Bardejov is a town in North-Eastern Slovakia. It is situated in the Šariš region on a floodplain terrace of the Topľa River, in the hills of the Beskyd Mountains, it exhibits numerous cultural monuments in its intact medieval town center. The town is one of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites and maintains a population of about 30,000 inhabitants. There are two theories about the origin of the name. According to one theory, the name town comes from the Hungarian word "bárd", which indicated an amount of forested territory which could be chopped down by one man in one day. In the Hungarian name, the "fa" suffix came and it changed the last letter of "bárd" to "bárt", for easier pronunciation.. Another theory derives the name from a Christian personal name Barděj, Barduj with common Slavic possessive suffix -ov; this theory is supported by the first recorded form of the name - Bardujef. The motivation by the personal name is supported by the presence of the suffix preserved in Polish or Slovak sources.
The territory of present-day Bardejov has attracted settlers since the Stone Age. However, the first written reference to the town dates back to the 1240s, when monks from Bardejov complained to King Béla IV about a violation of the town’s borders by Prešov. By that time, the important church of Sv. Aegidius had been built. Fortified in the 14th century, the town became a center of trade with Poland. More than 50 guilds controlled the flourishing economy. Bardejov gained the status of a royal town in 1376 becoming a free royal town; the town’s golden age ended in the 16th century, when several wars and other disasters plagued the country. Beginning in the first quarter of the 18th century, the situation began to improve. Slovaks and Hasidic Jews came into Bardejov in large numbers. By the end of the century, the population of the town had regained the level of the 16th century; the burghers' houses were modified in keeping with current architectural fashion. A Jewish quarter with a synagogue and ritual baths developed in the north-western suburbs.
New churches and bridges were built, as well. During the Reformation, Michal Radašin was called as town pastor. Despite further fires in the last quarter of the 19th century, the town continued to thrive, thanks to major industrialization projects in the region. In 1893, a railway was opened connecting Presov to Bardejov. However, it declined again following the establishment of the first Czechoslovak Republic and became a backward farming region. World War II saw a worsening in the economic situation, though little damage from bombardment. Bardejov was taken by Soviet troops of the 1st Guards Army on 20 January 1945. In 1950, Bardejov was declared a protected city core and extensive restoration of its cultural heritage began; these efforts culminated in Bardejov receiving the European Gold Medal by the International Board of Trustees in Hamburg in 1986 – the first town in Czechoslovakia to receive the award. On November 20, 2000, Bardejov was selected by UNESCO as one of its World Heritage Sites, recognized for its Jewish Suburbia and historic town center.
In November 2010, the city marked the 10th anniversary of its inscription on the UNESCO World Heritage list. Today, Bardejov is known for its authentic old town square, which due to extensive restoration and preservation of its Medieval and Gothic architecture has made Bardejov a popular tourist destination; the town draws on its rich heritage to further develop cultural traditions, such as an annual trade fair and the Roland Games. Like many European small towns, Bardejov maintained a strong Jewish population before World War II and the Holocaust. In March 2006, the Bardejov Jewish Preservation Committee was founded as a non-profit organization by Emil Fish, a survivor of Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, born in Bardejov. In July 2005, Mr. Fish returned to Bardejov with his wife and son for the first time since 1949, his response to the disrepair and dilapidation of the synagogues and the Jewish cemetery was a resolve to restore and preserve these properties. The committee is composed of Bardejov survivors, their descendants and friends, others interested in commemorating the vanishing Jewish communities of Eastern Europe.
