Saitama is the capital and the most populous city of Saitama Prefecture, Japan. Its area incorporates the former cities of Urawa, Ōmiya and Iwatsuki, it is a city designated by government ordinance. Being in the Greater Tokyo Area and lying 15 to 30 kilometres north of central Tokyo, many of its residents commute into Tokyo; as of 1 February 2016, the city had an estimated population of 1,226,656, a population density of 5830 persons per km². Its total area is 217.43 square kilometres. The city was founded on May 1, 2001, was designated on April 1, 2003 as a government ordinance. For the histories of Urawa, Ōmiya and Yono before the merger, see: Urawa-ku, Saitama Ōmiya-ku, Saitama and Yono, respectively. On April 1, 2005, Saitama absorbed the city of Iwatsuki to its east, which became a new ward, Iwatsuki-ku; the name "Saitama" comes from the Sakitama District of what is now the city of Gyōda in the northern part of what is now known as Saitama Prefecture. "Sakitama" has an ancient history and is mentioned in the famous 8th century poetry anthology Man'yōshū.
The pronunciation has changed from Sakitama to Saitama over the years. With the merger of Urawa, Ōmiya, Yono it was decided that a new name, one fitting for this newly created prefectural capital, was needed; the prefectural name "Saitama" was changed from kanji into hiragana, thus Saitama City was born. It is the only prefectural capital in Japan whose name is always written in hiragana, belongs to the list of hiragana cities. However, Saitama written in hiragana finished in second place in public polling to Saitama written in kanji. Despite this, government officials decided to name the new city Saitama in hiragana, not kanji. In third place in the poll was Ōmiya. In fourth was Saitama, written with an alternative kanji for "sai" which means "colorful"; the "sai" used in the prefectural name is a rare form of a common character that means'cape' or'promontory'. The city is located 20 to 30 km north of central Tokyo at the center of the Kantō Plain. Situated in the center of Saitama Prefecture, the city is topographically comprised by lowlands and plateaus, at less than 20 m above sea level, with no mountain ranges or hills within the city boundaries.
The western portion of the city lies on the lowland created by the Arakawa River along with those created by small rivers such as the Moto-Arakawa River, Shiba River, Ayase River. The rest of the area resides on the Ōmiya Plateau lying in the north-south direction. Dispersed in this region, major rivers flow southward paralleling to one another. Saitama Prefecture Ageo Hasuda Shiraoka Asaka Kawaguchi Toda Warabi Koshigaya Kasukabe Kawagoe Shiki Fujimi Saitama has ten wards, which were assigned official colours as of April 2005: Saitama's economy is principally constituted by commercial business; the city is one of many commercial centers of the Greater Tokyo area and serves Saitama Prefecture, North Kanto, northeast Honshu. Saitama is home to various manufacturers, exporting automotive, optical and pharmaceutical products. Calsonic Kansei, a global automotive company is headquartered in the city. Iwatsuki is famous for manufacturing of ornate kabuto. Representative station is Urawa Station. Saitama is a regional transportation hub for both passengers and freight train lines.
Ōmiya Station, part of the Shinkansen high-speed train network, serves as the biggest railway hub in the prefecture. The closest major airports are Haneda Airport and Narita International Airport, both about two hours away. Honda Airport in Okegawa offers no scheduled transport services. Commuter helicopter flights to Narita Airport are offered from Kawajima. ■ East Japan Railway Company ■ Tōhoku, Yamagata, Jōetsu and Hokuriku Shinkansen Ōmiya ■ Utsunomiya Line Urawa - Saitama-Shintoshin - Ōmiya - Toro - Higashi-Ōmiya ■ Takasaki Line Urawa - Saitama-Shintoshin - Ōmiya - Miyahara ■ Keihin-Tōhoku Line Minami-Urawa - Urawa - Kita-Urawa - Yono - Saitama-Shintoshin - Ōmiya ■ Saikyō Line Musashi-Urawa - Naka-Urawa - Minami-Yono - Yonohommachi - Kita-Yono - Ōmiya ■ Musashino Line Nishi-Urawa - Musashi-Urawa - Minami-Urawa - Higashi-Urawa ■ Kawagoe Line Ōmiya - Nisshin - Nishi-Ōmiya - Sashiōgi■ Saitama Rapid Railway Line Urawa Misono■ Tobu Urban Park Line Ōmiya - Kita-Ōmiya - Ōmiya-kōen - Ōwada - Nanasato - Iwatsuki - Higashi-Iwatsuki■ Saitama New Urban Transit Ōmiya - Tetsudō-Hakubutsukan - Kamonomiya - Higashi-Miyahara - Konba - Yoshinohara Tohoku Expressway Tokyo Gaikan Expressway Shuto Expressway National Route 16 National Route 17 National Route 122 National Route 293 National Route 463 The executive mayor, directly elected, is Sōichi Aikawa, an independent backed by the Liberal Democratic Party and Komeito.
