Forfar is the county town of Angus and the administrative centre for Angus Council. It has a population of 14,048. Forfar dates back to the temporary Roman occupation of the area, was subsequently held by the Picts and the Kingdom of Scotland, it was occupied by the English before being recaptured by the Scots and presented to Robert the Bruce during the Scottish Wars of Independence. Forfar has been both a major manufacturing centre for linen and jute. Today the main activities are tourism around scenic Strathmore; the local glens are visited by hill-walkers, there are ski-slopes in the mountains. The town has a League One football club, Forfar Athletic and a National League rugby team, the Strathmore Silverbacks; the Forfar bridie, a Scottish meat pastry snack, is traditionally identified with the town. During one of the Roman invasions of modern-day Scotland, the Romans established a major camp at Battledykes 3 miles north of Forfar. From Battledykes northward the Romans established a succession of camps including Stracathro and Normandykes.
During the Middle Ages, a "claimant" to the throne, the daughter of the leader of the Meic Uilleim, who were descendants of King Duncan II, had her brains dashed out on Forfar market cross in 1230 while still an infant. During the First War of Scottish Independence, the castle of Forfar was held by the English. After Robert the Bruce's victory over the Earl of Buchan, the Forester of Platane, together with some of his friends raised ladders against the wall and, climbing over, surprised the garrison and slew them, he yielded the castle to Bruce, who rewarded him and gave instructions for its demolition. The Meffan Museum is in the heart of the town, it was built by a daughter of the Provost Meffan as a bequest in 1898. It is home of the Forfar story, it is an art gallery and a meeting place for local speakers, summer clubs for children and groups. The story of Forfar takes you from the history of the little cobbler shops to the burning of the witch Helen Guthrie. There is a good selection of Pictish stones found in and around Forfar and Kirriemuir.
The Large Class I Pictish stone, with a rare carving of a flower, is called the Dunnichen Stone. It was found in the early 19th century, it was displayed at a church in the vicinity at Dunnichen House. In 1966 it was relocated at St Vigeans and moved to Dundee museum in 1972. After the Meffan Institute had been renovated it was brought to Forfar on a long term loan where it is displayed alongside the Kirriemuir Sculptured Stones. There is a canoe, excavated from Forfar Loch, that dates back to the 11th century. Like other parts of Angus, Forfar was home to a successful textile industry during and after the Industrial Revolution. In the late 18th century the firm of William Don & Co. was founded in the town. The firm bought and sold webs of linen which were woven in local cottages, although it operated a small weaving shed. In 1865 the firm merged with A J Buist, a Dundee based firm, began construction of St James Works in Forfar; the partnership operated mills in Dundee and built Station Works in Forfar, which contained some 300 looms.
Workers housing was built by the firm in Forfar. Don Brothers, Buist & Company Ltd, as the firm was known from 1904, built another works in Forfar, at Strang Street, in 1929. In 1960 it merged with another Dundee firm, Low Brothers & Co Ltd becoming Don & Low Ltd. By the 1980s the Don & Low group was the United Kingdom's biggest polypropylene textile extrusion and weaving unit; the firm retains premises in Forfar producing woven and non-woven polypropylene industrial textile products and plastic food packaging. In 1958 Don Brothers, Buist & Co Ltd acquired a controlling interest in another Forfar based-textile firm, Moffat & Son Ltd, who operated Haugh Works in South Street. Another important Forfar textile firm was J & A Craik & Company and Jute Manufacturers, based at the Manor Works. Craiks was started in 1863 when James Craik obtained land in Forfar to build the Manor Works and the company survived until 1981, the year in which it became part of the Low and Bonar group. Craiks owned Forfar Fabrics Ltd, incorporated in 1965, which amalgamated with Low & Bonar Textiles Limited in 1981.
