Gustav III of Sweden
Gustav III note on dates was King of Sweden from 1771 until his assassination in 1792. He was the eldest son of Adolf Frederick, King of Sweden and Queen Louise Ulrika, a first cousin of Empress Catherine the Great of Russia by reason of their common descent from Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp, Prince of Eutin, his wife Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach. Gustav was a vocal opponent of what he saw as the abuse of political privileges seized by the nobility since the death of King Charles XII. Seizing power from the government in a coup d'état, called the Swedish Revolution, in 1772 that ended the Age of Liberty, he initiated a campaign to restore a measure of Royal autocracy, completed by the Union and Security Act of 1789, which swept away most of the powers exercised by the Swedish Riksdag during the Age of Liberty, but at the same time it opened up the government for all citizens, thereby breaking the privileges of the nobility. A bulwark of enlightened despotism, Gustav spent considerable public funds on cultural ventures, which were controversial among his critics, as well as military attempts to seize Norway with Russian aid a series of attempts to re-capture the Swedish Baltic dominions lost during the Great Northern War through the failed war with Russia.
Nonetheless, his successful leadership in the Battle of Svensksund averted a complete military defeat and signified that Swedish military might was to be countenanced. An admirer of Voltaire, Gustav legalized Catholic and Jewish presence in Sweden and enacted wide-ranging reforms aimed at economic liberalism, social reform and the restriction, in many cases, of torture and capital punishment; the much-praised Freedom of the Press Act of 1766 was curtailed, however, by amendments in 1774 and 1792 extinguishing independent media. Following the uprising against the French monarchy in 1789, Gustav pursued an alliance of princes aimed at crushing the insurrection and re-instating his French counterpart, King Louis XVI, offering Swedish military assistance as well as his leadership, he was mortally wounded by a gunshot in the lower back during a masquerade ball as part of an aristocratic-parliamentary coup attempt, but managed to assume command and quell the uprising before succumbing to septicemia 13 days a period during which he received apologies from many of his political enemies.
Gustav's immense powers were placed in the hands of a regency under his brother Prince Carl and Gustaf Adolf Reuterholm until his son and successor Gustav IV Adolf reached adulthood in 1796. The Gustavian autocracy thus survived until 1809, when his son was ousted in another coup d'état, which definitively established parliament as the dominant political power. A patron of the arts and benefactor of arts and literature, Gustav founded the Swedish Academy, created a national costume and had the Royal Swedish Opera built. In 1772 he founded the Royal Order of Vasa to acknowledge and reward those Swedes who had contributed to advances in the fields of agriculture and commerce. In 1782, Gustav III was the first formally neutral head of state in the world to recognize the United States during its war for independence from Great Britain. Swedish military forces were engaged in the thousands on the side of the colonists through the French expedition force. Through the acquisition of Saint Barthélemy in 1784, Gustav enabled the restoration, if symbolic, of Swedish overseas colonies in America, as well as great personal profits from the transatlantic slave trade.
Gustav III was known in Sweden and abroad by his Royal Titles, or styles: Gustav, by the Grace of God, of the Swedes, the Goths and the Vends King, Grand Prince of Finland, Duke of Pomerania, Prince of Rügen and Lord of Wismar, Heir to Norway and Duke of Schleswig-Holstein and Dithmarschen, Count of Oldenburg and Delmenhorst, etc. etc. Gustav was born in Stockholm, he was placed under the tutelage of Hedvig Elisabet Strömfelt until the age of five educated under the care of two governors who were among the most eminent Swedish statesmen of the day: Carl Gustaf Tessin and Carl Fredrik Scheffer. Nonetheless, he owed most of what shaped him during his early education to the poet and historian Olof von Dalin. State interference with his education as a young child caused significant political disruptions within the royal family. Gustav's parents taught him to despise the governors imposed upon him by the Riksdag, the atmosphere of intrigue and duplicity in which he grew up made him precociously experienced in the art of dissimulation.