Today, the committee's stated mission is to: "restore the Jewish properties of Bardejov, Slovakia". Bardejov is dominated by the monumental Church of St. Aegidius, mentioned for the first time in 1247. A three nave basilica with multiple chapels was completed in 1464, it hosts eleven precious Gothic winged altars with panel paintings. The central square, which used to be the town’s medieval marketplace, is surrounded by well-preserved Gothic and Renaissance burghers’ houses as well as the basilica. One of the most interesting buildings is the town hall, built in 1505; the lower part was built in the Gothic style, while the upper part was finished in the Renaissance style. This was the headquarters of the city council and the center of the town's economic and cultural life. In 1903, the town hall was adapted to serve as Šariš County Museum, now known as the Šariš Museum Bardejov, one of the oldest and the biggest museums in Slovakia; the fortification system and town walls date from the 14th and 15th centuries and are listed by the European Fund of C
Győr is the most important city of northwest Hungary, the capital of Győr-Moson-Sopron County and Western Transdanubia region, and—halfway between Budapest and Vienna—situated on one of the important roads of Central Europe. The city is the sixth-largest in Hungary, one of the seven main regional centres of the country; the area along the Danube River has been inhabited by varying cultures since ancient times. The first large settlement dates back to the 5th century BCE, they called the town Ara Bona "Good altar" contracted to Arrabona, a name, used until the eighth century. Its shortened form is still used as the Slovak names of the city. Roman merchants moved to Arrabona during the 1st century BCE. Around 10 CE, the Roman army occupied the northern part of Western Hungary, which they called Pannonia. Although the Roman Empire abandoned the area in the 4th century due to constant attacks by the tribes living to the east, the town remained inhabited. Around 500 the territory was settled by Slavs, in 547 by the Lombards, in 568–c.
800 by the Avars, at that time under Frankish and Slavic influence. During this time it was called Rabba and Raab. Between 880 and 894, it was part of Great Moravia, briefly under East Frankish dominance; the Magyars fortified the abandoned Roman fortress. Stephen I, the first king of Hungary, founded an episcopate there; the town received its Hungarian name Győr. The Hungarians lived in tents in cottages, in what is now the southeastern part of the city centre; the town was affected by all the trials and tribulations of the history of Hungary: it was occupied by Mongols during the Mongol invasion of Hungary and was destroyed by the Czech army in 1271. After the disastrous battle of Mohács, Baron Tamás Nádasdy and Count György Cseszneky occupied the town for King Ferdinand I while John Zápolya was attempting to annex it. During the Ottoman occupation of present-day central and eastern Hungary, Győr's commander Kristóf Lamberg thought it would be futile to try to defend the town from the Turkish army.
He burned down the town and the Turkish forces found nothing but blackened ruins, hence the Turkish name for Győr, Yanık kale. During rebuilding, the town was surrounded with a castle and a city wall designed by the leading Italian builders of the era; the town changed in character during these years, with many new buildings built in Renaissance style, but the main square and the grid of streets remained. In 1594, after the death of Count János Cseszneky, captain of Hungarian footsoldiers, the Ottoman army occupied the castle and the town. In 1598 the Hungarian and Austrian army occupied it. During the Turkish occupation the city was called Yanık Kala. In 1683, the Turks returned only to leave after being defeated in the Battle of Vienna. During the following centuries, the town became prosperous. In 1743 Győr was elevated to free royal town status by Maria Theresa; the religious orders of Jesuits and Carmelites settled there, building schools, churches, a hospital, a monastery. In June 14, 1809, during the War of the Fifth Coalition this was the site of the Battle of Győr, where the army of Eugène de Beauharnais defeated the Hungarian "noble insurrection" and an Austrian corps under the Archdukes Joseph and Johann.
Napoleon's forces had some of its walls blown up. The leaders of the town soon realized. Most of the ramparts were destroyed. In the mid-19th century, Győr's role in trade grew; the town lost its importance in trade when the railway line between Budapest and Kanizsa superseded river traffic after 1861. The town leaders compensated for this loss with industrialisation; the town prospered till World War II but, during the war, several buildings were destroyed. Some large-scale terror-bombings devastated the industrial and some residential areas and the airport, because the Rába factory was a main tank and aeroplane producer. One of these raids destroyed some parts of the maternity hospital; the 1950s and'60s brought more change: only big blocks of flats were built, the old historical buildings were not given care or attention. In the 1970s the reconstruction of the city centre began. In 1989 Győr won the European award for the protection of monuments. A 100-year-old Raba factory on the River Danube close to the historical centre is to be replaced by a new community called Városrét.
