The Royal Victorian Order is a dynastic order of knighthood established in 1896 by Queen Victoria. It recognises distinguished personal service to the monarch of the Commonwealth realms, members of the monarch's family, or to any viceroy or senior representative of the monarch; the present monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is the sovereign of the order, the order's motto is Victoria, its official day is 20 June. The order's chapel is the Savoy Chapel in London. There is no limit on the number of individuals honoured at any grade, admission remains at the sole discretion of the monarch, with each of the order's five grades and one medal with three levels representing different levels of service. While all those honoured may use the prescribed styles of the order—the top two grades grant titles of knighthood, all grades accord distinct post-nominal letters—the Royal Victorian Order's precedence amongst other honours differs from realm to realm and admission to some grades may be barred to citizens of those realms by government policy.
Prior to the close of the 19th century, most general honours within the British Empire were bestowed by the sovereign on the advice of her British ministers, who sometimes forwarded advice from ministers of the Crown in the Dominions and colonies. Queen Victoria thus established on 21 April 1896 the Royal Victorian Order as a junior and personal order of knighthood that allowed her to bestow directly to an empire-wide community honours for personal services; the organisation was founded a year preceding Victoria's Diamond Jubilee, so as to give the Queen time to complete a list of first inductees. The order's official day was made 20 June of each year, marking the anniversary of Queen Victoria's accession to the throne. In 1902, King Edward VII created the Royal Victorian Chain "as a personal decoration for royal personages and a few eminent British subjects" and it was the highest class of the Royal Victorian Order, it is today distinct from the order, though it is issued by the chancery of the Royal Victorian Order.
After 1931, when the Statute of Westminster came into being and the Dominions of the British Empire became independent states, equal in status to Britain, the Royal Victorian Order remained an honour open to all the King's realms. The order was open to foreigners from its inception, the Prefect of Alpes-Maritimes and the Mayor of Nice being the first to receive the honour in 1896; the reigning monarch is at the apex of the Royal Victorian Order as its Sovereign, followed by the Grand Master. Queen Elizabeth II appointed her daughter, Princess Royal, to the position in 2007. Below the Grand Master are five officials of the organisation: the Chancellor, held by the Lord Chamberlain. Thereafter follow those honoured with different grades of the order, divided into five levels: the highest two conferring accolades of knighthood and all having post-nominal letters and, the holders of the Royal Victorian Medal in either gold, silver or bronze. Foreigners may be admitted as honorary members, there are no limits to the number of any grade, promotion is possible.
The styles of knighthood are not used by princes, princesses, or peers in the uppermost ranks of the society, save for when their names are written in their fullest forms for the most official occasions. Retiring Deans of the Royal Peculiars of St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle and Westminster Abbey are customarily inducted as Knights Commander. Prior to 1984, the grades of Lieutenant and Member were classified as Members and Members but both with the post-nominals MVO. On 31 December of that year, Queen Elizabeth II declared that those in the grade of Member would henceforth be Lieutenants with the post-nominals LVO; the current officers of the Royal Victorian Order are as follows: Sovereign: Queen Elizabeth II, since 1952 Grand Master: Anne, Princess Royal, since 2007 Chancellor: William Peel, 3rd Earl Peel, as Lord Chamberlain, since 2006 Secretary: Sir Alan Reid, as Keeper of the Privy Purse, since 2002 Registrar: Lieutenant Colonel Stephen Segrave, as Secretary of the Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood Chaplain: Thomas Woodhouse, as Chaplain of the Queen's Chapel of the Savoy, since 2019 Upon admission into the Royal Victorian Order, members are given various insignia of the organisation, each grade being represented by different emblems and robes.
Common for all members is the badge, a Maltese cross with a central medallion depicting on a red background the Royal Cypher of Queen Victoria surrounded by a blue ring bearing the motto of the order—VICTORIA—and surmounted by a Tudor crown. However, there are variations on the badge for each grade of the order: Knights and Dames Grand Cross wear the badge on a sash passing from the right shoulder to the left hip.