On May 24, 2009, Aikawa lost his bid for reelection against Hayato Shimizu, backed by the opposition DPJ. The city assembly of Saitama has 64 elected members. Saitama mayoral election, 2005 Mejiro University Nihon University Faculty of Law The Open University of Japan Omiya Study Center Saitama University Shibaura Institute of Technology University of Human Arts and Sciences Urawa University Nippon Institute of Technology Kokusai Gakuin Saitama Junior College Urawa University Junior College Omiya Law School Saitama was one of the host cities for the playoffs and the final of the official 2006 Basketball World Championship, it is home
Brazilians are citizens of Brazil. A Brazilian can be a person born abroad to a Brazilian parent or legal guardian as well as a persons who acquired Brazilian citizenship. Brazil is a multiethnic society, which means that it is home to people of many different ethnic origins; as a result, majority of Brazilians do not equate their nationality with their ethnicity embracing and espousing both simultaneously. In the period after the colonization of the Brazilian territory by Portugal, during much of the XVI century, the word "Brazilian" was given to the Portuguese merchants of Brazilwood, designating the name of such profession, since the inhabitants of the land were, in most of them, indigenous or Portuguese born in Portugal, or in the territory now called Brazil. However, long before the independence of Brazil, in 1822, both in Brazil and in Portugal, it was common to attribute the Brazilian gentile to a person of clear Portuguese descent, resident or whose family resided in the State of Brazil, belonging to the Portuguese Empire.
During the lifetime of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, there was confusion about the nomenclature. According to the Constitution of Brazil, a Brazilian citizen is: Anyone born in Brazil if to foreign born parents. However, if the foreign parents were at the service of a foreign State, the child is not Brazilian. A person born abroad to a Brazilian father or a Brazilian mother, not registered but who, after turning 18 years old, went to live in Brazil. According to the Constitution, all people who hold Brazilian citizenship are equal, regardless of race, gender or religion. A foreigner can apply for Brazilian citizenship after living for four uninterrupted years in Brazil and being able to speak Portuguese. A native person from an official Portuguese language country can request the Brazilian nationality after only 1 uninterrupted year living in Brazil. A foreign born person who holds Brazilian citizenship has the same rights and duties of the Brazilian citizen by birth, but cannot occupy some special public positions such as the Presidency of the Republic, Vice-presidency of the Republic, Minister of Defense, Presidency of the Senate, Presidency of the House of Representatives, Officer of the Armed Forces and Diplomat.
Brazilians are descendants of Portuguese settlers, post-colonial immigrant groups, Enslaved Africans and Brazil's indigenous peoples. Along with other immigrants of who arrived in Brazil, from the 1820s well into the 1970s, most of the settlers were Portuguese, Spaniards and Germans, with large numbers of Japanese, Gypsies, Poles and Levantine Arabs; the three principal groups were European colonizers and African labor. Brazil was inhabited by an estimated 2.4 million Amerindians before the first settlers arrived in the 16th century. They had been living there since the Pleistocene and still exist in many different tribes and ethnicities, amounting to the hundreds, giving them varying features and shades. There are different estimates for the Indigenous population around 1498, when the cohort commanded by Duarte Pacheco Pereira first set foot in Brazilian territory, followed by Pedro Álvares Cabral and Amerigo Vespucci in 1500 and 1502, with figures revolving between 2.4 million and 3.1 million.