The jute manufacturers, John Lowson, Jnr & Co Ltd operated in Forfar, operating out of Victoria Works. In 1911 more than 20% of workers in Forfar were employed in the jute industry. Employment levels in this industry dramatically declined in other parts of Angus, including Dundee, during the next four decades. Notably in Dundee, the centre of the British jute industry, more than 40.4% of the working population had worked in the jute industry in 1911, but by 1951 this had fallen to just 18.5%. In Forfar, however this trend was not followed as percentage of the workforce employed in the jute industry had risen to 24.4% by 1951. In the town there is a metal plaque to General Sikorski and the Polish troops commemorating the visit of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth to the town on 7 March 1941; the metal plaque is located on a wall on Market Street below the Sheriff Court building. It was here on 7 March 1941 that the Royal couple, along with General Sikorski, took the salute in the march past of the Polish troops.
Forfar is a parish and former royal burgh. It is the county town of Angus, known as Forfarshire from the 18th century until 1929; the town is rep
Parliament of Scotland
The Parliament of Scotland was the legislature of the Kingdom of Scotland. The parliament, like other such institutions, evolved during the Middle Ages from the king's council of bishops and earls, it is first identifiable as a parliament in 1235, during the reign of Alexander II, when it was described as a "colloquium" and possessed a political and judicial role. By the early fourteenth century, the attendance of knights and freeholders had become important, from 1326 commissioners from the burghs attended. Consisting of the "three estates" of clergy and the burghs sitting in a single chamber, the parliament gave consent for the raising of taxation and played an important role in the administration of justice, foreign policy and all manner of other legislation. Parliamentary business was carried out by "sister" institutions, such as General Councils or Convention of Estates; these could carry out much business dealt with by parliament – taxation and policy-making – but lacked the ultimate authority of a full parliament.
The Parliament of Scotland met for more than four centuries, until it was prorogued sine die at the time of the Acts of Union in 1707. Thereafter the Parliament of Great Britain operated for both England and Scotland, thus creating the Kingdom of Great Britain; when the Parliament of Ireland was abolished in 1801, its former members were merged into what was now called the Parliament of the United Kingdom. From January 1801 until 1927, the British state was called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; the pre-Union parliament was long portrayed as a constitutionally defective body that acted as a rubber stamp for royal decisions, but research during the early 21st century has found that it played an active role in Scottish affairs, was sometimes a thorn in the side of the Scottish Crown. The members were collectively referred to as the Three Estates, or "community of the realm", composed of until 1690: the first estate of prelates the second estate of the nobility the third estate of Burgh Commissioners The bishops and abbots of the First Estate were the thirteen medieval bishops of Aberdeen, Brechin, Dunblane, Galloway, Isles, Orkney, Ross and St Andrews and the mitred abbots of Arbroath, Coupar Angus, Holyrood, Kelso, Kinloss, Paisley, Scone, St Andrews Priory and Sweetheart.
The bishops themselves were removed from the Church of Scotland during the Glorious Revolution and the accession of William of Orange. The Second Estate was split into two to retain the division into three. From the 16th century, the second estate was reorganised by the selection of Shire Commissioners: this has been argued to have created a fourth estate. During the 17th century, after the Union of the Crowns, a fifth estate of royal office holders has been identified; these latter identifications remain controversial among parliamentary historians. Regardless, the term used for the assembled members continued to be "the Three Estates". A Shire Commissioner was the closest equivalent of the English office of Member of Parliament, namely a commoner or member of the lower nobility; because the parliament of Scotland was unicameral, all members sat in the same chamber, as opposed to the separate English House of Lords and House of Commons. The Scottish parliament evolved during the Middle Ages from the King's Council.
It is first identifiable as a parliament in 1235, described as a "colloquium" and with a political and judicial role. In 1296 we have the first mention of burgh representatives taking part in decision making. By the early 14th century, the attendance of knights and freeholders had become important, Robert the Bruce began calling burgh commissioners to his Parliament. Consisting of The Three Estates – of clerics, lay tenants-in-chief and burgh commissioners – sitting in a single chamber, the Scottish parliament acquired significant powers over particular issues. Most it was needed for consent for taxation, but it had a strong influence over justice, foreign policy and all manner of other legislation, whether political, social or economic. Parliamentary business was carried out by "sister" institutions, before c. 1500 by General Council and thereafter by the Convention of Estates. These could carry out much business dealt with by Parliament – taxation and policy-making – but lacked the ultimate authority of a full parliament.