His most hostile teachers were amazed by his combination of natural gifts. Moreover, he possessed as a boy the charm of manner, to make him so fascinating and so dangerous in life, coupled with a strong dramatic instinct that won him an honourable place in Swedish literature. On the whole, Gustav can not be said to have been well educated, his enthusiasm for the ideas of the French enlightenment was as sincere as that of his mother, if more critical. Gustav married Princess Sophia Magdalena, daughter of King Frederick V of Denmark, by proxy in Christiansborg Palace, Copenhagen, on 1 October 1766 and in person in Stockholm on 4 November 1766. Gustav was first impressed by Sophia Magdalena's beauty, but her silent nature made her a disappointment in court life; the match was not a happy one, owing to an incompatibility of temperament, but still more to the interference of Gustav's jealous mother, Queen Louisa Ulrika. The marriage produced two children: Crown Prince Gustav Adolf, Prince Carl Gustav, Duk
Jacob Johan Anckarström
Jacob Johan Anckarström was a Swedish military officer who assassinated Gustav III, king of Sweden. He was executed for regicide, he was the son of Hedvig Ulrika Drufva. He married Gustaviana Elisabet Löwen in 1783, had two daughters and two sons: Gustafva Eleonora Löwenström, Carolina Lovisa, Johan Jacob and Carl David. Anckarström served as a page at court and as a captain in King Gustav III's regiment between 1778 and 1783. During travels to Gotland, he was accused of slandering the king and fled to Stockholm, where he spent the winter. Although he was acquitted due to lack of evidence, he maintained in his confession that this incident sparked his fire of hatred towards the king, fuelled by the contemporary revolutionary movement in Europe; the Swedish nobles were about this time violently opposed to the king, who, by the aid of the other orders of the state, had wrested their power from them and was now ruling despotically. This dislike was increased by the coup d'état of 1789 and by the king's known desire to interfere in favor of Louis XVIII in France.
Anckarström, a man of strong passions and violent temper, resolved upon the assassination of Gustav and communicated his intention to other disaffected nobles, including Counts Horn and Ribbing. Initial attempts to seize the king were failures. On 16 March 1792, Gustav III had returned to Stockholm, after spending the day at Haga Palace outside the city, to dine and visit a masquerade ball at the Royal Opera. During dinner, he received an anonymous letter that contained a threat to his life, but as the king had received numerous threatening letters in the past, he chose to ignore the warning. After dining, he left his rooms to take part in the masquerade. Soon after entering, he was surrounded by Anckarström and his conspirators, including Horn and Ribbing, who wore black masks; when Horn confirmed that it was the king, he greeted him in French with the words "Bonjour, beau masque". Anckarström moved in behind the king and fired a pistol into the left side of his back; the murder weapon was loaded with five shot and six bent nails.
The King jumped aside, crying in French "Ah! Je suis blessé, tirez-moi d'ici et arrêtez-le!". The king was carried back to his quarters, the exits of the Opera were sealed. Anckarström had thrown the pistol down as he left; these were brought around to several gunsmiths the next morning and one who had repaired them for Anckarström recognized them and identified him as their owner. Anckarström was arrested the same morning and confessed to the murder, although he denied a conspiracy until he was informed that Horn and Ribbing had been arrested and confessed in full. Anckarström was jailed in a prison not far from the Royal Palace in Stockholm. Today the former prison is an underground restaurant named after the viceroy Sten Sture. Curiously, the murder had been predicted to the king four years earlier, when he paid an anonymous visit to the celebrated medium of the Gustavian era, Ulrica Arfvidsson, she was employed by his brother, Duke Charles, was said to have a large net of informers all over town.
In 1791, Charlotta Roos predicted misfortune to King Gustav III, something he referred to on his death bed after the assassination. Gustav III died of his wounds on 29 March and on 16 April Anckarström was sentenced, he was stripped of his nobility privileges. He was sentenced to be cast in irons for three days and publicly flogged, his right hand to be cut off, his head removed, his corpse quartered; the execution took place on 27 April 1792. He endured his sufferings with the greatest fortitude, seemed to rejoice in having rid his country of a tyrant, his principal accomplices were imprisoned for life. In the same year, the Anckarström family changed its surname to Löwenström and donated funds for a hospital as a gift of appeasement; this resulted in the Löwenström Hospital, or Löwenströmska lasarettet in Upplands Väsby north of Stockholm. Living descendants of Anckarström include Ulf Adelsohn, solo sailor Sven Yrvind, the American actress Alexandra Neil. Anckarström is a character in Daniel Auber's opera Gustave III and Giuseppe Verdi's Un ballo in maschera.