What is more accurate is that about three quarters of them died from contracted diseases brought by colonizers and conflicts, while the remaining were pushed to the Amazon Basin, sometimes migrating beyond the borders with Hispanic provinces. It is important to mention that a strong assimilation by miscegenation with local populations occurred, where Natives living under Jesuit protection and having a monastic life decided to leave for the life in towns; the European diseases spread along the indigenous trade routes, whole tribes were annihilated without coming in direct contact with Europeans. Today, 517,000 Indigenous people live in reservations and 160 thousand speak assorted Native languages, whereas millions of Brazilians have at least some degree of Amerindian ancestry due to the mentioned interracial encounters; the country was discovered by Portugal in 1500 and received about 724,000 Portuguese colonizers males, who settled there until the end of Colonial Brazil. But other sources claim that the given numbers of total entrances were surpassed.
The Jesuits asked the Portuguese Crown to ship orphaned women under royal wardship for marriage with the settlers. Daughters of noblemen who died overseas administrating captaincies in the colonies or in battle for the king would marry settlers of higher rank. Bahia's port in the Northeast received one of the first groups of orphans in 1551. Portugal remained the only significant, but not an exclusive source of European immigration to Brazil until the early 19th century; these other people came from different nationalities - b
Renzo Gracie is a Brazilian mixed martial artist and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu practitioner. A member of the Gracie family of Brazil, Renzo is a 6th Degree Black Belt in Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu under Carlos Gracie Jr.. He is the son of Robson Gracie, grandson of Carlos Gracie, nephew of Carlos Gracie, Jr. grandnephew of Helio Gracie, the 1st cousin once removed of Royce Gracie. In mixed martial arts, Renzo has competed in the Ultimate Fighting Championship, Pride Fighting Championships, K-1, RINGS, International Fight League, he holds notable victories over five former UFC Champions: Frank Shamrock, Carlos Newton, Pat Miletich, Maurice Smith, Oleg Taktarov A world famous Jiu-Jitsu coach, Gracie has helped train a number of professional fighters such as: Georges St-Pierre, Frankie Edgar, Chris Weidman, Matt Serra, Ricardo Almeida, Roy Nelson, Rodrigo Gracie and Paul Creighton. His brothers Ralph Gracie and the late Ryan Gracie were famous fighters. Renzo Gracie: Legacy, a 2008 documentary film follows Renzo's influence on Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu and Mixed martial arts over a ten-year period, showing the origins of the sport from its bare knuckle days to the explosion of the sport in both Japan and America.
Renzo debuted in the Brazilian vale tudo circuit. He had his first match against kickboxer Luiz Augusto Alvareda, whom he dominated with his grappling ability and submitted by rear naked choke. After the match, he moved to United States to teach Brazilian jiu-jitsu. In October 1995, Gracie was called to fight in World Combat Championships, a no holds barred event created by Jon Peters's son Christopher; the event hosted two separated tournaments for strikers and grapplers whose winners would meet at the finals, Gracie was put on the latter due to his Brazilian jiu-jitsu background. His first match was against Dutch judoka Ben Spijkers, who had taunted Gracie in the press conference and pranked him on his hotel room the previous night. Spijkers scored the first takedown, but Renzo answered with another, took his back through headbutts and elbow strikes and choked him for the win. After the bout, Gracie intentionally stepped on Spijkers's head as he walked away as an act of revenge for the pranking, an act he apologized for.