The Scottish parliament met in a number of different locations throughout its history. In addition to Edinburgh, meetings were held in Perth, Stirling, St Andrews, Linlithgow, Glasgow, Aberdeen and Berwick-upon-Tweed. From the early 1450s until 1690, a great deal of the legislative business of the Scottish Parliament was carried out by a parliamentary committee known as the "Lords of the Articles"; this was a committee chosen by the three estates to draft legislation, presented to the full assembly to be confirmed. In the past, historians have been critical of this body, claiming that it came to be dominated by royal nominees, thus undermining the power of the full assembly. Recent research suggests. Indeed, in March 1482, the
A burgh was an autonomous municipal corporation in Scotland and Northern England a town, or toun in Scots. This type of administrative division existed from the 12th century, when King David I created the first royal burghs. Burgh status was broadly analogous to borough status, found in the rest of the United Kingdom. Following local government reorganization in 1975 the title of "royal burgh" remains in use in many towns, but now has little more than ceremonial value; the first burgh was Berwick. By 1130, David I had established other burghs including Edinburgh, Dunfermline, Perth, Jedburgh and Lanark. Most of the burghs granted charters in his reign already existed as settlements. Charters were copied verbatim from those used in England, early burgesses invited English and Flemish settlers, they were able to impose fines on traders within a region outside their settlements. Most of the early burghs were on the east coast, among them were the largest and wealthiest, including Aberdeen, Berwick and Edinburgh, whose growth was facilitated by trade with other North Sea ports on the continent, in particular in the Low Countries, as well as ports on the Baltic Sea.
In the south-west, Glasgow and Kirkcudbright were aided by the less profitable sea trade with Ireland and to a lesser extent France and Spain. Burghs were settlements under the protection of a castle and had a market place, with a widened high street or junction, marked by a mercat cross, beside houses for the burgesses and other inhabitants; the founding of 16 royal burghs can be traced to the reign of David I and there is evidence of 55 burghs by 1296. In addition to the major royal burghs, the late Middle Ages saw the proliferation of baronial and ecclesiastical burghs, with 51 created between 1450 and 1516. Most of these were much smaller than their royal counterparts. Excluded from foreign trade, they acted as local markets and centres of craftsmanship. Burghs were centres of basic crafts, including the manufacture of shoes, dishes, joinery and ale, which would be sold to "indwellers" and "outdwellers" on market days. In general, burghs carried out far more local trading with their hinterlands, on which they relied for food and raw materials, than trading nationally or abroad.
Burghs had rights to representation in the Parliament of Scotland. Under the Acts of Union of 1707 many became parliamentary burghs, represented in the Parliament of Great Britain. Under the Reform Acts of 1832, 32 years after the merger of the Parliament of Great Britain into the Parliament of the United Kingdom, the boundaries of burghs for parliamentary elections ceased to be their boundaries for other purposes. There were several types of burgh, including. Burgh of regality, granted to a nobleman or "lord of regality". Burgh of barony, granted to a tenant-in-chief, with narrower powers. Parliamentary burgh or Burgh constituency, a type of parliamentary constituency. Police burgh; until 1833, each burgh had a different constitution or "sett". The government of the burgh was in the hands of a self-nominating corporation, few local government functions were performed: these were left to ad hoc bodies. Two pieces of reforming legislation were enacted in 1834: The Royal Burghs Act and the Burghs and Police Act.
The Royal Burghs Act provided for the election of councillors. Each burgh was to have a common council consisting of a provost and councillors; every parliamentary elector living within the "royalty" or area of the royal burgh, or within seven statute miles of its boundary, was entitled to vote in burgh elections. One third of the common council was elected each year; the councillors selected a number of their members to be bailies, who acted as a magistrates bench for the burgh and dealt with such issues as licensing. The provost, or chief magistrate, was elected from among the council every three years; the Royal Burghs Act was extended to the 12 parliamentary burghs, enfranchised. These were growing industrial centres, apart from the lack of a charter, they had identical powers and privileges to the royal burghs. Royal Burghs retained the right to corporate property or "common good"; this property was used for the advantage of the inhabitants of the burgh, funding such facilities as public parks and civic events.