In the operas, his motivation is changed to jealousy over his wife Amelia, with whom Gustav is portrayed as being in love. He is portrayed as being Gustav's close friend before he switches allegiances. Gustav pardons him with his last breath. In the censored version of the Verdi libretto, set in Colonial-era Boston, he is called Renato. "Johan Jacob Ankarström",'Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed. Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1878, p. 59
Storkyrkan named Sankt Nikolai kyrka and informally called Stockholms domkyrka, is the oldest church in Gamla stan, the old town in central Stockholm, Sweden. The main parish church of Stockholm, it also serves as the seat of the Lutheran Bishop of Stockholm within the Church of Sweden since the creation of the Diocese of Stockholm in 1942, it is an important example of Swedish Brick Gothic. Situated next to the Royal Palace, it forms the western end of Slottsbacken, the major approach to the Royal Palace, while the streets Storkyrkobrinken, Högvaktsterrassen, Trångsund passes north and west of it respectively. South of the church is the Stockholm Stock Exchange Building facing Stortorget and containing the Swedish Academy, Nobel Library, Nobel Museum. Storkyrkan was first mentioned in a written source dated 1279 and according to tradition was built by Birger Jarl, the founder of the city itself. For nearly four hundred years it was the only parish church in the city, the other churches of comparable antiquity being built to serve the spiritual needs of religious communities.
It became a Lutheran Protestant church in 1527. The parish church since the Middle Ages of the Nikolai parish, covering the whole island on which the Old Town stands, it has been the cathedral of Stockholm since the Diocese of Stockholm was created out of the Archdiocese of Uppsala and the Diocese of Strängnäs in 1942; because of its convenient size and its proximity to the earlier royal castle and the present royal palace it has been the site of major events in Swedish history, such as coronations, royal wedding and royal funerals. The last Swedish king to be crowned here was Oscar II in 1873. Crown Princess Victoria, oldest daughter of King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Silvia, was married to Daniel Westling on 19 June 2010 at the Storkyrkan, the anniversary of her parents' marriage in Storkyrkan in 1976; the most famous of its treasures is the dramatic wooden statue of Saint George and the Dragon attributed to Bernt Notke. The statue, commissioned to commemorate the Battle of Brunkeberg serves as a reliquary, containing relics of Saint George and six other saints.
A copy from the early 20th century is found on Österlånggatan just south of the church. The Saint George is a symbolic representation of Sten Sture, the dragon is the Danish King Christian I, the Princess is Sweden; the church contains a copy of the oldest known image of Stockholm, the painting Vädersolstavlan, a 1632 copy of a lost original from 1535. The painting was commissioned by the scholar and reformer Olaus Petri, a 19th-century statue of whom is found on the eastern side of the church, it depicts a halo display, e.g. sun dogs, which gives the painting its name and in the 16th century was interpreted as a presage. The monumental pulpit is in a French Baroque style, it became the model for a number of other large pulpits in Sweden. From the rear of its lofty sounding board issues billowing dragery, in front of which hover two large winged genii on either side of a radiant sun bearing the Hebrew letters יהוה; the relief on the front of the pulpit itself depicts the story of the Canaanite woman.
The door of the pulpit is adorned with a relief of Christ's head, while its pediment is crowned by a statue of Hope with putti on either side. Below the memorial are the arms of the Funck family. Beneath the pulpit and surrounded by an iron railing lies the worn gravestone of Olaus Petri; the view down the central aisle of the church is dominated on either side by the Royal Pews, one facing the other on either side of the central aisle. They were designed by the celebrated architect Nicodemus Tessin the Younger and made by Butchard Precht; each consists of a large enclosed box with decorated sides and back. High above each of the Royal Pews is a large royal crown forming a canopy above it, supported by two genii in flowing mantles, from which billow sculptured hangings behind the royal seat, while above hover numerous putti; the royal seats are themselves upholstered in blue velvet with rich applied embroidery. The main altar--"The Silver Altar"—is a wooden triptych with an ebony veneer with sculptured reliefs in silver in ascending order of the Last Supper on the predella.