Gracie fought next striker Phil Benedict, although he received a hard right punch in the first seconds, he executed a takedown and defeated Benedict by ground and pound from the mount. At the finals, Gracie faced kickboxer James Warring, winning by neck crank in similar time. Gracie had entered WCC with the idea of fighting Bart Vale, who would compete as well, as Vale had boasted that smaller opponents like Renzo were afraid of facing him. However, Vale would forfeit his place in the tournament after his first match, so the bout didn't happen. Producer Peters had the intention to host a second event where Gracie and Vale would fight in a"superfight" format, but these plans were abandoned. On September 22, 1997, Gracie partaked in Pentagon Combat, a MMA event founded by future ADCC backer Sheikh Tahnoon bin Zayed. Gracie was pitted against Eugenio Tadeu, a fighter whose style, luta livre, was in a huge rivalry with Brazilian jiu-jitsu at the time, which guaranteed the match was received with heat.
Promoters of the event hired little security for the match, although the luta livre supporters got fewer tickets than their jiu-jitsu homologues, they snuck into the arena earlier in the event. The first minutes of the match were uneventful, with Gracie claiming years that Tadeu had greased up his body to difficult his grip, but he managed to mount Tadeu. However, Gracie got tired, Tadeu started to take control of the action; when the fight became stalled against the cage wall, audience members pushed their way through security staff and grabbed the cage, screaming insults to the fighters and attacking them through the netting whenever they came near. Some spectators climbed up the fence while others pulled them down, leading the match to be stopped in order to clear them out, while Gracie received both punches and kicks by luta livre supporters without the referee noticing; the situation exploded when Gracie fought back one of his attackers, causing a massive brawl to erupt among the over 400 spectators.
Audience members threw chairs and seats to each other, the lights were turned off, gunshots were heard. The event caused mixed martial arts to be banned in Rio de Janeiro for ten years. Gracie debuted in the first event of Pride Fighting Championships, Pride 1, where he was pitted against Japanese judo-based fighter Akira Shoji; the Brazilian dominated the match, at several points threatening Shoji with armbars, rear naked chokes and omoplatas, all while receiving only superficial damage from kicks and knees, but he failed at finishing Shoji, thus the match went to a draw after thirty minutes. His first victory in Pride was at the next event, Pride 2, against judoka and catch wrestler Sanae Kikuta; the match was fought under special rules by Gracie's demand, which included an unlimited number of ten-minute rounds. However, this had the effect to lengthen the match to an hour, as both fighters remained inactive in the clinch and Renzo's guard. Only in the sixth round Renzo managed to lock a guillotine choke and submit Kikuta.
In 2014, Gracie claimed to have been drugged by PRIDE promoters before the fight to explain his performance. Gracie returned in Pride 8, where he fought professional wrestler Alexander Otsuka; the latter, who came to the match bandaged due to a pro wrestling match the same day, scored a takedown and passed Grac
Kanō Jigorō was a Japanese educator and athlete, the founder of Judo. Judo was the first Japanese martial art to gain widespread international recognition, the first to become an official Olympic sport. Pedagogical innovations attributed to Kanō include the use of black and white belts, the introduction of dan ranking to show the relative ranking among members of a martial art style. Well-known mottoes attributed to Kanō include "maximum efficiency with minimum effort" and "mutual welfare and benefit". In his professional life, Kanō was an educator. Important postings included serving as director of primary education for the Ministry of Education from 1898 to 1901, as president of Tokyo Higher Normal School from 1901 until 1920, he played a key role in making judo and kendo part of the Japanese public school programs of the 1910s. Kanō was a pioneer of international sports. Accomplishments included being the first Asian member of the International Olympic Committee, his official honors and decorations included the First Order of Merit and Grand Order of the Rising Sun and the Third Imperial Degree.
Kanō was inducted as the first member of the International Judo Federation Hall of Fame on 14 May 1999. Kanō Jigorō was born to a sake-brewing family in the town of Mikage, Japan; the family sake brands included "Hakushika", "Hakutsuru", "Kiku-Masamune". But Kanō's father Kanō Jirōsaku was an adopted son and he did not go into the family business. Instead he worked as a lay priest and as a senior clerk for a shipping line. Kanō's father was a great believer in the power of education, he provided Jigorō, his third son, with an excellent education; the boy's early teachers included the neo-Confucian scholars Yamamoto Chikuun and Akita Shusetsu. Kanō's mother died when the boy was nine years old, his father moved the family to Tokyo; the young Kanō was enrolled in private schools, had his own English language tutor. In 1874 he was sent to a private school run by Europeans to improve his English and German language skills. At the time of his early adulthood, Kanō stood 1.57 m but weighed only 41 kg.
