Freedom of the City
The Freedom of the City is an honour bestowed by a municipality upon a valued member of the community, or upon a visiting celebrity or dignitary. Arising from the medieval practice of granting respected citizens freedom from serfdom, the tradition still lives on in countries such as the United Kingdom, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand – although today the title of "freeman" confers no special privileges; the Freedom of the City can be granted by municipal authorities to military units which have earned the city's trust. This allows them the freedom to parade through the city, is an affirmation of the bond between the regiment and the citizenry; the honour was sometimes accompanied by a "freedom box", a small gold box inscribed to record the occasion. In some countries, such as the United States, esteemed residents and visitors may instead be presented with the Key to the City, a symbolic honour. Other US cities award Honorary Citizenship, with just a certificate. Freedom of the City is an ancient honour granted to martial organisations, allowing them the privilege to march into the city "with drums beating, colours flying, bayonets fixed".
This honour dates back to ancient Rome which regarded the "pomerium", the boundary of the city, as sacred. Promagistrates and generals were forbidden from entering it, resigned their imperium upon crossing it. An exception was made for victory celebrations, during which the victorious general would be permitted to enter for one day only. Under the Republic, soldiers lost their status when entering, becoming citizens: thus soldiers at their general's triumph wore civilian dress. Weapons were banned inside the pomerium for religious and traditional reasons. Similar laws were passed by other European cities throughout the Medieval era, to protect public security and civic rights against their own king's troops; as a result, soldiers would be forced to camp outside the walls of the city during the winter months. The Freedom of the City was an honour granted only to troops which had earned the trust of the local populace, either through some valiant action or by being a familiar presence. Today, martial freedom of the city is an ceremonial honour bestowed upon a unit with historic ties to the area, as a token of appreciation for their long and dedicated service.
The awarding of the Freedom is accompanied by a celebratory parade through the city. A more common freedom of the city is connected to the medieval concept of "free status", when city and town charters drew a distinction between freemen and vassals of a feudal lord; as such, freemen pre-date'boroughs'. Early freedom of the boroughs ceremonies had great importance in affirming that the recipient enjoyed privileges such as the right to trade and own property, protection within the town. In modern society, the award of honorary freedom of the city or borough tends to be ceremonial, given by the local government in many towns and cities on those who have served in some exceptional capacity, or upon any whom the city wishes to bestow an honour. Before parliamentary reform in 1832, freedom of the city or town conferred the right to vote in the'parliamentary boroughs' for the MPs; until the Municipal Corporations Act 1835 the freemen were the exclusive electorate for some of the boroughs. These two acts together curtailed the power of the freemen and extended the franchise to all'householders'.
The private property belonging to the freemen collectively was retained. The freemen of York and Newcastle upon Tyne still own considerable areas within their towns, although the income is given to support charitable objects; the Local Government Act 1972 preserved freemen's rights. The Local Democracy, Economic Development and Construction Act 2009 removed any restrictions entitling only men to be freemen. Today, the grant of honorary freedom in the United Kingdom is governed by the Local Government Act 1972; the 1972 Act enabled the councils of cities, royal boroughs and parishes with the status of a royal town to confer the status of honorary freeman on "persons of distinction and persons who have, in the opinion of the council, rendered eminent services" to the local area. The 2009 Act extends the ability to grant the status of honorary freeman to any county, district, town, parish or community council. A special meeting of the council can grant the honour by passing a resolution with a two-thirds majority at a specially convened meeting.