On either side of the Silver Altar is a sculpture holding a candle, one of St. Nicholas and the other of St. Peter, both designed by G. Torhamn and carved in oak by the sculptor Herbst in 1937; the rose window above and behind the Silver Altar was made in Paris in the 1850s, the first of a series of modern stained windows in the church contributed by various donors. The Silver Altar and the rose window above it fill the wall space occupied by the apse of the medieval chancel removed by Gustavus Vasa when he expanded the fortifications of the Tre Kronor Castle, while the statue of the Olaus Petri monument at the back exterior of the church stands on the site of the medieval high altar. List of churches in Stockholm Virtual tour of Storkyrkan by Virtualsw
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Märta Birgit Nilsson was a celebrated Swedish dramatic soprano. Although she sang a wide repertory of operatic and vocal works, Nilsson was best known for her performances in the operas of Richard Wagner and Richard Strauss, her voice was noted for its overwhelming force, bountiful reserves of power, the gleaming brilliance and clarity in the upper register. Nilsson made such strong imprints on many roles that they came to be known as the "Nilsson repertory", she sang the operas of Richard Strauss and made a specialty of Puccini's Turandot, but it was the music of Wagner that made her career. She once said that Isolde made her Turandot made her rich, her olympian command of his music was comparable to that of Kirsten Flagstad, who owned the Wagner repertory at the Metropolitan Opera during the years before World War II. Birgit Nilsson was born Märta Birgit Svensson on a farm at Västra Karup in Skåne to Nils Svensson and Justina Svensson; when she was three years old she began picking out melodies on a toy piano her mother bought for her.
She once told an interviewer that she could sing before she could walk, adding, "I sang in my dreams". Her vocal talent was first noticed. A choirmaster near her home heard her advised her to take voice lessons, she studied with Ragnar Blennow in Åstorp for six months to prepare for an audition at the Royal Academy of Music in Stockholm where she came in first out of a group of 47 singers and was awarded the Christina Nilsson scholarship named for the famous soprano. Her teachers at the Academy were Arne Sunnegårdh. However, she considered herself self-taught: "The best teacher is the stage", she told an interviewer in 1981. "You walk out onto it, you have to learn to project." She attributed her success to native talent. "My first voice teacher killed me... he second was as bad." In 1946, Nilsson made her debut at the Royal Opera in Stockholm with only three days' notice, replacing the ailing Agathe in Carl Maria von Weber's Der Freischütz. Conductor Leo Blech wasn't kind to her and, as she wrote in her autobiography, she contemplated suicide after the performance.
In 1947 she claimed national attention as Verdi's Lady Macbeth under Fritz Busch. A wealth of parts followed, from Strauss and Verdi to Wagner and Tchaikovsky. In Stockholm she built up a steady repertoire of roles in the lyric-dramatic field, including Donna Anna, Lisa, Venus, Sieglinde and the Marschallin, one of her favourite roles all sung in Swedish. In 1949 she sang Ariadne auf Naxos with Elisabeth Söderström among others. Under Fritz Busch's tutelage, her career took wing, he was instrumental in securing her first important engagement outside Sweden, as Elettra in Mozart's Idomeneo at the Glyndebourne Festival in 1951. Her debut at the Vienna State Opera in 1953 was a turning point, it was followed by Elsa in Wagner's Lohengrin at the Bayreuth Festival in 1954 her first Brünnhilde in a complete Ring at the Bavarian State Opera, at the Munich Festival of 1954. She returned as Sieglinde, Brünnhilde, Isolde until 1969, she took the title role of Turandot, brief but requires an unusually big sound, to La Scala in Milan in 1958, to the rest of Italy.