He was bullied at school due to his size, so he wished he were stronger. One day, Nakai Baisei, mentioned that jūjutsu was an excellent form of both self defense and physical training, he showed Kanō a few techniques by which a smaller man might overcome a larger and stronger opponent. Kanō decided he wanted to learn the art despite Nakai's insistence that such training was out of date and somewhat dangerous. Kanō's father discouraged him from jūjutsu, telling him to pursue a modern sport instead; when Kanō attended the Tokyo Imperial University in 1877, he started looking for jūjutsu teachers. He first looked for bonesetters, called seifukushi, his assumption was that doctors who knew the martial art were better teachers. His search brought him to Yagi Teinosuke, a student of Emon Isomata in the Tenjin Shin'yō-ryū school of jūjutsu. Yagi, in turn, referred Kanō to Fukuda Hachinosuke, a bonesetter who taught Tenjin Shin'yō-ryū in a 10-mat room adjacent to his practice. Tenjin Shin'yō-ryū was itself a combination of two older schools: the Yōshin-ryū and Shin no Shindō-ryū.
Fukuda's training method consisted of the student taking fall after fall for the teacher or senior student until he began to understand the mechanics of the technique. Fukuda stressed applied technique over ritual form, he gave beginners a short description of the technique and had them engage in free practice in order to teach through experience. It was only after the student had attained some proficiency that he taught them traditional forms; this method was difficult, as there were no special mats for falling, only the standard straw mats laid over wooden floors. Kanō had trouble defeating Fukushima Kanekichi, one of his seniors at the school. Therefore, Kanō started trying unfamiliar techniques on his rival, he first tried techniques from sumo. When these did not help, he studied more, tried a technique that he learned from a book on western wrestling; this worked, kataguruma, or "shoulder wheel", remains part of the judo repertoire, although at this moment the judo organizations of some countries prohibit this throw in competition judo.
On 5 August 1879, Kanō participated in a jūjutsu demonstration given for former United States president Ulysses S. Grant; this demonstration took place at the home of the prominent businessman Shibusawa Eiichi. Other people involved in this demonstration included the jūjutsu teachers Fukuda Hachinosuke and Iso Masatomo, Kanō's training partner Godai Ryusaku. Fukuda died soon after this demonstration, at the age of 52. Kanō began studying with Iso, a friend of Fukuda. Despite being 62 years old and standing only 5 feet tall, Iso had gained a powerful build from jujitsu training, he was known for excellence in kata, was a specialist in atemi, or the striking of vital areas. In Iso's method, one began with kata and progressed to free fighting. Due to Kanō's intense practice and his solid grounding in the jujitsu taught by Fukuda, he was soon an assistant at Iso's school. In 1881, Fukuda's widow gave the scrolls of the school to Kanō 21 years old; some popular works suggest that Kanō obtained a teaching license in this school, but this has not been documented: no Tenjin Shin'yō-ryū certi
Manaus known as Manaós before 1939 and Barra do Rio Negro, is the capital city of the state of Amazonas in the North Region of Brazil. It is situated near the confluence of the Solimões rivers. With a population of more than 2 million, it is the most populous city of both the Brazilian state of Amazonas and the Amazon rainforest; the city was founded in 1669. It was elevated to a town in 1832 with the name of "Manaus", an altered spelling of the indigenous Manaós peoples, transformed into a city on October 24, 1848, with the name of Cidade da Barra do Rio Negro, Portuguese for "The City of the Margins of the Black River". On September 4, 1856 it returned to its original name. Manaus is located in the middle of the Amazon rainforest, access to the city is by boat or airplane; this isolation helped preserve both the natural environment as well as the culture of the city. The culture of Manaus, more than in any other urban area of Brazil, preserves the habits of Native Brazilian tribes; the city is the main access point for visiting the flora of the Brazilian Amazon.