The mixed-use community will have residential and commercial space as well as schools and parks. The city's main theatre is the National Theatre of Győr, finished in 1978, it features large ceramic ornaments made by Victor Vasarely. The city has several historical buildings, for example the castle, the Lutheran Evangelic church; the ancient core of the city is Káptalan Hill at the confluence of three rivers: the Danube, Rába, Rábca. Püspökvár, the residence of Győr’s bishops, can be recognized by its incomplete tower. Győr’s oldest buildings are the 13th-century dwelling tower and the 15th-century Gothic Dóczy Chapel; the Cathedral in Romanesque style, was rebuilt in Gothic and Baroque style. Other sights include: Town Hall Benedictine church of St. Ignatius of Loyola Carmelite church Museum of Roman ArchaeologyThe Pannonhalma Archabbey is located some 20 km outside the town. After the year 2000 the ci
Erzsébetváros is the 7th district of Budapest, situated on the Pest side of the Danube. The inner half of the district was the historic Jewish quarter of Pest; the Dohány Street Synagogue, the largest functioning synagogue in Europe, is located in this district. It is the most densely populated district of Budapest with 29,681.3 person per km2. In 1910 Erzsébetváros had 152,454 inhabitants. During the socialist era Erzsébetváros's population decreased because young people and families moved to the newer "panelized" boom districts. Gentrification and recovery started in the middle of the 2000s. Erzsébetváros was named after Queen Elisabeth, the popular wife of King Franz Joseph I on 17 January 1882; until the unification of Budapest in 1873 this area was part of Terézváros. Between 1873 and 1882 it was named District VII without name; the current mayor of Budapest, VII. district is Zsolt Vattamány. The local District Assembly has 17 members divided into this political parties and alliances: Erzsébetváros is twinned with: Sveti Vlas, Bulgaria Požega, Croatia Nevers, France Stavroupoli, Greece Siedlce, Poland Stari Grad, Serbia Karlovac, Croatia Safed, Israel Comrat, Moldova Gozsdu-udvar List of districts in Budapest Aerial photographs of Erzsébetváros The old jewish quarter of Pest
Free imperial city
In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term free and imperial cities worded free imperial city, was used from the fifteenth century to denote a self-ruling city that had a certain amount of autonomy and was represented in the Imperial Diet. An imperial city held the status of Imperial immediacy, as such, was subordinate only to the Holy Roman Emperor, as opposed to a territorial city or town, subordinate to a territorial prince – be it an ecclesiastical lord or a secular prince; the evolution of some German cities into self-ruling constitutional entities of the Empire was slower than that of the secular and ecclesiastical princes. In the course of the 13th and 14th centuries, some cities were promoted by the emperor to the status of Imperial Cities for fiscal reasons; those cities, founded by the German kings and emperors in the 10th through 13th centuries and had been administered by royal/imperial stewards gained independence as their city magistrates assumed the duties of administration and justice.
The Free Cities were those, such as Basel, Cologne or Strasbourg, that were subjected to a prince-bishop and progressively gained independence from that lord. In a few cases, such as in Cologne, the former ecclesiastical lord continued to claim the right to exercise some residual feudal privileges over the Free City, a claim that gave rise to constant litigation until the end of the Empire. Over time, the difference between Imperial Cities and Free Cities became blurred, so that they became collectively known as "Free Imperial Cities", or "Free and Imperial Cities", by the late 15th century many cities included both "Free" and "Imperial" in their name. Like the other Imperial Estates, they could wage war, make peace, control their own trade, they permitted little interference from outside. In the Middle Ages, a number of Free Cities formed City Leagues, such as the Hanseatic League or the Alsatian Décapole, to promote and defend their interests. In the course of the Middle Ages, cities gained, sometimes — if — lost, their freedom through the vicissitudes of power politics.
Some favored cities gained a charter by gift. Others purchased one from a prince in need of funds; some won it by force of arms during the troubled 13th and 14th centuries and others lost their privileges during the same period by the same way. Some cities became free through the void created by the extinction of dominant families, like the Swabian Hohenstaufen; some voluntarily placed themselves under the protection of a territorial ruler and therefore lost their independence. A few, like Protestant Donauwörth, which in 1607 was annexed to the Catholic Duchy of Bavaria, were stripped by the Emperor of their status as a Free City — for genuine or trumped-up reasons. However, this happened after the Reformation, of the sixty Free Imperial Cities that remained at the Peace of Westphalia, all but the ten Alsatian cities continued to exist until the mediatization of 1803. There were four thousand towns and cities in the Empire, although around the year 1600 over nine-tenths of them had fewer than one thousand inhabitants.
