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Royal Surrey Gardens

Royal Surrey Gardens were pleasure gardens in Newington, London in the Victorian period east of The Oval. The gardens occupied about 15 acres to the east side of Kennington Park Road, including a lake of about 3 acres, it was the site of Surrey Music Hall. The gardens were the grounds of the manor house of Walworth, the civil parish of Newington, Surrey; the site was acquired in 1831 by impresario Edward Cross to be the location of his new Surrey Zoological Gardens, using animals from his menagerie at Exeter Exchange, in competition with the new London Zoo in Regent's Park. A large circular domed glass conservatory was built in the gardens, 300 feet in circumference with more than 6,000 square feet of glass, to contain separate cages for lions, tigers, a rhinoceros, giraffes; the gardens were planted with native and exotic trees and plants, dotted with picturesque pavilions. The gardens were used for large public entertainments from 1837, such as re-enactments of the eruption of Mount Vesuvius, the Great Fire of London, or the storming of Badajoz, using large painted sets up to 80 feet high, spectacular firework displays, as had become popular at Vauxhall Gardens before its demise.

It was used for promenade concerts. The gardens suffered intense competition from the Great Exhibition at the Crystal Palace in 1851. After Cross's death, the gardens were acquired by a company; the zoo had become run down, the animals were sold off in 1856 to build Surrey Music Hall in the gardens. It was a large, rectangular building of three floors, with an arcade around the ground floor and two covered galleries above, octagonal staircases at each corner with ornamental turrets. Like the Crystal Palace, it was constructed from cast iron, was capable of holding 12,000 seated spectators, making it the largest venue in London, it was used to celebrate the return of soldiers at the end of the Crimean War in 1856, for a four-day military festival from 27 July to 30 July 1857 to honour and raise funds for Mary Seacole. The French popular and eccentric conductor and composer of light music Louis Antoine Jullien gave numerous successful concerts in the Royal Surrey Gardens in 1855 and 1856 mixing classical and dance music.

The famous Baptist preacher Charles Spurgeon held religious services at the Music Hall in weekends because the New Park Street Chapel could not contain his audiences. The first service was held on the evening of Sunday 19 October 1856, with an audience of 10,000 inside and as many outside unable to enter, it was, marred by tragedy when someone shouted fire and a panic to escape ensued. Seven were killed in many injured. Spurgeon returned a few weeks to hold morning services in November 1856; the services continued to be well attended, with audiences exceeding 10,000. The proprietors decided to hold Sunday evening music concerts in the hall; the music hall was destroyed by fire in 1861, leading to a High Court legal case, Taylor v. Caldwell 3 B & S 328, to recover the costs of printing posters for an event that could not be held at the hall as a result of its destruction; the case established the doctrine of impossibility in English contract law. The gardens returned to holding large public entertainments, but they were less successful than before, the gardens closed in 1862.

St. Thomas' Hospital moved to the site temporarily, while its new buildings at the new Albert Embankment, Lambeth Palace Road, near Westminster Bridge, were being constructed, its previous buildings had been sold for the railway viaduct built to connect London Bridge railway station to Cannon Street and Charing Cross railway stations. The gardens were sold for the development of residential buildings in 1877. Surrey Gardens re-opened as a much smaller public park in the 1980s, now known locally as Pasley Park. Charles Haddon Spurgeon Preaching at the Music Hall in the Royal Surrey Gardens Music Hall, Royal Surrey Gardens Spurgeon at Surrey Music Hall Louis-Antoine Jullien The French eccentric conductor and composer of light music, considered as the "king of promenade concerts" and gave numerous concerts in the Royal Surrey Gardens

Murri Rugby League Carnival

The Qld Murri Carnival is an annual four-day rugby league carnival for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders Queensland rugby league teams. Queensland Rugby League has awarded the Arthur Beetson Foundation with the tender for the next few years to host the Qld State Championships as part of the Carnival; the Foundation has employed MRL Qld Pty Ltd to event manage the Murri Rugby League carnival. The carnival has certain basic rules. An adult person can not play in the carnival. An under 15 player can not play in the carnival; the Queensland Aboriginal & Islander Health Council have established a partnership with the Arthur Beetson Foundation, to support the organisation and running of the Qld Murri Carnival so that it is as an alcohol,smoke,drug and sugar free event to help better health outcomes for the community. The QLD Murri vs. NSW Koori Interstate Challenge is an annual rugby league game played between the winners of the NSW Koori Knockout and Murri Rugby League Carnival, it is played each year in Queensland as part of the Indigenous All Stars event and is delivered by the Arthur Beetson Foundation like the Qld Murri Carnival as an alcohol,smoke,drug and sugar free event to help better health outcomes for the community.

