects were released due to "lack of evidence," although Doha was subsequently re-arrested. According to the Crown Prosecution Service, the charges against six main suspects were dropped for "security reasons,", linked by others to an MI5 bid to "monitor" the group.

In March 2003, the four suspects in Frankfurt, Aeurobui Beandali, Salim Boukhari, Fouhad Sabour and Lamine Maroni were sentenced to between 10 and 12 years' imprisonment. According to the Frankfurt court, the group had planned to blow up pressure cookers packed with explosives, as they had learned in training camps in Afghanistan; the target was reported to have been the Christmas market at the Strasbourg Cathedral on New Year's Eve. The target was said to have been chosen deliberately for its Christian symbolism. Beandali was the only to confess to the plot, while Boukhari and Sabour claimed to have planned to attack an empty synagogue in Strasbourg. In December 2004, ten suspects were put on trial in Paris, accused of being members of the Frankfurt group; the suspects, all Algerian or French-Algerian, were sentenced to terms of up to 10 years, convicted for "criminal association with a terrorist enterprise" with alleged connections to terrorist networks in the United Kingdom and Spain. The group's alleged leaders, Mohammed Bensakhria, 37, Slimane Khalfaoui, 29, were given 10 years, Yacine Akhnouche, 30, was given eight.

Bensakhria, the suspected ringleader, was thought to have fled Germany as he was arrested in Spain in 2001 and subsequently extradited to France. Rabah Kadre, 37, in detention in the United Kingdom was given six years, was banned from entering French territory; the six other suspects, who received lesser terms, were convicted for giving logistical support to the plot by providing false documents to other group members. 2000 millennium attack plots Christmas Eve 2000 Indonesia bombings 2015 New Year's attack plots Islamist plots to attack the Vatican 2016 Normandy church attack Notre Dame Cathedral bombing attempt 2016 Berlin truck attack 2017 St. Petersburg raid 2018 Strasbourg attack


Myosin-10 known as myosin heavy chain 10 or non-muscle myosin IIB is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYH10 gene. Non-muscle myosins are expressed in a wide variety of tissues, but NM-IIB is the only non-muscle myosin II isoform expressed in cardiac muscle, where it localizes to adherens junctions within intercalated discs. NM-IIB is essential for normal development of cardiac muscle and for integrity of intercalated discs. Mutations in MYH10 have been identified in patients with left atrial enlargement. NM-IIB is 228.9 kDa protein composed of 1976 amino acids. NM-IIB has an N-terminal globular head; the C-terminal rod domain is an alpha helical coiled-coil that can multimerize with other myosin molecules to form a filament. Bound to the neck region of NM-IIB are two light chains; the exception to this rule is the alternatively spliced NM-IIB2 isoform, which has a 21 amino acid inserted into loop 2, near the actin-binding domain. NM-IIB is part of the larger myosin II subfamily of proteins, which includes skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle and smooth muscle myosins.

NM-IIB, non-muscle myosins in general, are expressed in every tissue in humans. NM-IIB has many properties that are similar to those of smooth muscle myosins, such as the permissive nature of phosphorylation of the 20 kDa regulatory light chain for contraction. In skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle myosins, contraction is activated through thin filament proteins troponin and tropomyosin, whereas in NM-IIB and smooth muscle myosin, contraction initiates via regulatory light chain phosphorylation. Various functions of NM-IIB require the phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain MLC20, including cell migration and cell adhesion; the two primary kinases catalyzing this reaction are the calcium-calmodulin-dependent, myosin light chain kinase and the Rho-GTP dependent, Rho kinase. NM-IIB is dephosphorylated by a myosin phosphatase. Detailed kinetic studies on NM-IIB show that this isoform of non-muscle myosin II has a slower actomyosin ATPase cycle relative to other myosin II isoforms, that the markedly high affinity of NM-IIB head for ADP as well as the slow rate of ADP release can mechanistically explain affinity this finding.

These data indicate that NM-IIB spends a large amount of its kinetic cycle in a configuration where it is attached to actin. NM-IIB, along with the other non-muscle myosin isoforms IIA and IIC, play a role in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, cell migration, cell polarity, embryonic stem cell apoptosis. Insights into the function of NM-IIB have come from studies employing transgenic animals. NM-IIB is required for normal development of cardiac muscle. Targeted gene disruption of NM-IIB resulted in 65% embryonic lethality, those that survived suffered from congestive heart failure and died day 1 following birth. Feature observed in NM-IIB knockouts was an increase in the transverse diameters of cardiomyocytes, ventricular septal defects, as well as other muscular abnormalities. NM-IIB is expressed early during embryonic development in cardiomyocytes, appears to play a role in karyokinesis. In adult cardiomyocytes, NM-IIB redistributes from a diffuse cytoplasmic pattern in development to a localized Z-disc and intercalated disc distribution, where it colocalizes with alpha-actinin.