Volume Up is the third extended play by the South Korean girl group 4Minute. It features a title track of the same name and was released on April 9, 2012. 4Minute scheduled their EP release for February 2012. Volume Up was released and revealed on April 9, 2012; the premiere of the music video for the title song took place on the same day. The group promoted the title track "Volume Up" on several music shows. Between April 12 and 15, 2012, they appeared onstage at music shows, including Mnet's M! Countdown, KBS's Music Bank, MBC's Show! Music Core and SBS's Inkigayo; the set from the music video for "Volume Up" cost $132,538, making it the ninth most expensive K-pop music video. This video features a gothic set reminiscent of a Dark-Age castle, it consists of several tightly-edited shots of the group, sometimes with dancers and sometimes with animals in the background, combined with shots of the ominous-looking interior architecture. This music video was released on April 9, 2012
Alien is an Armenian romantic melodrama television series. The series ended on Shant Premium on March 13, 2017, it premiered on Shant TV on September 18, 2017 and airs every workday at 8:00. Most of the series took place in Armenia. Gor and Arsen are close friends and they study in the same school; each of them has their own feelings that are not open for the closest friends. When Gor finds out about the love between Arsen and Neneth, everything changes cause he is in love with her. Along with that, Gor's father gets arrested for unknown reasons. From now on the boy will be burdened with the responsibility of taking care of the family. Confronted with difficulties early in life, Gor has a fateful choice to make: to become the reason of Neneth and Arsen's separation, or to free the way for his friend? The story woven around Gor's, Arsen's and Neneth's parents is a dark curtain hiding the most unexpected secrets; the film is a story unfolding around the love triangle of the three characters in which the heroes will have to fight for happiness, understanding that nothing is given without a fight.
Gayane Balyan Hovak Galoyan Ruzan Mesropyan Suren Tumasyan Nelli Kheranyan Sisian Sephanyan as Gor Marinka Khachatryan as Neneth Davit Aghajanyan as Arsen Davit Hakobyan Mariam Adamyan Murad Nadiryan Marianna Gevorgyan Robert Hakobyan Luiza Karapetyan as Maya Ani Petrosyan Armen Margaryan Official website Alien on IMDb
Angela Groothuizen is a Dutch singer and television personality. Groothuizen rose to fame as a member of the Dutch Dance/Pop girl group Dolly Dots, which achieved popularity inside and outside the Netherlands, scored hits between 1979 and 1988. After the split in 1988, Angelina Groothuizen teamed up with Ruud Mulder, former guitarist of disco/funk-contemporaries Spargo, to record as "Angela & the Rude". In 1998 the Dots reunited for a one-off concert. Love Me Just a Little Bit More played at The Chassé Theatre in Breda and around the Netherlands during 2004, closed in early 2005; as result of renewed interest in the group after the musical, Warner Bros. Records released a Dolly Dots Greatest Hits compilation of the group as well as a DVD. In May 2007, they sold out Rotterdam Ahoy three nights in a row, toured the country again in 2008. Meanwhile, Groothuizen had begun a television career starting with an adaptation of Challenge Anneka for AVRO, her contract was not renewed. Groothuizen has since moved to commercial television as a panel judge on talent show programs in Dutch X Factor since 2008.