The exact qualifications for borough freedom differ between each city or town, but fall into two categories,'patrimony' and'servitude'. For example, in Chester, only the children or grandchildren of freemen may apply for admission. In York, this extends to great- and great-great-grandchildren, apprenticeship to a freeman of the city will allow admission. In Great Grimsby, the widow of a freeman passes his rights to her second husband, who retains the privilege after either divorce from or death of the widow; the borough freedom is strongest in York, Newcastle upon Tyne and Coventry. Durham and Northampton have extended their admission criteria to those who have served an apprenticeship
Mike Jackson (British Army officer)
General Sir Michael David Jackson, is a retired British Army officer and one of its most high-profile generals since the Second World War. Commissioned into the Intelligence Corps in 1963, he transferred to the Parachute Regiment in 1970, with which he served two of his three tours of duty in Northern Ireland. On his first, he was present as an adjutant at the events of Bloody Sunday, when soldiers opened fire on protesters, killing 13 innocent people. On his second, he was a company commander in the aftermath of the Warrenpoint ambush, the British Army's heaviest single loss of life during the Troubles, he was assigned to a staff post at the Ministry of Defence in 1982 before assuming command of the 1st Battalion, Parachute Regiment, in 1984. Jackson was posted to Northern Ireland for the third time, as a brigade commander, in the early 1990s. In 1994, Jackson served his first tour in the Balkans, where he commanded a multi-national division of the Implementation Force. Following a staff job back in the UK, he was appointed commander of NATO's Allied Rapid Reaction Corps in 1997.
He returned to the Balkans with the ARRC during the Kosovo War, during which he famously refused to obey an order from American General Wesley Clark, his immediate superior in the NATO chain of command, to block the runways of Pristina Airport and isolate the Russian contingent, positioned there. He told Clark, "I'm not going to start the Third World War for you"; the incident attracted controversy in the United States, earned Jackson the nickname "Macho Jacko" in the British tabloid press. Jackson established a working relationship with the Russian general commanding the detachment at Pristina, giving him a bottle of whisky, of which Jackson is known to be fond, providing the Russians with the protection of a squad of British soldiers, commanded by his son, Mark. Upon his return to the UK, Jackson was promoted to full general and appointed Commander-in-Chief, Land Command, the second-most senior position in the British Army. After three years as Commander-in-Chief, Jackson was appointed Chief of the General Staff, the professional head of the British Army, in 2003.
He took up the post a month before the start of the Iraq War, amid disputes over the legality of the invasion and claims that the Army was under-equipped. However, he dismissed suggestions that the Army was at "breaking point"; the most controversial point of his tenure as CGS was the restructuring of the regiment system and amalgamation of many regiments into larger ones, leading to the loss of historic regiment names. He was succeeded as CGS by General Sir Richard Dannatt in 2006, retired from the Army after serving for 45 years. Jackson continues to speak on military matters and works as a consultant and guest lecturer, has published an autobiography, he has three children, from two marriages, four grandchildren. Jackson's father, served as a soldier in the Household Cavalry before being commissioned into the Royal Army Service Corps. On D-Day, George Jackson assumed command of a squadron of amphibious landing vehicles after his commanding officer was killed in action, he was awarded the Belgian Croix de Guerre and mentioned in despatches for his actions.
Mike was born at his mother's home in Sheffield, West Riding of Yorkshire, on 21 March 1944. After the Second World War, George Jackson was posted to Tripoli, where the family lived for two years, during which time Jackson's younger sister was born. After suffering a heart attack, George retired with the rank of major after 40 years in the Army. Jackson's mother, was a curator at a museum in Sheffield. Jackson was educated at various primary schools as the family moved with his father's postings before being sent to Stamford School, an independent boarding school in south Lincolnshire, where he became a house prefect, he joined the school's Combined Cadet Force along with John Drewienkiewicz, who became a major general. By the age of 15 Jackson had decided. Despite being advised by the headmaster at Stamford to consider university, Jackson applied to join the British Army in 1961, he was accepted, started at the Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst, in January 1962, graduating on 20 December 1963.
While at Sandhurst, he became interested in the Parachute Regiment, but applied to, was commissioned into, the Intelligence Corps as a second lieutenant at the age of 19. After his commissioning, Jackson took up an opportunity offered by the Intelligence Corps to undertake platoon commanders' training with a combat regiment, opted to do so with the Parachute Regiment. Before leaving Sandhurst, he had applied to take an "in-service degree"—a degree sponsored by the Army at a civilian university—and was accepted to read Russian studies at the University of Birmingham; the course required students to reside in the USSR for several months. Jackson returned to the army after graduation as a Bachelor of Social Sciences in Russian Language and Literature in 1967, his first promotion was to lieutenant on 20 June 1965, he served with the Parachute Regiment in Malaysia, Hong Kong and Anguilla—where he served as adjutant when his battalion relieved the force sent to restore order during the 1969 emergency—after which he was promoted to the rank of captain.