NM-IIB is the only non-muscle myosin II isoform expressed in adult cardiac muscle (both IIa and IIB are expressed in skeletal muscle Z-discs, suggesting a specific function of NM-IIB in this cell type. NM-IIB may play a role in formation of mature sarcomeres in myofibrils, it appears that NM-IIB plays an essential role in maintaining normal adherens junction integrity and structure. A cardiac muscle-specific knockout of NM-IIB using the alpha-myosin heavy chain promoter-driven cre-recombinase develop enlarged cardiomyocytes, consistent with the defects observed with cytokinesis; these data indicate that NM-IIB functions in ensuring the proper maintenance of intercalated disc structures. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in MYH10 were detected in patients with left atrial enlargement. MYH10 was identified to be a susceptibility gene using non-biased genome-wide linkage and peak-wide association analysis. MYH10 has been shown to interact with: MYL6 and MYL9. Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: P35580 at the PDBe-KB

George Edward Tait

George Edward Tait was an African American poet, educator, journalist, historian, public speaker, bandleader and performer. He was known as the Poet Laureate of Harlem, a part of the Black Arts Movement, he was the author of The Baker's Dozen: Selected Dance Poems. He spearheaded a musical poetry group called Black Massical Music from 1972 to 1977, he founded The Society of Afrikan Poets. His definition of music is the poetry of sound, he died on November 5, 2017. Tait has been writing and teaching for over thirty five years, known for having poetry readings and workshops, he taught at writing at universities, juvenile detention centers, senior centers, community centers and theaters. He is the author of the Black Brigade. George Edward Tait was secretary of the Afrikan Nationalist Pioneer Movement, founded by Carlos A. Cooks. George E. Tait was born in California, he was raised in New York City. Edward Tait graduated from Pace University in 1968 with a B. A. in English. He minored in literature, he was a member of the Pace Press.

He was an English teacher at Queens College, in Queens He is the author of Sword Songs: Selected Poetry published in 2010. In 1975, he founded The Society of Afrikan Poets. Which produced a seven-year Wednesday series of weekly poetry readings entitled Black Words; the series lasted till 1982. The series featured well known activists, artists and scholars. Edward Tait was Poet Laureate of The Black Nation by the Republic of New Afrika, Poet Laureate of Harlem, Poet-in-Residence of Langston Hughes Library Community Library and Cultural Center, Poet Laureate of the National Conference of Artists, Poet Laureate of the School of African Philosophy, Poet-in-Residence of the Genesis II Museum of International Black Culture, Resident Poet of Attitude - The Dancer's Magazine. In 1982 two of his poems were published in Steppingstones: A Literary Anthology Toward Liberation, edited by James B. Gwynne, he taught at Malcolm-King College in New York City from 1981 to 1986. While at Malcolm-King College he published his first volume of poetry'At War', in 1983.

In 1990 George Tait was one of the organizers in Brooklyn's Crown Heights boycott of two Korean produce stores known as Family Red Apple boycott, boycotts in Harlem. Tait was a part of the "Buy Black Campaign". In 2001, he was a contributing writer to the anthology Bum Rush The Page: A Def Poetry Jam. Which was edited by Louis Reyes Rivera. In 2003, he was published in Three Baker's Dozen: Selected Dance Poetry. "Midnight Rounds" a poem written by George Edward Tait for his wife Akosua. "Out of the nucleus of nature she is a nimbus in the night Her vintage voice filling the vaporized void with veracity." And women, if you want to read real love poems, try "A Dance for Akosua" and "Dance of Destiny." Hear love married to mission and mission married to Spirit: "Let us dance, my dear: Dance with purpose and power Dance with productivity and pride Dance with the passion of Providence & with the potency of prayer." "Swashbuckler's Song" "The pen is longer than the sword Is. So I duly dip my pen in blood While I soak my sword in ink".