The Burghs and Police Act allowed the inhabitants of Royal Burghs, Burghs of Regality and of Barony to adopt a "police system". "Police" in this sense did not refer to law enforcement, but to various local government activities summarised in the Act as "paving, cleansing, supplying with water, improving such Burghs as may be necessary and expedient". The Act could be adopted following its approval in a poll of householders in the burgh. Burghs reformed or created under this and legislation became known as police burghs; the governing body of a police burgh were the police commissioners. The commissioners were elected by the existing town council of the burgh, not by the electorate at large; the town council of a burgh could by a three-quarters majority become police commissioners for the burgh. In many cases this led to the existence of two parallel burgh administrations, the town council and the police commissioners, each with the same membership, but separate legal identity and powers. Further legislation in 1850 allowed "populous places" other than existing burghs to become police burghs.
In 1893, most of the anomalies in th
St Andrews is a town on the east coast of Fife in Scotland, 10 miles southeast of Dundee and 30 miles northeast of Edinburgh. St Andrews has a recorded population of 16,800 in 2011, making it Fife's fourth largest settlement and 45th most populous settlement in Scotland; the town is home to the University of St Andrews, the third oldest university in the English-speaking world and the oldest in Scotland. According to some rankings, it is ranked as the third best university in the United Kingdom, behind Oxbridge; the University is an integral part of the burgh and during term time students make up one third of the town's population. The town is named after Saint Andrew the Apostle. There has been an important church in St Andrews since at least the 747 AD when it was mentioned in the Annals of Tigernach, a bishopric since at least the 11th century; the settlement grew to the west of St Andrews cathedral with the southern side of the Scores to the north and the Kinness burn to the south. The burgh soon became the ecclesiastical capital of Scotland, a position, held until the Scottish Reformation.
The famous cathedral, the largest in Scotland, now lies in ruins. St Andrews is known worldwide as the "home of golf"; this is in part because The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews, founded in 1754, which until 2004 exercised legislative authority over the game worldwide. It is because the famous St Andrews Links are the most frequent venue for The Open Championship, the oldest of golf's four major championships. Visitors travel to St Andrews in great numbers for several courses ranked amongst the finest in the world, as well as for the sandy beaches; the Martyrs Memorial, erected to the honour of Patrick Hamilton, George Wishart, other martyrs of the Reformation epoch, stands at the west end of the Scores on a cliff overlooking the sea. The civil parish has a population of 18,421; the town contains numerous museums, a botanic garden and an aquarium. The earliest recorded name of the area is Cennrígmonaid; this is Old Gaelic and composed of the elements ríg and monaid. This was Scoticised to Kilrymont.
The modern Gaelic spelling is Cill Rìmhinn. The name St Andrews derives from the town's claim to be the resting place of bones of the apostle Andrew. According to legend, St Regulus brought the relics to Kilrymont, where a shrine was established for their safekeeping and veneration while Kilrymont was renamed in honour of the saint; this is the origin of a third name for the town Kilrule. The first inhabitants who settled on the estuary fringes of the rivers Tay and Eden during the mesolithic came from the plains in Northern Europe between 10,000 and 5,000 BCE; this was followed by the nomadic people who settled around the modern town around 4,500 BCE as farmers clearing the area of woodland and building monuments. In the mid-eighth century a monastery was established by the Pictish king Oengus I, traditionally associated with the relics of Saint Andrew, a number of bones supposed to be the saints's arm, three fingers and a tooth believed to have been brought to the town by St Regulus. In AD 877, king Causantín mac Cináeda built a new church for the Culdees at St Andrews and the same year was captured and executed after defending against Viking raiders.