Following Anguilla, his tenure with the Parachute Regiment ended and he reluctantly returned to the Intelligence Corps. He became determined to rejoin the Parachute Regiment and, after a year, was allowed to transfer, retaining the rank of captain in 1970
Mechanized infantry are infantry units equipped with armored personnel carriers or infantry fighting vehicles for transport and combat. Mechanized infantry is distinguished from motorized infantry in that its vehicles provide a degree of protection from hostile fire, as opposed to "soft-skinned" wheeled vehicles for motorized infantry. Most APCs and IFVs are tracked or are all-wheel drive vehicles, for mobility across rough ground; some nations distinguish between mechanized and armored infantry, designating troops carried by APCs as mechanized and those in IFVs as armored. The support weapons for mechanized infantry are provided with motorized transport, or they are built directly into combat vehicles to keep pace with the mechanized infantry in combat. For units equipped with most types of APC or any type of IFV, fire support weapons, such as machine guns, small-bore direct-fire howitzers, anti-tank guided missiles are mounted directly on the infantry's own transport vehicles. Compared with "light" truck-mobile infantry, mechanized infantry can maintain rapid tactical movement and, if mounted in IFVs, have more integral firepower.
It requires more combat supplies and ordnance supplies, a comparatively larger proportion of manpower is required to crew and maintain the vehicles. For example, most APCs have a crew of two. Most IFVs require a crew of three. To be effective in the field, mechanized units require many mechanics, with specialized maintenance and recovery vehicles and equipment; some of the first mechanized infantry were assault teams mounted on A7V tanks. The vehicles were extra-large to let them carry sizeable assault teams and would carry infantry on board in addition to their large crews that were trained as storm troopers. All machine-gun-armed A7V tanks carried two small flame throwers for their dismounts to use. A7V tank would carry a second officer to lead the assault team. During the Battle of St. Quentin, A7Vs were accompanied by 20 storm troopers from Rohr Assault Battalion, but it is unspecified if they were acting as dismounts or were accompanying the tanks on foot. During the battle, tank crews were reported to have dismounted and attacked enemy positions with grenades and flamethrowers on numerous occasions.
Another example of the use of such a method of fighting is the capture of Villers-Bretonneux, in which A7Vs would suppress the defenders with machine gun fire and assault teams would dismount and attack them with grenades. Towards the end of World War I, all the armies involved were faced with the problem of maintaining the momentum of an attack. Tanks, artillery, or infiltration tactics could all be used to break through an enemy defense, but all offensives launched in 1918 ground to a halt after a few days; the following infantry became exhausted, artillery and fresh formations could not be brought forward over the battlefields enough to maintain the pressure on the regrouping enemy. It was acknowledged that cavalry was too vulnerable to be used on most European battlefields, but many armies continued to deploy them. Motorized infantry could maintain rapid movement, but their trucks required either a good road network or firm open terrain, such as desert, they were unable to traverse a battlefield obstructed by craters, barbed wire, trenches.
Tracked or all-wheel drive vehicles were to be the solution. Following the war, development of mechanized forces was theoretical for some time, but many nations began rearming in the 1930s; the British Army had established an Experimental Mechanized Force in 1927, but it failed to pursue that line because of budget constraints and the prior need to garrison the frontiers of the British Empire. Although some proponents of mobile warfare, such as J. F. C. Fuller, advocated building "tank fleets", such as Heinz Guderian in Germany, Adna R. Chaffee Jr. in the United States, Mikhail Tukhachevsky in the Soviet Union, recognized that tank units required close support from infantry and other arms and that such supporting arms needed to maintain the same pace as the tanks. As the Germans rearmed in the 1930s, they equipped some infantry units in their new Panzer divisions with the half-track Sd. Kfz. 251, which could keep up with tanks on most terrain. The French Army created "light mechanized" divisions in which some of the infantry units possessed small tracked carriers.