By George Edward Tait Paul McIntosh interviews George Edward Tait Ancestor House GEORGE EDWARD TAIT FORTY YEARS OF FREEDOM FLYERS George Edward Tait at NCA New York's 2013 Life & Spirit Awards Reciting poetry. I am a Black Man ~ George Edward Tait Art Alive - George Edward Tait The U. S. A. Court of No Appeal by George Edward Tait Sword Song Reviews George Edward Tait

List of Papua New Guineans

This is a list of notable Papua New Guineans, people from Papua New Guinea. Dame Josephine Abaijah, former politician Sir Peter Barter, former MP for Madang Regional Sir Julius Chan, former Prime Minister Sir John Guise, former Governor General of Papua New Guinea Chris Haiveta, former MP and Governor for Gulf Joseph Kabui, secessionist leader first President of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville Sir Bradley Kila, former MP Dame Carol Kidu, MP for Moresby South Sir Albert Maori Kiki Allan Marat, MP for Rabaul Sir Paulias Matane, former Governor General of PNG John Momis, MP, current President of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville Jeffrey Nape, Speaker of Parliament Sir Rabbie Namaliu, former MP for Rabaul Peter O'Neill, current Prime Minister Francis Ona, rebel leader of Bougainville Sir William Skate, former Prime Minister Sir Michael Somare, "Father of the nation", three times Prime Minister Luther Wenge, MP and Governor of Morobe Paias Wingti, former Prime Minister and Governor of Western Highlands Don Polye, MP for Kandep and Minister for Transport & Civil Aviation Minister of Finance Theo Zurenuoc, MP for Finschhafen, current Speaker of Parliament Makali Aizue, Rugby League Marcus Bai, Rugby League, 3 time world club championship winner & NRL Premiership Winner Stanley Gene, Rugby League, Captain of PNG Rugby League team in 2008 Rugby World Cup Francis Kompaon, Paralympic sprinter and only PNG Paralympic or Olympic medal winner Adrian Lam, Rugby League, Sydney Roosters & PNG Rugby League coach Edward Laboran, Athletics Ryan Pini, Gold Medalist in swimming at the 2006 Commonwealth Games Archie Thompson, Melbourne Victory & PSV striker Dika Loa Toua, Weightlifting Aro, last person executed in PNG Kevin Conrad, environmentalist Janetta Douglas, charity worker Sir Vincent Eri and former Governor-General Florence Jaukae Kamel and women's rights activist Joseph Kaven, physician Pilipo Miriye, first Papua New Guinean evangelical missionary to West Africa Noah Musingku, creator of purported ponzi scheme,'Uvistract' Bernard Narokobi and lawyer Cecilia Nembou, women's rights activist, first female vice-chancellor for a university in Papua New Guinea O-shen, reggae musician Jerry Singirok, military officer William Takaku, actor Dame Meg Taylor and diplomat Megan Washington and alternative pop/rock singer

Zero Zero (comics)

Zero Zero was an alternative comics anthology published by Fantagraphics Books from 1995 to 2000. It was notable among comics anthologies for the number of serialized works that appeared in its pages, including Richard Sala's "The Chuckling Whatsit", Dave Cooper's "Crumple", Mack White's "Homunculus", Kaz and Timothy Georgarakis's "Meat Box", Kim Deitch's "The Strange Secret of Molly O'Dare" and "The Search for Smilin' Ed". Derf Backderf's short strip "My Friend Dahmer", expanded to an award-winning graphic novel appeared in its pages. Zero Zero was published in a typical 6½″ × 9¾″ comic book format. Issues ranged between 40 and 64 pages in length, printed in black-and-white with a color cover but including sections printed in one or two colors, notably a series of stories by Al Columbia. Zero Zero's release schedule was irregular, fluctuating between bimonthly and quarterly intervals over the course of its run. A total of 27 issues were released. Early issues of Zero Zero were not numbered. For the final issue this feature was replaced with an Al Columbia strip depicting the demise of an experimental subject named "Cheapy the Guinea Pig".

Doug Allen Rick Altergott Max Andersson Marc Arsenault Derf Backderf Jim Blanchard Stephane Blanquet David Collier Al Columbia Dave Cooper Kim Deitch Mike Diana Michael Dougan Joyce Farmer Bill Griffith Glenn Head Sam Henderson Kaz Michael Kupperman David Mazzucchelli Mark Newgarden Ethan Persoff Archer Prewitt Spain Rodriguez Joe Sacco Richard Sala Ted Stearn Henriette Valium Penny Van Horn Mack White Skip Williamson Aleksandar Zograf Zero Zero at the Comic Book DB