During the late Middle Ages, fewer than two hundred of these places enjoyed the status of Free Imperial Cities, some of those did so only for a few decades. The military tax register of 1521 listed eighty-five such cities, this figure had fallen to sixty-five by the time of the Peace of Augsburg in 1555. From the Peace of Westphalia of 1648 to 1803, their number oscillated at around fifty. Unlike the Free Imperial Cities, the second category of towns and cities, now called "territorial cities" were subject to an ecclesiastical or lay lord, while many of them enjoyed self-government to varying degrees, this was a precarious privilege which might be curtailed or abolished according to the will of the lord. Reflecting the extraordinarily complex constitutional set-up of the Holy Roman Empire, a third category, composed of semi-autonomous cities that belonged to neither of those two types, is distinguished by some historians; these were cities whose size and economic strength was sufficient to sustain a substantial independence from surrounding territorial lords for a considerable time though no formal right to independence existed.
These cities were located in small territories where the ruler was weak. They were the exception among the multitude of territorial towns and cities. Cities of both latter categories had representation in territorial diets, but not in the Imperial Diet. Free imperial cities were not admitted as own Imperial Estates to the Imperial Diet until 1489, then their votes were considered only advisory compared to the Benches of the electors and princes; the cities divided themselves into two groups, or benches, in the Imperial Diet, the Rhenish and the Swabian Bench. The following list contains the 50 Free imperial cities that took part in the Imperial Diet of 1792, they are listed according to their voting order on the Swabian benches. These same cities were among the 85 free imperial cities listed on the Reichsmatrikel of 1521: the federal civil and military tax-schedule used for more than a century to assess the contributions of all the Imperial Estates in case
Mediaș is the second largest city in Sibiu County, Romania. Mediaș is located in the middle basin of Târnava Mare River, at 39 km from Sighișoara and 41 km from Blaj; the health resort Bazna recognized for the first time in 1302, is 18 km from Mediaș. The health resort offers mineral water springs, rich in salts, mineral mud and a special type of salt, called "Bazna salt"; the distance between Mediaș and the county's residence Sibiu is 55 km. The city administers Ighișu Nou; the first signs of human communities in the area are thought to be from the middle Neolithic period. The name of the city comes from the Hungarian word meggy; the Romanian name originates in the German version. In the 13th century, the kings of Hungary invited German settlers known as Transylvanian Saxons to the area, who settled in the valley of the Târnava Mare River. According to the tradition, the town was founded in 1146, being so one of the oldest cities in Transylvania. 1200: here would have lived around 100 inhabitants.
1267: the first document that mentions the city is dated 3 June 1267. 1283: another reference appears in a document: Mediaș is listed as "villa Medgyes". 1318: the Hungarian king Charles Robert of Anjou offers the complete rights for the Sibiu region to the people living in Mediaș, Șeica and Biertan. 1359: Mediaș is called for the first time a city. The first seal of Mediaș was used in 1448. 1414: The St. Margaret church was the first church built in Mediaș; the first document that notes the presence of a hospital in the city is dated 1487. 1448: during his preparations for the campaign against the Turks, John Hunyadi passed through Mediaș. 1490-1534: The city is fortified by the people living in Mediaș and Șeica, after a document signed in 1477 by the king Matthias Corvinus's office. 1517: it gets the right to organise annual fairs. 1557: The population of Mediaș was hit by leprosy. The plague has devastated the population of Mediaș several times in history, in 1586, 1601–1604, 1633, 1646, 1653, 1656–1658, 1660–1661 and 1717-1718.
1562: 34 guilds are registered. 1586: the first mentioning of a school in Mediaș. 1611: it is plundered by the soldiers of Gabriel Báthory. 1705: besieged for the last time in its history 1771-1781: the Johann Sifft typography started its activity. 1822: the first gymnastics association in present-day Romania was established. 1826: the first Romanian church in Mediaș was raised, with great effort and dedication from the Greek-Catholic Bishop Ioan Bob. In the same period, Ioan Bob established the first Romanian school in the city. 1863: public lighting of streets in Mediaș was established. 1871: the agricultural school was founded and the G. A. Reisenberger typography started its activity. 1872: the first train station was built. The current train station was built between 1963 and 1965. 1920: the city became part of Romania according to the Treaty of Trianon. In 1910 Mediaș had 8,626 inhabitants. In 1992, there were 64,481 inhabitants. By 2011, the figure had fallen to 44,169; the ethnic composition in 2011 was: 36,764 Romanians 4,511 Hungarians 1,880 Romani 711 Germans 303 other Mediaș is the second industrial center after Sibiu in the county.