The NRL launched a Festival of Indigenous Rugby League program to take the place of the prestigious pre-season Rugby League All Stars game following every World Cup year. The 2014 Festival of Indigenous Rugby League featured a trial match between the Newcastle Knights and an Indigenous team, drawn from the NSW Koori Rugby League Knockout and Murri Carnivals in Queensland, as well as the NRL Indigenous Player Cultural Camp, Murri vs Koori women's and Under 16s representative games, a Murri v Koori match, a jobs expo and community visits. 2018 Festival of Indigenous Rugby League created a strong connection between the Maori and First Nation teams. With a strong showcase of cultural celebration from both teams; the 2018 Festival of Indigenous Rugby League was held at Redfern Oval featuring a Double header between the First Nation Goannas v NZ Maori and First Nation Gems v NZ Maori Ferns, And a curtain raiser game for the Koori vs Murri Interstate challenge Between Newcastle Yowies and Dhadin Geai Warriors.

Ben Barba Nathan Blacklock Dane Gagai Yileen Gordon Rod Jensen Brenko Lee Edrick Lee Robert Lui David Peachey Steve Renouf Chris Sandow Sam Thaiday Travis Waddell Kierran Moseley Murri Rugby League Team Indigenous Australians Murri people Torres Strait Islanders NSW Koori Knockout

List of motorcycles of the 1940s

This a listing of motorcycles of the 1940s, including those on sale, introduced, or otherwise relevant in this period. Acme motorcycle AJS 18 AJS 7R AJS Model 16 AJS Model 20 AJS Porcupine Ariel Red Hunter Ariel W/NG 350 BMW R24 BMW R75 BSA A7 BSA B31 BSA Bantam BSA M20 Dnepr M-72 Douglas Mark III Ducati 60 Ducati 60 Sport Ducati 65 Sport Ducati Cucciolo Fuji Rabbit Harley-Davidson FL Harley-Davidson Hummer Harley-Davidson Servi-Car Harley-Davidson WLA Harley-Davidson XA Honda D-Type Imme R100 Indian 841 Indian Four James Autocycle James Comet Lambretta Model B Marman Twin Matchless G80 Mitsubishi Silver Pigeon Norton Dominator Norton 16H Sunbeam S7 and S8 Triumph Speed Twin Triumph Tiger 100 Triumph 3HW Type 97 motorcycle Vincent Black Lightning Vincent Black Shadow Vincent Comet Vincent Grey Flash Vincent Rapide Vincent Meteor Welbike Zündapp KS 750 List of motorcycles of the 1910s List of motorcycles of the 1920s List of motorcycles of the 1930s List of motorcycle manufacturers Cyclecars Ford Model T Horse and buggy Safety bicycle List of motorized trikes List of motorcycles by type of engine List of motorcycles of the 1950s

Colebrooke, Devon

Colebrooke is a village and parish in Devon, England about 8 km west of Crediton. The main point of interest is the church and the connection to Henry Kingsley's novel The Recollections of Geoffry Hamlyn. Uncle Tom Cobley, of the folk song, signed his will at Pascoe House,but is buried 4 miles west at Spreyton; the champion Devon wrestler, Abraham Cann was buried here. He won the all comers wrestling crown in London. Colebrooke is the site SS7700 of a Roman fort or marching camp, the site of, just outside the village to the East. Disputed - see below. Colebrooke gave its name to Colebrook, United States. There is no mention of a Roman fort at Colebrooke in the NMR, no aerial photographs in the archives and no evidence on the ground; this mention of a fort appears to refer to a square field that used to sit astride a straight run of hedgerows, mistakenly identified as the course of the Roman road to Exeter in the 1980s. Two of this field's hedgerows have since been removed; the actual course of the road is further North and remains of the agger can be seen in a field some 300m South of Rag Lane and just to the East of Five Acre Copse.

This is clearly visible from aerial views accessible online. The road in fact follows the same line all the way from North Tawton to this point where the route becomes less obvious. A rather straight lane along the ridge of hills to the East of the railway line is suggestive of its line; the Coplestone family took its name from the manor of Copleston in the parish of Colebrooke. Pole states that the earliest record of this family he was able to find was in a deed dated during the reign of King Edward II; the great antiquity of this family thus seems somewhat overstated in the traditional Devon rhyme, dismissed by Hoskins as containing "not a word of truth": "Crocker and Copplestone, When The Conqueror came were all at home". Several junior branches of the Copleston family existed seated at Eggesford, Instow Upton Pyne and Woodland. Copleston Cross, the surviving shaft of a late Saxon large 10 foot high granite stone cross, named after the estate of Coplestone, is situated on the main Exeter to Barnstaple road at the junction of the parishes of Colebrooke and Down St Mary.