Together with the motorization of the other infantry and support units, this gave both armies mobile combined-arms formations. The German doctrine was to use them to exploit breakthroughs in Blitzkrieg offensives, whereas the French envisaged them being used to shift reserves in a defensive battle; as World War II progressed, most major armies integrated tanks or assault guns with mechanized infantry, as well as other supporting arms, such as artillery and engineers, as combined arms units. Allied armored formations included a mechanized infantry element for combined arms teamwork. For example, US armored divisions had a balance of three battalions each of tanks, armored infantry, self-propelled artillery; the US armored infantry was equipped with M2 and M3 halftracks. In the British and Commonwealth armies, "Type A armoured brigades," intended for independent operations or to form part of armored divisions, had a "motor infantry" battalion mounted in Bren Carriers or in lend-lease halftracks.
"Type B" brigades were subordinated to infantry formations. The Canadian Army and, subsequently the British Army, used expedients
Iraq the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west. The capital, largest city, is Baghdad. Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs, Assyrians, Shabakis, Armenians, Mandeans and Kawliya. Around 95% of the country's 37 million citizens are Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan and Mandeanism present; the official languages of Iraq are Kurdish. Iraq has a coastline measuring 58 km on the northern Persian Gulf and encompasses the Mesopotamian Alluvial Plain, the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range and the eastern part of the Syrian Desert. Two major rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, run south through Iraq and into the Shatt al-Arab near the Persian Gulf; these rivers provide Iraq with significant amounts of fertile land. The region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers known as Mesopotamia, is referred to as the cradle of civilisation.
It was here that mankind first began to read, create laws and live in cities under an organised government—notably Uruk, from which "Iraq" is derived. The area has been home to successive civilisations since the 6th millennium BC. Iraq was the centre of the Akkadian, Sumerian and Babylonian empires, it was part of the Median, Hellenistic, Sassanid, Rashidun, Abbasid, Mongol, Safavid and Ottoman empires. The country today known as Iraq was a region of the Ottoman Empire until the partition of the Ottoman Empire in the 20th century, it was made up of three provinces, called vilayets in the Ottoman language: Mosul Vilayet, Baghdad Vilayet, Basra Vilayet. In April 1920 the British Mandate of Mesopotamia was created under the authority of the League of Nations. A British-backed monarchy joining these vilayets into one Kingdom was established in 1921 under Faisal I of Iraq; the Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from the UK in 1932. In 1958, the monarchy was overthrown and the Iraqi Republic created.
Iraq was controlled by the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party from 1968 until 2003. After an invasion by the United States and its allies in 2003, Saddam Hussein's Ba'ath Party was removed from power, multi-party parliamentary elections were held in 2005; the US presence in Iraq ended in 2011, but the Iraqi insurgency continued and intensified as fighters from the Syrian Civil War spilled into the country. Out of the insurgency came a destructive group calling itself ISIL, which took large parts of the north and west, it has since been defeated. Disputes over the sovereignty of Iraqi Kurdistan continue. A referendum about the full sovereignty of Iraqi Kurdistan was held on 25 September 2017. On 9 December 2017, then-Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi declared victory over ISIL after the group lost its territory in Iraq. Iraq is a federal parliamentary republic consisting of one autonomous region; the country's official religion is Islam. Culturally, Iraq has a rich heritage and celebrates the achievements of its past in both pre-Islamic as well as post-Islamic times and is known for its poets.
Its painters and sculptors are among the best in the Arab world, some of them being world-class as well as producing fine handicrafts, including rugs and carpets. Iraq is a founding member of the UN as well as of the Arab League, OIC, Non-Aligned Movement and the IMF; the Arabic name العراق al-ʿIrāq has been in use since before the 6th century. There are several suggested origins for the name. One dates to the Sumerian city of Uruk and is thus of Sumerian origin, as Uruk was the Akkadian name for the Sumerian city of Urug, containing the Sumerian word for "city", UR. An Arabic folk etymology for the name is "well-watered. During the medieval period, there was a region called ʿIrāq ʿArabī for Lower Mesopotamia and ʿIrāq ʿAjamī, for the region now situated in Central and Western Iran; the term included the plain south of the Hamrin Mountains and did not include the northernmost and westernmost parts of the modern territory of Iraq. Prior to the middle of the 19th century, the term Eyraca Arabic was used to describe Iraq.