Few places in the world afford such a variety of plants, birds and fishes. It was known at the beginning of the century, as "Heart of the Amazon" and "City of the Forest", its main economic engine is the Industrial Park of Manaus, a Free Economic Zone. The city has an international airport, its manufactures include electronics, chemical products, soap. Manaus exports Brazil nuts, rubber and rosewood oil, it has a cathedral, opera house and botanical gardens, an ecopark and regional and native peoples museums. With a population of 2,145,444 people in 2018, Manaus is the most populous city in the Brazilian Amazon area and the 7th most populous in the country, it is located on the north bank of the Negro River, 18 km above the meeting of the rivers where the Negro merges with the Solimões, to form the Amazon proper. Manaus is 1,400 km inland from the Atlantic Ocean, it is the hub of tourism for the jungle lodges and the river cruises. The Solimões and Negro rivers join to form the Amazon River. Rubber made it the richest city in South America during the late 1800s.
Rubber helped Manaus earn its nickname, the "Paris of the Tropics". Many wealthy European families settled in Manaus and brought their love for sophisticated European art and culture with them. Manaus is a duty-free zone, which has encouraged development in the region; the name Manaus comes from the native people called Manaós. The history of the European colonization of Manaus began in 1499 with the Spanish discovery of the mouth of the Amazon River; the Spanish continued to colonize the region north of Brazil. Development continued in 1668-1669 with the building of the Fort of São José da Barra do Rio Negro by the Portuguese in order to ensure its predominance in the region against the Dutch, at that time headquartered in what is today Suriname; the fort was constructed with four cannon guarding the curtains. It continued to function for more than 100 years. Next to the fort there were many indigenous mestizos, who helped in its construction and began to live in the vicinity; the population grew so much that in 1695, the missionaries built a nearby chapel dedicated as Nossa Senhora da Conceição, who in time became the patron saint of the city.
A Royal Charter of March 3 of 1755, created the captaincy of São José do Rio Negro, with capital in Mariuá, but with the governor, Lobo D'Almada fearing a Spanish invasion, the seat went back to Lugar de Barra in 1791. Being located at the confluence of the Rio Negro and Amazon Rivers, it was a strategic point. On November 13 of 1832, Lugar da Barra was named Manaus. On October 24 of 1848, under Law 145 of the Provincial Assembly of Para, it was renamed City of Barra do Rio Negro. On September 4 of 1856 the governor Herculano Ferreira Pena gave it the name "Manaus"; the Cabanagem was the revolt in which blacks, Native Americans and mestizos fought against the white political elite and took power in 1835. The Cabanagem reduced the population of the state of Grão-Pará from about 100,000 to 60,000; the involvement of rebels from the Upper Amazon in what was a movement based in Belém was crucial for the birth of the current state of the Amazon. During the brief period of revolution, the Cabanos of the Upper Amazon, bands of rebels, roamed throughout the region, occupying Manaus twice, in most settlements their arrival was greeted by the non-white population spontaneously joining their ranks, leading to a greater number of adherents to the movement.
With that there was an integration of people in the region thus forming the state. Manaus was at the center of the Amazon region's rubber boom during the late 19th century. For a time, it was "one of the gaudiest cities of the world". Historian Robin Furneaux wrote of this period, "No extravagance, however absurd, deterred" the rubber barons. "If one rubber baron bought a vast yacht, another would install a tame lion in his villa, a third would water his horse on champagne." The city built a grand opera house, with vast domes and gilded balconies, using marble and crystal, from around Europe. The opera house cost ten million dollars. In one season, half the members of one visiting opera troupe died of yellow f
Osaka is a designated city in the Kansai region of Japan. It is the capital city of Osaka Prefecture and the largest component of the Keihanshin Metropolitan Area, the second largest metropolitan area in Japan and among the largest in the world with over 19 million inhabitants. Osaka will host Expo 2025; the current mayor of Osaka is Ichiro Matsui. Some of the earliest signs of human habitation in the Osaka area at the Morinomiya ruins comprise shell mounds, sea oysters and buried human skeletons from the 6th–5th centuries BC, it is believed that what is today the Uehonmachi area consisted of a peninsular land with an inland sea in the east. During the Yayoi period, permanent habitation on the plains grew. By the Kofun period, Osaka developed into a hub port connecting the region to the western part of Japan; the large numbers of larger tomb mounds found in the plains of Osaka are seen as evidence of political-power concentration, leading to the formation of a state. The Kojiki records that during 390–430 AD there was an imperial palace located at Osumi, in what is present day Higashiyodogawa ward, but it may have been a secondary imperial residence rather than a capital.