Nilsson made her American debut as Brünnhilde in Wagner's Die Walküre in 1956 with the San Francisco Opera. She attained international stardom after a performance as Isolde at the Metropolitan Opera in New York City in 1959, which made front-page news, she said that the single biggest event in her life was being asked to perform at the opening of the 180th season at La Scala as Turandot in 1958. She performed at many major opera houses in the world including Vienna, the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden, Paris, Buenos Aires and Hamburg, she sang with the Sydney Symphony Orchestra in the all-Wagner concert that opened the Concert Hall of the Sydney Opera House in 1973. Nilsson was known as the leading Wagnerian soprano of her time, the successor to the great Norwegian soprano Kirsten Flagstad as Brünnhilde. However, she sang many of the other famous soprano roles, among them Leonore, Turandot, Tosca and Salome, she had, according to The New York Times, a "voice of impeccable trueness and impregnable stamina".
The conductor Erich Leinsdorf thought that her longevity, like Flagstad's, had something to do with her Scandinavian heritage, remarking that Wagner required "thoughtful and methodical people." Nilsson attributed her long career to regimen. "I do nothing special", she once said. "I don't smoke. I drink a little beer. I was born with the right set of parents." In sheer power, her high notes were sometimes compared to those of the Broadway belter Ethel Merman. However Nilsson claims her "explosive" high notes that were her biggest asset on-stage "have not been recorded like they should have been" in the studio, she lamented: "It always made me a little bit sad when I heard my own recordings. And many people told me that I sang much better in person than I do on the recordings! That didn't flatter me at all, because I know what's going to be left when I am no longer singing". Twice at the Met, Nilsson sustained injuries. In February 1971, she sprained her ankle during a performance of "Elektra" that resulted in cancellation of one performance.
Nilsson recovered to sing the broadcast performance of Elektra on 27 February. More se
Nina Maria Stemme is a Swedish dramatic soprano opera singer. Stemme "is regarded by today's opera fans as our era's greatest Wagnerian soprano". In 2010, Michael Kimmelman wrote of one of Stemme's performances in Richard Wagner's opera Die Walküre, "As for Brünnhilde, Nina Stemme sang gloriously. It's hard to recall anyone's sounding more commanding or at ease in the part, that includes Kirsten Flagstad". Born in Stockholm, the young Stemme played viola, she attended a high-profile song-and-chorus school in Stockholm. During a year as an exchange student at Langley High School in McLean, she joined the school chorus, sang solos and won awards. Parallel to her studies of business administration and economics at the University of Stockholm, Stemme followed a two-year course at the Stockholm Operastudio, her debut as Cherubino in Cortona, Italy, in 1989 made Stemme decide to follow a professional singer's career. In addition to two minor roles at the Royal Swedish Opera in Stockholm, she sang Rosalinde, Mimì, Euridice in Gluck's Orfeo ed Euridice, Diana.
She sang in two singing competitions, The World Opera Competition and Cardiff Singer of the World. As winner of Operalia in 1993, Stemme was invited by Plácido Domingo, founder of Operalia, to appear with him in a concert at La Bastille. Since her 1989 operatic debut as Cherubino in Cortona, Stemme has appeared with many opera companies, including the Royal Swedish Opera Stockholm, the Vienna State Opera, La Scala Milano, Semperoper Dresden, Grand Théâtre de Genève, the Zurich Opera, Teatro di San Carlo Naples, Gran Teatre del Liceu Barcelona, Opéra Bastille Paris, Bayerische Staatsoper Munich, Covent Garden London, Teatro Real Madrid, Teatro Colón Buenos Aires, the Metropolitan Opera New York, San Francisco Opera, as well as at the Bayreuth, Savonlinna and Bregenz festivals, her roles include Rosalinde, Mimì in La bohème, Cio-Cio San in Madama Butterfly,Turandot, Manon Lescaut, Suor Angelica, Katerina in Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk, the Countess in Le nozze di Figaro, Agathe, Nyssia, Jenůfa, Eva, Elsa, Sieglinde, Elisabeth in Tannhäuser and Isolde.