From 2010 until 2012 she was one of the first judges on the Dutch version of The Voice, The Voice of Holland. She is active in musical theater; as Angela & the Rude 1990: Young Souls 1992: Walking on Water As J. A. M. 2001: Message in a BottleSolo1996: Groothuizen 2008: Melk en honing As Angela & the Rude 1990: "Pressure" 1991: "Young Souls" 1992: "Back to the Real World" Solo2010: "Bier en Bitterballen" As "The Voice of Holland"2011: "One Thousand Voices" Official website Angela Groothuizen on IMDb
Alimardan Alakbar oglu Topchubashov was a prominent Azerbaijani politician, foreign minister and speaker of the Parliament of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. There are varied assumptions about the birth date of Topchubashov, different authors and journals claim that he was born in 1865, 1862, 1859 and other similar dates. After all these resorts on archive data, it is known that he was born in 4 May in 1963 in Tiflis; the Topcubashovs family was from Ganca city, but they were living at Tbilisi, near the Char Palace. In 1868, he lost his father and his mother. Therefore, he was grown up by his grandmother. After studying at Tiflis Gymnasium, he entered Saint Petersburg University and graduated from the law faculty in 1888. While studying in Tiflis Gymnasium, Alimardan bey Topchubashov wrote some comic journals and spread them among students. During university years in Petersburg, he participated in Muslim students’ organizations, he was offered to remain at University and teach law if he would convert to Christianity, but he refused and returned to the Caucasus, where he worked at several small positions.
He married Pari Malikova, daughter of Hasan bey Zardabi, founder of the first Azerbaijani newspaper, Akinchi. In 1897 oil magnate Zeynalabdin Taghiyev bought Kaspi newspaper and invited Topchibashov to be its editor-in-chief. Starting from that time he was involved in politics and became one of the prominent leaders of Azerbaijani and Muslim people of Russian Empire, his main platform was the political equality of all subjects of Russian Crown and the end to discriminations of Turkic and Muslim people. At the brink of the First Russian Revolution Topchubashov was one of the initiators of famous meeting of Azerbaijani intelligentsia and bourgeoisie at Taghiyev's palace on 15 March 1905; as a result of this meeting a petition was addressed to Tsar asking for: Implementation of local self-governing and new type of courts in the entire Caucasus Granting of full political rights and freedoms to the Muslim subjects of the Crown Distribution of land to the peasants who lack it Improvement of fabric legislation to include Muslim workers too.
Under the occupation of Russian Empire, all Russian Muslims united in attempt to defend their interests and freedom. In this process, the first All-Russian Muslim congress was held although official permission couldn't be obtained on 28 August 1905; the focus was on establishing a Union to safeguard social rights of the Muslims. An excerpt from the speech of Alimardan bey Topchubashov reflects the atmosphere of the congress:‘We the Turkish sons have the same origin, same ancestry and same language. From the West to the East, it used to be our ancestors’ lands. In spite of the fact that our ancestors were such a heroic nation, today, in the mountains of Caucasia, in the gardens of the Crimea, in the steppes of Kazan, in the lands of our ancestors, in our homeland we did not have the freedom to speak our own needs. Thanks God.. We succeeded today’. At the same time Topchubashov was one of the founders of Ittifaq al-Muslimin and organized its three conferences, he became its bureau member and chief of its Law Commission.
He became the leader of Party's Muslim faction at the Russian State Duma, the new Russian parliament. But after the First Duma was dissolved by Tsar Topchubashov was arrested for three months, lost his right to be a parliament member, deprived of his place at Baku Municipality and “Kaspi” newspaper. During this time Iran invited him to head one of the departments of Iranian Ministry of Justice and reform its judiciary system, but Topchubashov rejected this offer and remained in Russian Empire to continue his struggle for emancipation of Muslim population. After the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was proclaimed on 28 May 1918, Topchubashov became its ambassador to Armenia and the Ottoman Empire, was sent to Istanbul, he was made minister of foreign affairs at the second cabinet and was elected the head of the Parliament in absentia on 7 December 1918, thus becoming second head of state of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, after Mammed Amin Rasulzade. Agreeing to head the Azerbaijani Delegation at Versailles Conference, he left Istanbul for Paris.