In 645, Emperor Kōtoku built his Naniwa Nagara-Toyosaki Palace in what is now Osaka, making it the capital of Japan. The city now known as Osaka was at this time referred to as Naniwa, this name and derivations of it are still in use for districts in central Osaka such as Naniwa and Namba. Although the capital was moved to Asuka in 655, Naniwa remained a vital connection, by land and sea, between Yamato and China. Naniwa was declared the capital again in 744 by order of Emperor Shōmu, remained so until 745, when the Imperial Court moved back to Heijō-kyō. By the end of the Nara period, Naniwa's seaport roles had been taken over by neighboring areas, but it remained a lively center of river and land transportation between Heian-kyō and other destinations. In 1496, Jōdo Shinshū Buddhists established their headquarters in the fortified Ishiyama Hongan-ji, located directly on the site of the old Naniwa Imperial Palace. Oda Nobunaga began a decade-long siege campaign on the temple in 1570 which resulted in the surrender of the monks and subsequent razing of the temple.
Toyotomi Hideyoshi constructed Osaka Castle in its place in 1583. Osaka was long considered Japan's primary economic center, with a large percentage of the population belonging to the merchant class. Over the course of the Edo period, Osaka grew into one of Japan's major cities and returned to its ancient role as a lively and important port, its popular culture was related to ukiyo-e depictions of life in Edo. By 1780, Osaka had cultivated a vibrant arts culture, as typified by its famous Kabuki and Bunraku theaters. In 1837, Ōshio Heihachirō, a low-ranking samurai, led a peasant insurrection in response to the city's unwillingness to support the many poor and suffering families in the area. One-quarter of the city was razed before shogunal officials put down the rebellion, after which Ōshio killed himself. Osaka was opened to foreign trade by the government of the Bakufu at the same time as Hyōgo on 1 January 1868, just before the advent of the Boshin War and the Meiji Restoration. Osaka residents were stereotyped in Edo literature from at least the 18th century.
Jippensha Ikku in 1802 depicted Osakans as stingy beyond belief. In 1809, the derogatory term "Kamigata zeeroku" was used by Edo residents to characterize inhabitants of the Osaka region in terms of calculation, lack of civic spirit, the vulgarity of Osaka dialect. Edo writers aspired to samurai culture, saw themselves as poor but generous and public spirited. Edo writers by contrast saw "zeeroku" as obsequious apprentices, greedy and lewd. To some degree, Osaka residents are still stigmatized by Tokyo observers in the same way today in terms of gluttony, evidenced in the phrase, "Residents of Osaka devour their food until they collapse"; the modern municipality was established in 1889 by government ordinance, with an initial area of 15 square kilometres, overlapping today's Chūō and Nishi wards. The city went through three major expansions to reach its current size of 223 square kilometres. Osaka was the industrial center most defined in the development of capitalism in Japan, it became known as the "Manchester of the Orient."The rapid industrialization attracted many Korean immigrants, who set up a life apart for themselves.