This last brought her critical acclaim at Glyndebourne Festival Opera in 2003, on disc for EMI Classics with Plácido Domingo, Antonio Pappano and the chorus and orchestra of the Royal Opera, Covent Garden released in 2005 and most at the Bayreuth Festival in 2005 and again in 2006. In 2007 Stemme returned in the role of Isolde to Glyndebourne Festival Opera where she made her debut in the role. In 2006, Stemme sang Maria in the premiere of Sven-David Sandström's Ordet – en passion, on March 24 in Stockholm, she made her role debut in the title role of Aida in a new production at Zürich Opera and recorded her first album of Richard Strauss's Four Last Songs and final scenes. On the concert platform in 2006–07, she appeared in recital with Antonio Pappano in Barcelona and Dresden, in concert performances of Salome in Strasbourg and Paris and in recital at the Zürich Opera. In 2008, Stemme replaced Deborah Voigt in what would have been Voigt's role debut as Brünnhilde in the opera Siegfried, part of a new Vienna State Opera Ring cycle conducted by Franz Welser-Möst.
Stemme sang Brünnhilde in the 2010 season opening at La Scala and in San Francisco Opera's 2011 Ring cycle. In 2015 Stemme is scheduled to perform at GöteborgsOperan in Gothenburg, Sweden, in a new opera by composer Hans Gefors with libretto by Kerstin Perski and directed by Keith Warner; the opera is based on Alfred Hitchcock's spy thriller Notorious from 1946. Other members of the cast include John Lundgren and Michael Weinius. In September and October 2016, Stemme returned to the role of Isolde in the Metropolitan Opera's new production of "Tristan und Isolde". In 2017, Stemme was the soprano soloist at the Last Night of the Proms. Stemme performs on average 40 times per year in various venues around the world. Stemme lives in Stockholm, she has three children. She speaks five languages. 1993: winner of Operalia, The World Opera Competition 2004: received Svenska Dagbladets Opera Award 2005: selected by a German expert 50-member jury through the Opernwelt magazine as the world's leading female opera singer 2006: appointed Member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Music 2006: appointed Hovsångerska by Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden 2008: received the medal Litteris et Artibus by Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden 2010: received the Laurence Olivier Award for Outstanding Achievement in Opera 2010: received the Italian award Premio Abbiati 2012: selected again by Opernwelt as "Female singer of the year" 2012: appointed Austrian Kammersängerin 2012: the Gramophone Award for best Opera Record was awarded to DECCA's recording of Beethoven's Fidelio with Stemme performing the role of Leonore with the Lucerne Festival Orchestra directed by Claudio Abbado 2013: selected as the world's leading female opera singer by International Opera Awards 2014: received the ninth annual Opera News Award "paying tribute to five superb artists who have made invaluable contributions to the art form: director Patrice Chéreau, tenor Juan Diego Flórez, mezzo-soprano Christa Ludwig, bass-baritone James Morris and soprano Nina Stemme" 2014: awarded Stockholms Stads Hederspris 2014 2016: awarded Honorary Doctor's Degree, Lund University, Sweden 2016
Anne Sofie von Otter
Anne Sofie von Otter is a Swedish mezzo-soprano. Her repertoire encompasses lieder, operas and rock and pop songs. Von Otter was born in Sweden, her father was the diplomat Göran von Otter, a Swedish diplomat in Berlin during World War II. She grew up in Bonn and Stockholm, she studied in Stockholm and at the Guildhall School of Music and Drama in London, where her teachers included Vera Rozsa. She made her professional operatic début in 1983 at the Basel Opera, as Alcina in Haydn's Orlando paladino, she made her Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, début in 1985 and her La Scala debut in 1987. Her Metropolitan Opera début was in December 1988 as Cherubino, her recording of Grieg songs won the 1993 Gramophone Record of the Year, the first time in the award's history that it had gone to a song recording. In 2001, she released her album with Elvis Costello, For the Stars, for which she won an Edison Award, she was awarded the Grammy Award for Best Classical Vocal Solo in 2015 for her album of French songs, Douce France.
She is a regular recording partner with Swedish pianist Bengt Forsberg. In 2006, von Otter sang the Evangelist in the premiere of Sven-David Sandström's Ordet – en passion. Other work in contemporary music has included singing the role of The Woman in Senza Sangue of Péter Eötvös. In other media, she appeared in the film A Late Quartet. In 2007, she released an album of music written by composers imprisoned in the Nazi "model" ghetto of Theresienstadt concentration camp prior to their transportation to the death camp of Auschwitz, she collaborated on this project with chamber musicians. She has stated that the material has special personal meaning for her as her father had attempted unsuccessfully during the war to spread information that he had received from SS officer Kurt Gerstein about the Nazi death camps. In 2016, von Otter sang Leonora in the world premiere of Thomas Adès' The Exterminating Angel, again in 2017 at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, she created the principal role of Charlotte in Sebastian Fagerlund's 2017 opera Autumn Sonata, based on the 1979 film by Ingmar Bergman at the Finnish National Opera in Helsinki conducted by John Storgårds.