The term Sawad was used in early Islamic times for the region of the alluvial plain of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, contrasting it with the arid Arabian desert. As an Arabic word, عراق means "hem", "shore", "bank", or "edge", so that the name by folk etymology came to be interpreted as "the escarpment", viz. at the south and east of the Jazira Plateau, which forms the northern and western edge of the "al-Iraq arabi" area. The Arabic pronunciation is. In English, it is either or, the American Heritage Dictionary, the Random House Dictionary; the pronunciation is heard in US media. In accordance with the 2005 Constitution, the official name of the state is the "Republic of Iraq". Between 65,000 BC and 35,000 BC northern Iraq was home to a Neanderthal culture, archaeological remains of which have been discovered at Shanidar Cave This same region is the location of a number of pre-Neolithic cemeteries, dating from 11,000 BC. Since 10,000 BC, Iraq was one of centres of a Caucasoid Neolithic culture (k
A brass band is a musical ensemble consisting of brass instruments, most with a percussion section. Ensembles that include brass and woodwind instruments can in certain traditions be termed brass bands, but may more termed military bands, concert bands, or "brass and reed" bands. Balkan-style Brass Bands play a distinctive style of music originating in 19th century Balkans when Roma trumpeters influenced by Turkish marching bands transposed folk music into brass, it is popular throughout the Balkans Serbia, Macedonia, Romania and Northern Greece. The beats are fast and accompanied by kolo; the performers each are called trubači. The best known examples of acclaimed music in this style are from Goran Bregović and Boban Marković Orkestar; the Serbian film maker Emir Kusturica has, through his films, made the style popular in the international community outside the Balkans. A brass band in the British tradition with a full complement of 28 players consists of: 1 Soprano cornet in E♭ 9 Cornets in B♭ 1 Flugel horn in B♭ 3 Tenor horns in E♭ 2 Baritone horns in B♭ 2 Tenor trombones 1 Bass trombone 2 Euphoniums in B♭ 4 Tubas 2 or 3 percussion players With the exception of the Trombones and Baritones, all of the brass are conical-bore instruments, which gives the British-style brass band its distinctive bright, mellow sound.
All parts apart from percussion are now written in Treble Clef. Note that despite its musical range, the alto horn in E♭ is traditionally called the tenor horn in British bands. Brass bands have a long tradition of competition between bands based around local industry and communities. In the 1930s brass bands thrived most with around 20,000 brass bands in the U. K. British-style brass bands are widespread throughout Great Britain and Northern Ireland, New Zealand and continental Europe and are found in North America. Annual competitions are held in these countries to select champion bands at various levels of musical competence; the Salvation Army, part of the Christian church, has deployed brass bands since 1878 and they continue to be an integral part of that organisation. The most well-known Salvation Army brass band is The International Staff Band, based in London. Salvation Army bands vary in size and complement as they are based on the local personnel available, some being as small as 6-8 members.
The cornet section of a Salvation Army band does not include a'Repiano' and instead of 2nd & 3rd cornets there are 1st & 2nd cornets. A Salvation Army band may have 2-4 baritones and 2-6 tenor trombones. Salvation Army bands have a local tradition of training children in brass playing from an early age. In larger Salvation Army churches there will be a Junior Band for children as well as a Senior Band for adults. Fanfare orchestras are a type of brass band found in Belgium and the Netherlands, while several ensembles exist in Germany and Luxembourg. Unlike British bands, they sport saxophones. There are fanfares affiliated to the military and civil fanfare orchestras which are an important element of cultural tradition in some areas. In the second part of the 20th century, many British-style brass bands have been founded in the Low Countries as well as part of a musical association including a fanfare orchestra or a concert band; the tradition of brass bands in New Orleans, Louisiana dates to the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Traditionally, New Orleans brass bands could feature various instrumentations including trumpets, clarinets, saxophones and percussion. The music played by these groups was a fusion between European-styled military band music and African folk music brought to the Americas by West African slaves and the idiom played a significant role in the development of traditional jazz. Early brass bands include the Eureka Brass Band, the Onward Brass Band, the Excelsior Brass Band, the Tuxedo Brass Band, the Young Tuxedo Brass Band, the Camelia Brass Band, the Olympia Brass Band; the Treme Brass Band, while not as old, has members who have been influential throughout New Orleans Brass Band music, as well as being renowned in its own right. A well-known use of these bands is for second line parades. In the 1970s and 1980s, the New Orleans brass band tradition experienced a renaissance, with bands breaking away from traditional stylings and adding elements of funk, hip hop, bop to their repertoires; some notable exponents of this style of brass band include the band Def Generation, members of the next generation of Nevilles who created hip hop over live brass bands influencing, Soul Rebels Brass Band, Rebirth Brass Band, the Stooges Brass Band, the Hot 8 Brass Band, the Lil Rascals Brass Band, Youngblood Brass Band, The Original Pinettes Brass Band and the Dirty Dozen Brass Band.