The political system was pluralistic, with a strong emphasis on promoting industrialization and modernization. Literacy was high and the educational system expanded producing a middle class with a taste for literature and a willingness to support the arts. In 1927, General Motors operated a factory called Osaka Assembly until 1941, manufacturing Chevrolet, Pontiac and Buick vehicles and staffed by Japanese workers and managers. In the nearby city of Ikeda in Osaka Prefecture is the headquarters office of Daihatsu, one of Japan's oldest automobile manufacturers. Like its European and American counterparts, Osaka displayed slums and poverty. In Japan it was here that municipal government first introduced a comprehensive system of poverty relief, copied in part from British models. Osaka policymakers stressed the importance of family formation and mutual assistance as the best way to combat poverty; this minimized
San Diego is a city in the U. S. state of California. It is in San Diego County, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California 120 miles south of Los Angeles and adjacent to the border with Mexico. With an estimated population of 1,419,516 as of July 1, 2017, San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest in California, it is part of the San Diego–Tijuana conurbation, the second-largest transborder agglomeration between the U. S. and a bordering country after Detroit–Windsor, with a population of 4,922,723 people. The city is known for its mild year-round climate, natural deep-water harbor, extensive beaches, long association with the United States Navy, recent emergence as a healthcare and biotechnology development center. San Diego has been called "the birthplace of California". Home to the Kumeyaay people, it was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area for Spain, forming the basis for the settlement of Alta California 200 years later.
The Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá, founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly independent Mexico, which reformed as the First Mexican Republic two years later. California became part of the United States in 1848 following the Mexican–American War and was admitted to the union as a state in 1850; the city is the seat of San Diego County and is the economic center of the region as well as the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. San Diego's main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, international trade, manufacturing; the presence of the University of California, San Diego, with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology. The original inhabitants of the region are now known as the San La Jolla people; the area of San Diego has been inhabited by the Kumeyaay people. The first European to visit the region was explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing under the flag of Castile but born in Portugal.
Sailing his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire in 1542, named the site "San Miguel". In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent to map the California coast. Arriving on his flagship San Diego, Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for the Catholic Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more known as San Diego de Alcalá. On November 12, 1602, the first Christian religious service of record in Alta California was conducted by Friar Antonio de la Ascensión, a member of Vizcaíno's expedition, to celebrate the feast day of San Diego. Permanent colonization of California and of San Diego began in 1769 with the arrival of four contingents of Spaniards from New Spain and the Baja California peninsula. Two seaborne parties reached San Diego Bay: the San Carlos, under Vicente Vila and including as notable members the engineer and cartographer Miguel Costansó and the soldier and future governor Pedro Fages, the San Antonio, under Juan Pérez.
An initial overland expedition to San Diego from the south was led by the soldier Fernando Rivera and included the Franciscan missionary and chronicler Juan Crespí, followed by a second party led by the designated governor Gaspar de Portolà and including the mission president Junípero Serra. In May 1769, Portolà established the Fort Presidio of San Diego on a hill near the San Diego River, it was the first settlement by Europeans in. In July of the same year, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Franciscan friars under Serra. By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in and around the mission proper. Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in Alta California of the historic mission trail El Camino Real. Both the Presidio and the Mission are National Historic Landmarks. In 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain, San Diego became part of the Mexican territory of Alta California. In 1822, Mexico began its attempt to extend its authority over the coastal territory of Alta California.
The fort on Presidio Hill was abandoned, while the town of San Diego grew up on the level land below Presidio Hill. The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government in 1834, most of the Mission lands were granted to former soldiers; the 432 residents of the town petitioned the governor to form a pueblo, Juan María Osuna was elected the first alcalde, defeating Pío Pico in the vote. However, San Diego had been losing population throughout the 1830s and in 1838 the town lost its pueblo status because its size dropped to an estimated 100 to 150 residents. Beyond town Mexican land grants expanded the number of California ranchos that modestly added to the local economy. Americans gained increased awareness of California, its commercial possibilities, from the writings of two countrymen involved in the officially forbidden, to foreigners, but economically significant hide and tallow trade, where San Diego was a major port and the only one with an adequate harbor: William Shaler's "Journal of a Voyage Between China and the North-Western Coast of America, Made in 1804" and Richard Henry Dana's more substantial and convincing account, of his 1834–36 voyage, the classic Two Years Before the Mast.
In 1846, the United States went to war against Mexico and sent a naval and land expedition to conquer Alta California. At firs