In AD 906, the town became the seat of the bishop of Alba, with the boundaries of the see being extended to include land between the River Forth and River Tweed. In 940 Constantine III took the position of abbot of the monastery of St Andrews; the establishment of the present town began around 1140 by Bishop Robert on an L-shaped vill on the site of the ruined St Andrews Castle. According to a charter of 1170, the new burgh was built to the west of the Cathedral precinct, along Castle Street and as far as what is now known as North Street; this means that the lay-out may have led to the creation of two new streets from the foundations of the new St Andrews Cathedral filling the area inside a two-sided triangle at its apex. The northern boundary of the burgh was the southern side of the Scores with the southern by the Kinness Burn and the western by the West Port; the burgh of St Andrews was first represented at the great council at Scone Palace in 1357. St Andrews, in particular the large cathedral built in 1160, was the most important centre of pilgrimage in medieval Scotland and one of the most important in Europe.
Pilgrims from all over Scotland came in large numbers hoping to be blessed, in many cases to be cured, at the shrine of Saint Andrew. The presence of the pilgrims brought about increased development. Recognised as the ecclesiastical capital of Scotland, the town now had vast economic and political influence within Europe as a cosmopolitan town. In 1559, the town fell into decay after the violent Scottish Reformation and the Wars of the Three Kingdoms losing the status of ecclesiastical capital of Scotland; the University of St Andrews was considering relocating to Perth around 1697 and 1698. Under the authorisation of the bishop of St Andrews, the town was made a burgh of barony in 1614. Royal Burgh was granted as a charter by King James VI in 1620. In the 18th century, the town was still in decline, but despite this the town was becoming known for having links'well known to golfers'. By the 19th century, the town began to expand beyond the original medieval boundaries with streets of new houses and town vi
Arbroath or Aberbrothock is a former royal burgh and the largest town in the council area of Angus in Scotland, has a population of 23,902. It lies on the North Sea coast, around 16 miles ENE of 45 miles SSW of Aberdeen. While there is evidence for settlement of the area now occupied by the town that dates back to the Iron Age, Arbroath's history as a town begins in the High Middle Ages with the founding of Arbroath Abbey in 1178. Arbroath grew during the Industrial Revolution owing to the expansion of firstly the flax and secondly the jute industries and the engineering sector. A new harbour was built in 1839 and by the 20th century, Arbroath had become one of the larger fishing ports in Scotland; the town is notable as the home of the Declaration of Arbroath, as well as the Arbroath smokie. The town's football team, Arbroath Football Club, hold the world record for the highest number of goals scored in a professional football match, they won 36–0 against Aberdeen Bon Accord in the Scottish Cup in 1885.
The earliest recorded name for the town was'Aberbrothock', a reference to the Brothock Burn which runs through the town, the prefix'Aber' coming either from the Gaelic'Obair', or the earlier Brythonic term'Aber' for'confluence' or'river mouth'. The name'Aberbrothock' can be found in numerous spelling variations. In the earliest manuscripts available, it is seen as'Abirbrothoke' and'Aberbrothok'. In the Declaration of Arbroath, it is seen as'Abirbrothoc'. Early maps show a number of variants including Aberbrothock, Aberbrothik and Aberbrothwick; the modern name'Arbroath' became more common in the mid-19th century, the older name being dispensed with by the time of the first edition of the Ordnance Survey Maps. However, variants of'Arbroath' had been used since the 17th century, including'Arbroth' and Aberbreth; the area around Arbroath has been occupied since at least the Neolithic period. Material taken from postholes from an enclosure at Douglasmuir, near Friockheim, about five miles north of Arbroath have been radiocarbon dated to around 3500 BC The function of the enclosure is unknown, but may have been for agriculture or for ceremonial purposes.