At the conference, he managed to meet US President Woodrow Wilson and achieved the de facto recognition of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in January 1920. But after the Bolshevik takeover of ADR he could not return and stayed in Paris, where he died on 8 November 1934, he is buried in the communal cemetery of Saint-Cloud, with his wife who died in 1947, two other people who bear his name. Topchubashov never gave up his job when he was in France, he published books and journals in an attempt to introduce and represent Azerbaijan to foreigners. Alimardan Topchubashov in Azerbaijan International
Drive Letter Access is a discontinued commercial packet writing application for the Microsoft Windows operating system that allows optical disc data storage devices to be used in a manner similar to floppy disks. DLA is a packet writing technology for DVD media that uses the UDF file system. DLA is not compatible with Windows Vista and newer, although a patch exists to fix this issue under Windows Vista. Roxio Burn was introduced on April 30, 2009; as a replacement for DLA, it remedies compatibility issues Internet Explorer 8. DLA was developed by VERITAS Software and sold to Sonic Solutions in 2002, it was common as it was shipped with a majority of CD and DVD recording drives, where DLA came as a custom OEM version for the branded drive. Most PC systems from Dell, HP, IBM, Sony and Toshiba came with DLA pre-installed. An OEM version was available for download for the specific computer system. With Windows Vista support for DLA was either dropped or it was replaced by a similar product, like Drag-to-Disc.
To use an optical medium such as a CD-R, CD-RW, DVD±R or DVD±RW just like a floppy drive it is necessary to utilize a technique called packet writing. After formatting the optical media it is possible to write data in small packets, hence the name “packet writing.” The optical drive unit has to support the ability to write in small units, which all modern CD and DVD recording drives do. This way it is possible to save files onto optical media, as well as change, rename or delete them, or copy files separately onto the media. Without packet writing, optical media like the above-mentioned would have to be written on in one big block, like Disc At Once, Session At Once and Track At Once, because these media types do not support sectors. After formatting with packet writing the medium is sectored in blocks that can be written to individually; the preferred file system is the Universal Disk Format in versions from 1.50 onward, used by DLA. Packet writing is not required for writing DVD-RAM. DVD-RAM media are sectored and the hardware logic of DVD-RAM capable drives supports sectored read/write operations as required by the DVD-RAM standard.
However, for Windows up to 2000, DLA will add support for DVD-RAM together with the UDF file system, for Windows XP DLA will only add the UDF support. DLA supports the Mount Rainier standard with MRW capable drives. For Windows up to XP DLA will provide this functionality as well as the UDF support. Windows XP is the first Windows operating system to support DVD-RAM. Windows Vista is the first Windows operating system to support full UDF functionality and Mount Rainier. DLA is available only for Microsoft Windows operating systems and only in the English language. Version 4.95 runs on Windows 98SE, Me, NT 4.0, 2000 and XP. Version 5.21 is the most recent version for Windows 98SE, Me, 2000 and XP. Note: Most OEM versions support only Windows 2000 and XP. A patch is required for Windows Vista compatibility, but it only works on the retail or trial version; the one exception is the Dell OEM version, but instead of patching DLA it will install Drag-to-Disc as a replacement. DLA is not compatible with Internet Explorer 8.
DLA can cause stop errors on the Windows Server 2003 operating system. DLA can lock up a Windows XP system. DLA may prevent ejection of media from an optical drive; when this occurs, a solution is to restart the operating system. DLA may prevent installation of a program distributed on a rewritable CD or DVD. A solution is to deactivate DLA as follows:Launch Windows Explorer or open its My Computer component. Select the RW drive. Right click on the drive. Click "Properties" Click the "Hardware" tab Deselect Use with DLADLA can block upgrade to Windows 7 on Vista systems where this is installed, can be difficult to uninstall. Techniques used by DLA: Mount Rainier Universal Disk FormatCompeting applications: Nero InCD Roxio Drag-to-Disc Official home page About DLA – An article about DLA from Argentum. Free DLA Software v 5.2 from HP Free DLA Software v 5.21 build 01C from Lenovo