From the 14th to 19th centuries, various manufacturers and professionals were members of associations based on their trades called bresle, the first two unions were the ones formed by tailors and cloth makers, in 1457. In 1698, Mediaș had 33 unions. In the 19th century, unions started to build factories; the first factory, called "Karres", was produced various leather products. In 1888, a factory that manufactured cloth and various textiles was built, followed in 1985 by a factory called "Salconserv" that produced salami and cans; the company used to produce the famous brand of salami called Salam de Sibiu, for the company "Theil & Co. A. G. Salami und Selchwarenfabrik", located in Sibiu. In 1921, Mediaș started to manufacture windows; the factory is now called Geromed and extended its products with blackboards, mirrors and stained glass. In the same year, a factory now called Emailul started to produce enameled pots and dishes; the "Vitrometan" factory was built in 1922 and produces various glass products, including porcelain, light bulbs and mirrors.
"Relee S. A" manufactures automobile components, wall sockets and electric motors. Mediaș is known best for its role in production of methane gas; the area where Mediaș is located is the site of the largest natural gas field in Romania. The headquarters of Romgaz - the national gas exploitation enterprise - and of Transgaz - the natural gas carrier - are in Mediaș. Mediaș has close to 20 kindergartens and 10 schools (they are numbered, three of them have names. Newspapers Monitorul de Mediaș Medieșeanul Ziarul de MediașTV Stations Nova TV Radio Stations Radio Mediaș 88.1 FM Radio Ring 90.2 FM Mediaș has one of the best preserved historical centers in Romania and some well preserved medieval fortifications. One symbol of the town is the Tower of the Buglers, about 70 meters tall, its construction started in the 13th century. In the 15th century it was raised to 5 tiers; the St
Brezno is a town in central Slovakia, with a population of 21,534. Brezno is located within the Horehronské podolie basin. Brezno lies between the Slovak Ore Mountains; the river Hron flows through town. The city of Banská Bystrica is 45 kilometres west; the local climate in the basin is rather cold, with an annual average of 6.6 °C and an annual precipitation of 700–750 mm. The place has been inhabited since prehistoric times, but the current town arose from an old Slovak settlement, next to which newly arrived German miners erected a typical square market in the early 13th century; the first written evidence of the town's existence is dated 1265 when King Béla IV of Hungary issued a charter for the hunters from the area of Liptov allowing them to use woods around the settlement, known as Berezuno. The name is derived from the Slovak word "breza" for birch. In the nineteenth century Brezno was a typical purely Slovak town and was one of the centres of the Slovak national movement. After the Second World War the town has developed into an industrial town with by far the largest share taken by a construction company: Mostaren Brezno which specialised itself with crane construction for whole Central Europe.
In early'90s the construction company exited from business causing high unemployment in whole region. From late'90s Brezno built a large retail sector and promoted itself and whole region as a tourist destination where sports games and events such as Biathlon World cup or European golf cup are held; the town's three sport clubs with the highest attendance are HC Brezno, FC Brezno and Biathlon Club Brezno. Other sport clubs are Cycle club Brezno and Swimming club Brezno. Hockey club HC Brezno is representing the town as part of the 1st senior league from the 2009/10 season. Therefore, the Brezno town council decided to reconstruct its indoor stadium in 2009. During the reconstruction new seats were added and the stadium was renamed to Brezno Arena; the total capacity was increased to 2500 seats. According to the 2013 census, the town had 21,534 inhabitants. According to the 2001 census 92.85% of the inhabitants were Slovaks, 4.63% Roma, 0.80% Czechs and 0.22% Hungarian. The religious makeup was 66.89% Roman Catholics, 18.54% people with no religious affiliation, 8.57% Lutherans, 0.98% Greek Catholics.
Brezno is twinned with: Ciechanów, Poland Čačak, Serbia Meudon, France Nadlak, Romania Nový Bydžov, Czech Republic
Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, the tenth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits. The city had an estimated population of 1,752,704 in 2016 distributed over a land area of about 525 square kilometres. Budapest is both a city and county, forms the centre of the Budapest metropolitan area, which has an area of 7,626 square kilometres and a population of 3,303,786, comprising 33 percent of the population of Hungary; the history of Budapest began when an early Celtic settlement transformed into the Roman town of Aquincum, the capital of Lower Pannonia. The Hungarians arrived in the territory in the late 9th century; the area was pillaged by the Mongols in 1241. Buda, the settlements on the west bank of the river, became one of the centres of Renaissance humanist culture by the 15th century; the Battle of Mohács in 1526 was followed by nearly 150 years of Ottoman rule. After the reconquest of Buda in 1686, the region entered a new age of prosperity.