Bronze age archaeology is to be found in abundance in the surrounding area. Examples include the short-cist burials found near West Newbigging, about a mile to the North of the town; these burials included a pair of silver discs and a gold armlet. Iron Age archaeology is well represented, for example in the souterrain nearby Warddykes Cemetery and at West Grange of Conan, as well as the better-known examples at Carlungie and Ardestie; the area appears to have been of some importance in the early Christian period, as evidenced by the Pictish stone carvings found during the restoration of St Vigeans Church, now housed in the small museum there. The stones had been used in the building of the old church and many had been badly damaged. One of the stones, the 9th century Drosten Stone, has the distinction of being one of the few Pictish artefacts to have an inscription in Latin text:'DROSTEN: IREUORET TTFOR CUS', interpreted in various ways, but it is thought to refer to the Pictish King Uurad, who reigned between 839 and 842 AD.
The first modern development in Arbroath was the Abbey, founded by King William the Lion in 1178 for monks of the Tironensian order from Kelso Abbey. It received consecration in 1197 with a dedication to Saint Thomas Becket, it was the King's only personal foundation, he was buried within its precincts in 1214. The Abbey was not completed until 1233. In the 13th century, King John exempted Arbroath from “toll and custom” in every part of England excepting London. Arbroath was the location of the Battle of Arbroath in 1446. A series of disagreements between the Chief Justiciary of Arbroath, Alexander Lindsay, third Earl of Crawford and Bishop James Kennedy of St Andrews resulted in Lindsay sacking the bishop's lands and burning his properties. Lindsay was excommunicated for his troubles and it was felt that this was incompatible with his role as Chief Justiciary; the monks of Arbroath Abbey selected Alexander Ogilvy of Inverquharity as his replacement and the insult led to pitched battle in the town, leaving 500 dead, including Lindsay and Ogilvy.
Large parts of the town were destroyed in the aftermath by the Lindsay family. The abbey quickly fell into disuse and eventual disrepair after its dissolution at the Reformation, the lead from the roof rumoured to have been used in the 16th century civil wars and the stonework plundered for housebuilding throughout the town; the ruins were a popular site for travellers during the 17th and 18th centuries, in 1815 the remains were taken into the care of the State for preservation. The remains are now administered by Historic Scotland. On 6 April 1320 the Scottish Parliament met at Arbroath Abbey and addressed to the Pope the Declaration of Arbroath, drafted by the Abbot of the time, Bernard; this document detailed the services which their "lord and sovereign" Robert the Bruce had rendered to Scotland, affirmed in eloquent terms the independence of the Scots. Arbroath was created a royal burgh in 1599 by James VI. In the 17th century, at the church of St Vigeans, near Arbroath, communion was not held for several years because the villagers believed there was a curse on the church.
The curse said that if communion were held the church would fall into a large subterranean lake. During the Jacobite rising known as the Forty-Five, Arbroath was a Jacobite town. A larg
Berwick-upon-Tweed is a town in the county of Northumberland. It is the northernmost town in England, at the mouth of the River Tweed on the east coast, 2 1⁄2 miles south of the Scottish border. Berwick is 56 miles east-south east of Edinburgh, 65 miles north of Newcastle upon Tyne and 345 miles north of London; the United Kingdom census, 2011 recorded Berwick's population as 12,043. A civil parish and town council were created in 2008 comprising the communities of Berwick and Tweedmouth. Berwick was founded as an Anglo-Saxon settlement during the time of the Kingdom of Northumbria, annexed by England in the 10th century; the area was for more than 400 years central to historic border wars between the Kingdoms of England and Scotland, several times possession of Berwick changed hands between the two kingdoms. The last time it changed hands was when Richard of Gloucester retook it for England in 1482. To this day many Berwickers feel a close affinity to Scotland. Berwick remains a traditional market town and has some notable architectural features, in particular its medieval town walls, its Georgian Town Hall, its Elizabethan ramparts, Britain's earliest barracks buildings, which Nicholas Hawksmoor built for the Board of Ordnance.