Von Otter was married to Benny Fredriksson until his suicide on March 17, 2018. He had been an actor and managing director of The Stockholm House of Culture, including the Stadsteatern; the couple had two children. She lives in Stockholm. 1995: appointed Hovsångerska by H. M. the King of Sweden 2003: Rolf Schock Prize in the musical arts category 2013: Honorary Degree, University Pierre and Marie Curie, Paris Alban Berg: Sieben frühe Lieder & Der Wein conducted by Claudio Abbado Deutsche Grammophon Hector Berlioz: Mélodies with Cord Garben and Les nuits d'été conducted by James Levine Deutsche Grammophon Les nuits d'été conducted by Marc Minkowski Naïve Johannes Brahms: Lieder with Bengt Forsberg Deutsche Grammophon Cécile Chaminade: Mots d'amour with Bengt Forsberg Deutsche Grammophon Edvard Grieg: Songs/Lieder with Bengt Forsberg Deutsche Grammophon Erich Wolfgang Korngold: Rendezvous with Korngold with Bengt Forsberg & Friends Deutsche Grammophon Ingvar Lidholm: Songs and Chamber Music conducted by Björn Sjögren Caprice Records Gustav Mahler: Des Knaben Wunderhorn with Thomas Quasthoff conducted by Claudio Abbado Deutsche Grammophon Kindertotenlieder conducted by Pierre Boulez Deutsche Grammophon Maurice Ravel: Shéhérazade conducted by Pierre Boulez Deutsche Grammophon Arnold Schoenberg: Gurre-Lieder conducted by Simon Rattle EMI Franz Schubert: Lieder, with Bengt Forsberg and Lieder with Orchestra conducted by Claudio Abbado Deutsche Grammophon Robert Schumann: Frauenliebe und -leben with Bengt Forsberg Deutsche Grammophon Jean Sibelius: Anne Sofie von Otter sings Sibelius with Bengt Forsberg BIS Kurt Weill: Speak Low: Songs by Kurt Weill conducted by John Eliot Gardiner Deutsche Grammophon Hugo Wolf: Spanisches Liederbuch with Olaf Bär and Geoffrey Parsons EMI Various: Boldemann Gefors Hillborg conducted by Kent Nagano Deutsche Grammophon La Bonne chanson – French Chamber Songs with Bengt Forsberg and others Deutsche Grammophon Brahms / Schumann with Barbara Bonney, Kurt Streit, Olaf Bär, Helmut Deutsch and Bengt Forsberg EMI Douce France – classical French songs and chansons with Bengt Forsberg and others Naive Folksongs with Bengt Forsberg Deutsche Grammophon Lieder / Mélodies by Beethoven Meyerbeer Spohr with Melvyn Tan Archiv Lieder by Wolf and Mahler with Ralf Gothóni Deutsche Grammophon Love's Twilight – Late Romantic Songs by Berg Korngold Strauss with Bengt Forsberg Deutsche Grammophon Mahler Zemlinsky Lieder conducted by John Eliot Gardiner Deutsche Grammophon Mozart – Haydn: Songs & Canzonettas with Melvyn Tan Archiv Music for a While – Baroque Melodies Deutsche Grammophon Terezín / Theresienstadt with Bengt Forsberg, Christian Gerhaher, Gerold Huber and others Deutsche Grammophon Watercolours – Swedish Songs with Bengt Forsberg Deutsche Grammophon Wings in the Night – Swedish Songs with Bengt Forsberg Deutsche Grammophon Bartók: Bluebeard's Castle conducted by Bernard Haitink EMI Berlioz: La Damnation de Faust conducted by Myung-whun Chung Deutsche Grammophon Bizet: Carmen conducted by Philippe Jordan BBC/Arte Gluck: Alceste conducted