Pest-Buda became a global city with the unification of Buda, Óbuda, Pest on 17 November 1873, with the name'Budapest' given to the new capital. Budapest became the co-capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a great power that dissolved in 1918, following World War I; the city was the focal point of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, the Battle of Budapest in 1945, the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. Budapest is an Alpha − global city with strengths in commerce, media, fashion, technology and entertainment, it is Hungary's financial centre and the highest ranked Central and Eastern European city on Innovation Cities Top 100 index, as well ranked as the second fastest-developing urban economy in Europe. Budapest is the headquarters of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology, the European Police College and the first foreign office of the China Investment Promotion Agency. Over 40 colleges and universities are located in Budapest, including the Eötvös Loránd University, the Semmelweis University and the Budapest University of Technology and Economics.
Opened in 1896, the city's subway system, the Budapest Metro, serves 1.27 million, while the Budapest Tram Network serves 1.08 million passengers daily. Budapest is cited as one of the most beautiful cities in Europe, ranked as "the world's second best city" by Condé Nast Traveler, "Europe's 7th most idyllic place to live" by Forbes. Among Budapest's important museums and cultural institutions is the Museum of Fine Arts. Further famous cultural institutions are the Hungarian National Museum, House of Terror, Franz Liszt Academy of Music, Hungarian State Opera House and National Széchényi Library; the central area of the city along the Danube River is classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site and has many notable monuments, including the Hungarian Parliament, Buda Castle, Fisherman's Bastion, Gresham Palace, Széchenyi Chain Bridge, Matthias Church and the Liberty Statue. Other famous landmarks include Andrássy Avenue, St. Stephen's Basilica, Heroes' Square, the Great Market Hall, the Nyugati Railway Station built by the Eiffel Company of Paris in 1877 and the second-oldest metro line in the world, the Millennium Underground Railway.
The city has around 80 geothermal springs, the largest thermal water cave system, second largest synagogue, third largest Parliament building in the world. Budapest attracts 4.4 million international tourists per year, making it a popular destination in Europe. The separate towns of Buda, Óbuda, Pest were in 1873 unified and given the new name Budapest. Before this, the towns together had sometimes been referred to colloquially as "Pest-Buda". Pest has been sometimes used colloquially as a shortened name for Budapest. All varieties of English pronounce the -s- as in the English word pest; the -u in Buda- is pronounced either /u/ like food or /ju/ like cue. In Hungarian, the -s- is pronounced /ʃ/ as in wash; the origins of the names "Buda" and "Pest" are obscure. The first name comes from: Buda was the name of the first constable of the fortress built on the Castle Hill in the 11th century or a derivative of Bod or Bud, a personal name of Turkic origin, meaning'twig'. or a Slavic personal name, the short form of Budimír, Budivoj.
Linguistically, however, a German origin through the Slavic derivative вода is not possible, there is no certainty that a Turkic word comes from the word buta ~ buda'branch, twig'. According to a legend recorded in chronicles from the Middle Ages, "Buda" comes from the name of its founder, brother of Hunnic ruler Attila. There are several theories about Pest. One states that the name derives from Roman times, since there was a local fortress called by Ptolemaios "Pession". Another has it that Pest originates in the Slavic word for пещера, or peštera. A third cites pešt, referencing a cave where fires burned or a limekiln; the first settlement on the territory of Budapest was built by Celts before 1 AD. It was occupied by the Romans; the Roman settlement – Aquincum – became the main city of Pannonia Inferior in 106 AD. At first it was a military settlement, the city rose around it, making it the focal point of the city's commercial life. Today this area corresponds to the Óbuda district within Budapest.
The Romans constructed roads, amphitheaters and houses with heated floors in this fortified military camp. The Roman city of Aquincum is the best-conserved of the Roman sites in Hungary; the archaeological site was turned into a museum with open-air sections. The Magyar tribes led by Árpád, forc