A number of groups outside the United Stat
Bridgend County Borough
Bridgend is a county borough in southern Wales, UK. The county borough has a total population of 139,200 people, contains the town of Bridgend, after which it is named, its members of the National Assembly for Wales are Carwyn Jones AM, the former First Minister of Wales and Huw Irranca-Davies AM representing the Ogmore Constituency, its Members of Parliament are Madeleine Moon and Chris Elmore. The county borough lies at the geographical heart of south Wales, its land area of 285 square kilometres stretches 20 km from east to west and occupies the Llynfi and Ogmore valleys. The largest town is Bridgend, followed by seaside resort of Porthcawl, it is situated on the Ogmore River and its tributaries, although the Ewenny and Ogwr Fach rivers form the border with the Vale of Glamorgan for much of their length. It was formed on 1 April 1996 under the Local Government Act 1994, it includes all of the former Ogwr borough apart from the communities of Wick, St Bride's Major and Ewenny, which went to Vale of Glamorgan.
Bridgend County Borough was divided into 20 communities: Brackla, Cefn Cribwr, Coity Higher, Coychurch Higher, Coychurch Lower, Garw Valley, Llangynwyd Lower, Llangynwyd Middle, Merthyr Mawr, Newcastle Higher, Ogmore Valley, Porthcawl, Pyle, St Bride's Minor and Ynysawdre. The communities of Brackla and Coychurch Lower make up the town of Bridgend; the region is governed by a Principal council. It is in the control of the Labour party with 39 seats out of 54. Bryngarw Country Park is the largest country park in the borough, it offers many amenity based areas including an adventure play area and picnic areas, car park, visitor centre and toilets. Bryngarw Country Park is a Grade II listed Historic Park and Garden and has been designated a'Green Flag' Park since 2010; the Oriental Garden in the park has been noted as a'Visit Wales Sustainable Tourism, Historic Gardens Centre of Excellence’ by the'One Historic Garden, Centre of Excellence'. Kenfig National Nature Reserve with Glamorgan’s largest natural lake, Kenfig Pool, is set on the edge of this area, with views from Sker beach across Swansea Bay to Gower.
It is one of the finest wildlife habitats in Wales, one of the last remnants of a huge dune system that once stretched along the coast from the River Ogmore to the Gower peninsula. The reserve is home to unique wild orchids, as well as wildlife. Kenfig is one of the most important sites in Britain for nature conservation. Parc Slip Nature Reserve is an environment of wetlands and meadows at the Parc Slip Nature Park where there is a wealth of wildlife. After a century of coal mining on the site, the Wildlife Trust began to manage the land for nature in the late 1980s. Varied habitats have since been created and the park supports an increasing diversity of wildlife. Category:People from Bridgend List of places in Bridgend County Borough List of Scheduled Monuments in Bridgend List of community and voluntary groups in Bridgend County Bridgend County Borough at Curlie Bridgend County Borough Council Bridgend Association of Voluntary Organisations
Bangor is a city and community in Gwynedd, northwest Wales. It is the oldest city in Wales, one of the smallest cities in the United Kingdom. In Caernarfonshire, it is a university city with a population of 18,808 at the 2011 census, including around 10,500 students at Bangor University, it is one of only six places classed as a city in Wales, although it is only the 25th-largest urban area by population. At the 2001 census, 46.6% of the non-student resident population spoke Welsh. The origins of the city date back to the founding of a monastic establishment on the site of Bangor Cathedral by the Celtic saint Deiniol in the early 6th century AD. Bangor itself is an old Welsh word for a wattled enclosure, such as the one that surrounded the cathedral site; the present cathedral is a somewhat more recent building and has been extensively modified throughout the centuries. While the building itself is not the oldest, not the biggest, the bishopric of Bangor is one of the oldest in the UK. Another claim to fame is that Bangor has the longest High Street in Wales and the United Kingdom.