The name "Berwick" is of Old English origin, is derived from the term bere-wīc, combining bere, meaning "barley", wīc, referring to a farm or settlement. "Berwick" thus means "barley village" or "barley farm". Alternative etymologies, including ones connecting the name with the Anglo-Saxon kingdom Bernicia, the Brythonic element aber, meaning'estuary, confluence', have been suggested. In the post-Roman period, the area was inhabited by the Brythons of Bryneich; the region became part of the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia. Bernicia united with the kingdom of Deira to form Northumbria, which in the mid-10th century entered the Kingdom of England under Eadred. Berwick remained part of the Earldom of Northumbria until control passed to the Scots following the Battle of Carham of 1018; the town itself was founded as an Anglo-Saxon settlement during the time of the Kingdom of Northumbria. Between the late 10th and early 11th centuries, the land between the rivers Forth and Tweed came under Scottish control, either through conquest by Scotland or through cession by England.
Berwick was made a royal burgh in the reign of David I. A mint was present in the town by 1153. In 1276 William de Baddeby was Constable of Berwick, it is unclear if this relates to the castle. While under Scottish control, Berwick was referred to as "South Berwick" in order to differentiate it from the town of North Berwick, East Lothian, near Edinburgh. Berwick had a mediaeval hospital for the sick and poor, administered by the Church. A charter under the Great Seal of Scotland, confirmed by King James I of Scotland, grants the king's chaplain "Thomas Lauder of the House of God or Hospital lying in the burgh of Berwick-upon-Tweed, to be held to him for the whole time of his life with all lands, teinds and profits, etc. belonging to the said hospital, as as is granted to any other hospital in the Kingdom of Scotland. Dated at Edinburgh June 8, in the 20th year of his reign." Berwick's strategic position on the Anglo-Scottish border during centuries of war between the two nations and its great wealth led to a succession of raids and takeovers.
William I of Scotland invaded and attempted to capture northern England in 1173–74. After his defeat, Berwick was ceded to Henry II of England, it was sold back to William by Richard I of England in order to raise funds for his Crusade. Berwick had become a prosperous town by the middle of the 13th century. According to William Edington, a bishop and chancellor of England, Berwick was "so populous and of such commercial importance that it might rightly be called another Alexandria, whose riches were the sea and the water its walls". In 1291–92 Berwick was the site of Edward I of England's arbitration in the contest for the Scottish crown between John Balliol and Robert Bruce, 5th Lord of Annandale; the decision in favour of Balliol was pronounced in the Great Hall of Berwick Castle on 17 November 1292. In 1296 England went to war with which Scotland was in alliance. Balliol invaded England in response. Edward in turn invaded Scotland and captured Berwick, destroying much of the town and massacring some 20,000 of the inhabitants.
Edward I went again to Berwick in August 1296 to receive formal homage from some 2,000 Scottish nobles, after defeating the Scots at the Battle of Dunbar in April and forcing John Balliol to abdicate at Kincardine Castle the following July. It was at this time. An arm of William Wallace was displayed at Berwick after his execution and quartering on 23 August 1305. In 1314 Edward II of England mustered 25,000 men at Berwick, who fought in the Battle of Bannockburn. Between 1315 and 1318 Scottish armies, sometimes with the help of Flemish and German privateers and blockaded the town invading and capturing it in April 1318. England retook Berwick the day after the Battle of Halidon Hill in 1333. In October 1357 a treaty was signed at Berwick by which the Scottish estates undertook to pay 100,000 marks as a ransom for David II of Scotland, w
Elgin is a town and Royal Burgh in Moray, Scotland. It is the commercial centre for Moray; the town originated to the south of the River Lossie on the higher ground above the floodplain. Elgin is first documented in the Cartulary of Moray in 1190 AD, it was created a royal burgh in the 12th century by King David I of Scotland, by that time had a castle on top of the present day Lady Hill to the west of the town. In August 1040, MacBeth's army killed Duncan I at Bothganowan, near Elgin. Elgin is first recorded in a charter of David I in 1151 in which he granted an annuity to the Priory of Urquhart. David had made Elgin a royal burgh after his defeat of Óengus of Moray. During David's reign the castle was established at the top of; the town received a royal charter from Alexander II in 1224 when he granted the land for a new cathedral to Andrew, Bishop of Moray. This settled the episcopal see, at various times at Kinneddar and Spynie. Elgin was a popular residence for the early Scottish monarchs: David I, William I, Alexander II and Alexander III all held court there and hunted in the royal forests.