Coplestone House was the seat of the Coplestone family from the 13th century to 1659 and the surviving Georgian house was rebuilt on a new site in 1787 by its owner Robert Madge. Horwell was the residence from the 16th century of the Prye family, one of the old armigerous gentry families of Devon which made a return in the 1620 Heraldic Visitations of Devon, their armorials were: Ermine, a chevron gules a chief azure fretty or. According to Risdon: "In this family one thing is remarkable that although they have continued many generations yet was it never known to have brought forth a younger brother until this our age, insomuch as the name is nowhere to be heard of but in only this place"; the present house known as Horwell Barton has an early 19th-century facade. In the parish church of St Andrew survive the following monuments: Mural monument to Elizabeth Mills, daughter of John Mills of Colebrooke, she was buried in Colebrooke Church, where survives her mural monument with Corinthian columns and scrollwork pediment.

She was the wife of 1st Baronet. Media related to Colebrooke, Devon at Wikimedia Commons

Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument (Indianapolis)

The Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument is a large granite monument that sits at the south entrance of Garfield Park in Indianapolis to commemorate the Confederate prisoners of war that died at Camp Morton. At 35 feet tall and located in the city's oldest public park, it is the most prominent of the few Confederate memorials in the Union state of Indiana. Shortly after the start of the Civil War, the original Indiana State Fairgrounds site in present-day Herron–Morton Place Historic District was converted into a Union mustering ground and training camp known as Camp Morton. In 1862, the U. S. government established a prison camp for Confederate soldiers. It became one of the largest prison camps in operation. Due to poor conditions—which included overcrowding, lack of sanitation, malnutrition and lack of medical care—the mortality rate was high. By the end of the war, more than 1,700 prisoners had died at Camp Morton. A small number of the Confederate dead from Camp Morton were identified and returned to their families after the war, but 1,616 soldiers were buried in a mass grave at Greenlawn Cemetery.

It was here, in 1912, that the Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument was first commissioned and placed by the U. S. federal government. However, with Greenlawn Cemetery set to close, the bodies and monument were moved with the help of the Southern Club of Indianapolis. In 1928, the monument was separated from the grave and moved to its present location near an entrance of Garfield Park; the Confederate dead were reinterred, between 1928 and 1931, at a new plot known as the Confederate Mound in Crown Hill National Cemetery, with a small grave marker bearing no names. The monument is located within a circular walking path north of Pagoda Drive, just within Garfield Park's south road entrance on East Southern Avenue, it is made of white granite, measures 35–40 feet tall and 20 feet wide. On its north face, the granite shaft contains the following inscription: "ERECTED BY THE UNITED STATES TO MARK THE BURIAL PLACE OF 1616 CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS AND SAILORS WHO DIED HERE WHILE PRISONERS OF WAR AND WHOSE GRAVES CANNOT NOW BE IDENTIFIED".

Six wide bronze plates along the north and south sides of the base list the names and regiments of the dead. In the early 1990s, the local Sons of Confederate Veterans organization began lobbying federal officials to move the monument from Garfield Park to Crown Hill Cemetery to mark the actual Confederate grave site, which had no names listed. While unsuccessful in moving the monument, the effort resulted in a new memorial being installed in 1993 at Crown Hill's Confederate Mound that includes a all of the soldier's names and regiments on 10 new markers with bronze plaques. In 2014, the local Sons of Confederate Veterans organization partnered with Indy Parks and the Indy Parks Foundation on a plan to restore the monument, which had fallen into disrepair. While some members expressed dissatisfaction with the monument, the Indy Parks board voted unanimously for the proposal to allow SCV to raise funds for the project on behalf of the Indy Parks Foundation. In 2015, the Friends of Garfield Park, with funding from the Nina Mason Pulliam Charitable Trust, launched a new audio tour throughout the park, which includes two soundbites discussing the monument.

Vista markers shaped like phonograph speakers are at tour sites within the park, including one northwest of the monument. In 2017, there was renewed public interest in the monument in the wake of the Charlottesville Unite the Right rally and the removal of Confederate monuments in other cities. On August 17, City-County Council President Maggie A. Lewis released a statement expressing a desire to start a conversation about the monument's location in Garfield Park. Monroe Gray, the Council's Democratic majority leader, separately stated that he does not believe Garfield Park is an appropriate location, noted that the monument "holds no historical significance to President Garfield," the park's namesake. Lewis and Mike McQuillen, Council's Republican minority leader, suggested an inventory of all public monuments in Marion County be conducted, so there can be a better understanding of their content, whether they might cause offense. Following councilors' remarks, the city's Department of Parks and Recreation stated that the monument was "not in a location appropriate for its original purpose," and that it intended to work with the Council and partners to "explore all available options to remove the monument from Garfield Park" so that it can be displayed in a setting that provides historical context.