Friars School was founded as a free grammar school in 1557, the University College of North Wales was founded in 1884. In 1877, the former HMS Clio became a school ship, moored on the Menai Strait at Bangor, had 260 pupils. Closed after the end of hostilities of World War I, she was sold for scrap and broken up in 1919. During World War II, parts of the BBC evacuated to Bangor during the worst of the Blitz. In June 2012 Bangor was the first city in the UK to impose a city centre wide night time curfew on under-16s; the six-month trial was brought in by Gwynedd Council and North Wales police, but opposed by civil rights groups. Bangor has been unique outside of England in using the title of'city' by ancient prescriptive right, due to its long-standing cathedral. However, city status was conferred on it by the Queen in 1974. By means of various measures, it is one of the smallest cities in the UK. Using 2011 statistics, comparing Bangor to: Population of city council areas in Wales, is third with St Davids and St Asaph City council area size within Wales, is the second smallest city behind St Asaph Urban areas within Wales, is third placed behind St Davids and St Asaph City council area size within the UK, is fourth after the City of London, Wells and St Asaph Urban areas within the UK, is fifth placed Population of city council areas within the UK, is sixth.
Bangor lies on the coast of North Wales near the Menai Strait which separates the island of Anglesey from Gwynedd unitary authority, the town of Menai Bridge lying just over the strait. The combined population of the two amounts to 22,184 people as of the 2011 census. Bangor Mountain lies to the east of the main part of the city, but the large housing estate of Maesgeirchen built as council housing, is to the east of the mountain near Port Penrhyn. Bangor Mountain casts a shadow across the High Street, Glan Adda and Hirael areas, so that from November to March some parts of the High Street in particular receive no direct sunlight. Another ridge rises to the north of the High Street, dividing the city centre from the south shore of the Menai Strait. Bangor has two rivers within its boundaries; the River Adda is a culverted watercourse which only appears above ground at its western extremities near the Faenol estate, whilst the River Cegin enters Port Penrhyn at the eastern edge of the city. Port Penrhyn was an important port in the 19th century, exporting the slates produced at the Penrhyn Quarry.
Bangor railway station is located on the North Wales Coast Line from Chester to Holyhead. The A55 runs to the south of Bangor, providing a route to Holyhead and Chester; the nearest airport with international flights is 83 miles by road. Bangor lies at the western end of the North Wales Path, a 60 miles long-distance coastal walking route to Prestatyn. Bangor is on routes NCR 8 and NCR 85 of the National Cycle Network. Classical music is performed in Bangor, with concerts given in the Powis and Prichard-Jones Halls as part of the university's Music at Bangor concert series; the city is home to Storiel. A new arts centre complex, the replacement for Theatr Gwynedd, was scheduled for completion in the summer of 2014, but the opening was delayed until November 2015. Bangor hosted the National Eisteddfod in 1890, 1902, 1915, 1931, 1940, 1943, 1971 and 2005, as well as an unofficial National Eisteddfod event in 1874. Garth Pier is the second longest pier in Wales, the ninth longest in the British Isles, at 1,500 feet in length.
It was opened in 1893 and was a promenade pier, for the amusement of holiday-makers who could stroll among the pinnacle-roofed kiosks. In 1914 it was struck by a vessel; the damaged section was repaired temporarily by the Royal Engineers, but when in 1922, a permanent repair was contemplated, it was found that the damage was more severe than had been thought. The repairs were made at considerable cost and the pier remained open until 1974 when it was nearly condemned as being in poor condition, it was sold for a nominal price to Arfon Borough Council who proposed to demolish it, but the County Council, encouraged by local support, ensured that it survived by obtaining Grade II Listed building status for it. When it was listed that year, the British Listed Buildings inspector considered it to be "the best in Britain of t