Of these kings, Alexander II was Elgin's greatest benefactor and returned many times to his royal castle. He established the two religious houses of the town, the Dominicans or Blackfriars in the west side and the Franciscans or Greyfriars in the east. Further to the east stood the Hospital of Maison Dieu, or House of God founded during the reign of Alexander II for the reception of poor men and women. On 19 July 1224, the foundation stone of the new Elgin Cathedral was ceremoniously laid; the cathedral was completed sometime after 1242 but was destroyed by fire in 1270. The reasons for this are unrecorded; the buildings which now remain as ruins date from the reconstruction following that fire. The Chartulary of Moray described the completed cathedral as "Mirror of the country and the glory of the kingdom". Edward I of England travelled twice to Elgin. During his first visit in 1296 he was impressed by. Preserved in the Cotton library now held in the British Library is the journal of his stay, describing the castle and the town of Elgin as "bon chastell et bonne ville" — good castle and good town.
By his second visit in September 1303, the castle's wooden interior had been burned while held by the English governor, Henry de Rye. As a result, he only stayed in Elgin for two days and camped at Kinloss Abbey from 13 September until 4 October. King Edward was furious when David de Moravia, Bishop of Moray, joined Scotland's cause with Bruce, Edward appealed to the Pope who excommunicated the bishop, thus removing papal protection, causing him to flee to Orkney to Norway, only to return after Robert Bruce's victories against the English. After Edward's death in July 1307, Robert the Bruce retook Scotland in 1308, slighting castles to keep them out of English hands. David de Moravia, the Bishop of Moray at the head of his army, joined with Bruce and they slighted the castles of Inverness and Forres before seizing and slighting Kinneddar Castle, which housed English soldiers, he attacked Elgin castle to be twice repulsed before succeeding. In August 1370 Alexander Bur, Bishop of Moray began payments to Alexander Stewart, Wolf of Badenoch, King Robert III's brother, for the protection of his lands and men.
In February 1390, the bishop turned to Thomas Dunbar, son of the Earl of Moray, to provide the protection. This action infuriated Stewart and in May he descended from his castle on an island in Lochindorb and burned the town of Forres in revenge. In June he burned much of Elgin, including two monasteries, St Giles Church, the Hospital of Maison Dieu and the cathedral. Andrew of Wyntoun's Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland described this action by "wyld, wykked Heland-men"; the rebuilding of the cathedral took many years. In 1506, the great central tower collapsed and although rebuilding work began the next year it was not completed till 1538; the citizens of Elgin and surrounding areas did not seem to object to the new religion following the Reformation. In 1568 the lead was stripped from the roof of the cathedral, by order of the Privy Council of Scotland; the lead was to be sold and the proceeds to go to the maintenance of Regent Moray's soldiers, but the ship taking the lead cargo to Holland sank immediately on leaving Aberdeen harbour.
Without this protection the building began to deteriorate. In 1637, the rafters over the choir were blown down and in 1640 the minister of St Giles along with the Laird of Innes and Alexander Brodie of Brodie, all ardent Covenanters and destroyed the ornately carved screen and woodwork that had remained intact; the tracery of the West window was destroyed sometime between 1660 by Cromwell's soldiers. On Easter Sunday 1711 the central tower collapsed for the second time in its history, but caused much more damage; the rubble was quarried for various projects in the vicinity until 1807 when, through the efforts of Joseph King of Newmill, a wall was built around the cathedral and a keeper's house erected. Mountains of this rubble were cleared by one John Shanks, enabling visitors to view the ornate stonemasonry. John was presented with an ornate snuffbox by the authorities, it is now in Elgin Museum, he is honoured with a large tombstone in the eastern Cathedral precincts; when Daniel Defoe toured Scotland in 1717, he visited Elgin and said:In this rich country is the city, or to