On August 19, 2017, a man was arrested in the act of vandalizing the monument with a hammer. After the incident, the monument was put under watch by park rangers. On August 21, the city added a fence around the monument; that same day, Maggie Lewis stated that there had been "productive discussions" about the monument's potential relocation, she urged calm

Mir Ranjan Negi

Mir Ranjan Negi is a field hockey player and former goalkeeper of the India national field hockey team. He was involved with the development of Chak De India, he was born in District Almora. In the 1982 Asian Games, Negi was the goalkeeper for the India national field hockey team in the final field hockey match against Pakistan. India lost 1-7; the nation went into a Negi into hiding. Negi was accused in some quarters of having conceded those goals." Of the event, journalist Anand Philar stated, "I had covered the 7-1 drubbing Pakistan handed out to India in the 1982 Asian Games final, which turned goalkeeper Negi's life upside down. He was pilloried by armchair critics, the media and an ignorant public for letting in so many goals; some of the tabloids ran headlines crying out that Pakistan had bribed Negi and that he was a'traitor.'" In an interview with Philar after the event, Negi stated, "Everywhere I went, I was abused by the public. Nothing matters to me more than playing for my country. I will always be so.

There were lots of things. You find out. I will not speak about the politics that contributed to our defeat." Former captain Zafar Iqbal stated, "The entire team was to blame. Despite making great efforts to cover the gaps, poor Negi became a sitting duck and the Pakistanis scored at will He was blamed but every player was to blame The atmosphere was vicious. I remember someone claiming that he had seen Negi come out of the Pakistan High Commission on match eve Some enquired whether Negi, with his first name Mir, was Muslim." Afterwards, he was let quit the game for many years. He returned as a goalkeeping coach for the 1998 Asian Games in which the India national field hockey team won the Gold; this position, only proved temporary and he left the game once again. Four years Negi was hired to be the goalkeeping coach of the India women's national field hockey team; the team won the Gold at the 2002 Commonwealth Games. He was the assistant coach for the Women's team when it won the Gold at the 2004 Hockey Asia Cup.

He is working in Indian Customs as an Assistant Commissioner in Mumbai. Negi would become involved in the development of the 2007 Bollywood film Chak De India, its screenplay was written by Bollywood screenwriter Jaideep Sahani. Sahani had read an article about the winning of the Gold at the 2002 Commonwealth Games by the India women's national field hockey team and thought that the premise would make an interesting film. Negi has been compared with Kabir Khan in the media. On this connection Negi commented, "This movie is not a documentary of Mir Ranjan Negi's life, it is in fact the story of a team that becomes a winning lot from a bunch of hopeless girls There is nothing called World Championships in international hockey. It would be stupid to believe that Yash Raj Films would pump in Rs.45 crores to make a documentary on me. So it's illogical that it is a documentation of my life." Sahani further stated in an interview with The Hindu: I felt why has the girls’ team been given so little coverage.

I shared the idea with Aditya. He said stop everything else and concentrate on it. I started my research by spending time with hockey players It’s just a matter of chance that Negi's story matches with Kabir Khan. There are many cases, like in Colombia, football players are killed for not performing well for the club. I had no idea about Negi’s story while writing the script, he joined us after the script was ready. In fact, his name was suggested by M. K. Kaushik, the coach of the team that won the Commonwealth Games’ gold. On day one, when Negi read the script, he cried and it was that we came to know about his story. Sahani stated in another interview with that the script was conceived before he met Negi: "Our script was written a year and a half back. It is unfortunate that something, about women athletes, has just started becoming about Negi, and if you would go and ask Negi, he would tell you that he came and read the script, written a year and a half back, he started crying. Next day, he came and said look, it had happened to me also."Both Kaushik and Negi did influence the development of the film after being approached by Sahani.

Sahani first met with Kaushik and recalled that, "M K Kaushik and his girls taught us all we knew about hockey. He recommended Negi to us, because when we finished from different backgrounds and cultures, the psychological factors involved. How the coach faces pressure to select girls from different states and teams." Sahani contacted Negi and asked him to coach the actors portraying the hockey team. While not enthusiastic about being involved in the film, Negi changed his mind after reading the screenplay, he acted as the trainer for the cast stating, "I trained the girls for six months. Waking up at 4, travelling from Kandivili to Churchgate. We would retire around 11 in the night, it was tiring. But we were on a mission. I ensured none of them cut their eyebrows; the girls have worked hard. I salute them." Some of the actors however, such as Chitrashi and Raynia were cast because they are actual hockey players. Negi had to train Shahrukh Khan for the film stating, "I had to plan every hockey move shown in the movie, including the penalty stroke that SRK missed.

That shot alone t