Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam

Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám is the title that Edward FitzGerald gave to his 1859 translation from Persian to English of a selection of quatrains attributed to Omar Khayyam, dubbed "the Astronomer-Poet of Persia". FitzGerald's work at first was unsuccessful commercially, but it was popularised from 1861 onward by Whitley Stokes, the work came to be admired by the Pre-Raphaelites in England. In 1872 FitzGerald had a third edition printed, which increased interest in the work in the United States of America. By the 1880s, the book was well known throughout the English-speaking world, to the extent that numerous "Omar Khayyam Clubs" were formed and there was a "fin de siècle cult of the Rubaiyat". FitzGerald's work has been published in several hundred editions, it has inspired similar translation efforts in English and in many other languages; the authenticity of the poetry attributed to Omar Khayyam is uncertain. Omar was famous during his lifetime not as an astronomer and mathematician; the earliest reference to his having written poetry is found in his biography by al-Isfahani, written 43 years after his death.

This view is reinforced by other medieval historians such as Al-Qifti. Parts of the Rubaiyat appear as incidental quotations from Omar in early works of biography and in anthologies; these include works of Razi, Daya and Jajarmi. Five quatrains assigned to Khayyam in somewhat sources appear in Zahiri Samarqandi's Sindbad-Nameh without attribution; the number of quatrains attributed to him in more recent collections varies from about 1,200 to more than 2,000. Skeptical scholars point out; the extant manuscripts containing collections attributed to Omar are dated much too late to enable a reconstruction of a body of authentic verses. In the 1930s, Iranian scholars, notably Mohammad-Ali Foroughi, attempted to reconstruct a core of authentic verses from scattered quotes by authors of the 13th and 14th centuries, ignoring the younger manuscript tradition. After World War II, reconstruction efforts were delayed by two clever forgeries. De Blois is pessimistic, suggesting that contemporary scholarship has not advanced beyond the situation of the 1930s, when Hans Heinrich Schaeder commented that the name of Omar Khayyam "is to be struck out from the history of Persian literature".

A feature of the more recent collections is the lack of linguistic homogeneity and continuity of ideas. Sadegh Hedayat commented that "if a man had lived for a hundred years and had changed his religion and beliefs twice a day, he could scarcely have given expression to such a range of ideas". Hedayat's final verdict was. Various tests have been employed to reduce the quatrains attributable to Omar to about 100. Arthur Christensen states that "of more than 1,200 ruba'is known to be ascribed to Omar, only 121 could be regarded as reasonably authentic". Foroughi accepts 178 quatrains as authentic. FitzGerald's source were transcripts sent to him in 1856–1857 by his friend and teacher Edward B. Cowell of two manuscripts, a Bodleian manuscript with 158 quatrains, a "Calcutta manuscript". FitzGerald completed his first draft in 1857 and sent it to Fraser's Magazine in January 1858, he made a revised draft in January 1859, of which he printed 250 copies. This first edition became sought after by the 1890s, when "more than two million copies ha been sold in two hundred editions".

The extreme popularity of FitzGerald's work led to a prolonged debate on the correct interpretation of the philosophy behind the poems. FitzGerald emphasized the religious skepticism. In his preface to the Rubáiyát, he describes Omar's philosophy as Epicurean and claims that Omar was "hated and dreaded by the Sufis, whose practice he ridiculed and whose faith amounts to little more than his own, when stripped of the Mysticism and formal recognition of Islamism under which Omar would not hide". Richard Nelson Frye emphasizes that Khayyam was despised by a number of prominent contemporary Sufis; these include figures such as Shams Tabrizi, Najm al-Din Daya, Al-Ghazali, Attar, who "viewed Khayyam not as a fellow-mystic, but a free-thinking scientist". The skeptic interpretation is supported by the medieval historian Al-Qifti, who in his The History of Learned Men reports that Omar's poems were only outwardly in the Sufi style, but were written with an anti-religious agenda, he mentions that Khayyam was indicted for impiety and went on a pilgrimage to avoid punishment.

Critics of FitzGerald, on the other hand, have accused the translator of misrepresenting the mysticism of Sufi poetry by an overly literal interpretation. Thus, the view of Omar Khayyam as a Sufi was defended by Bjerregaard. Dougan says that attributing hedonism to Omar is due to the failings of FitzGerald's translation, arguing that the poetry is to be understood as "deeply esoteric". Idries Shah says that FitzGerald misunderstood Omar's poetry; the Sufi interpretation is the view of a minority of scholars. Henry Beveridge states. Aminrazavi states that "Sufi interpretation of Khayyam is possible only by reading into his Rubaiyat extensively and by stretching the content to fit the classical Sufi doctrine". FitzGerald's "skepticist" reading of the poetry is still de

Álex Arias

Alejandro'Álex' Miguel Arias de Haro is a Spanish footballer who plays as a winger for Marino de Luanco. Born in Avilés, Arias began his career with Real Oviedo, making his senior debuts in the 2006–07 campaign in the Segunda División B. In 2007, he moved to RCD Espanyol, being assigned to the youth setup and appearing with the reserves in the third tier. In the 2008 summer Arias was loaned to Tercera División club CE Premià, joined Moratalla CF in 2009 on loan, he terminated his contract with the Pericos in June 2010, continued to appear in the third tier in the following seasons, representing Marino de Luanco and Real Avilés. With the latter he scored a career-best 15 goals. On 20 June 2014 Arias signed a two-year deal with Segunda División side CD Numancia, he played his first match as a professional on 31 August, coming on as a late substitute in a 1–2 away loss against Real Betis. On 13 January 2015, after appearing sparingly, Arias was loaned to Avilés until June. In August 2016, after spending a year in prison, he returned to Avilés on a permanent contract.

On 15 August 2011 Arias was involved in a car accident, killing two people by driving drunk in a small town near Salamanca, but was only tried in January 2015. He was arrested in August after being found receiving a four-year sentence. Álex Arias at BDFutbol Álex Arias at Soccerway Álex Arias at

Cardia (Thrace)

Cardia or Kardia, anciently the chief town of the Thracian Chersonese, was situated at the head of the Gulf of Melas. It was a colony of the Milesians and Clazomenians, but this didn't make Cardia always pro-Athenian: when in 357 BC Athens took control of the Chersonese, the latter, under the rule of a Thracian prince, was the only city to remain neutral. A great crisis exploded when Diopeithes, an Athenian mercenary captain, had in 343 BC brought Attic settlers to the town; the king proposed to settle the dispute between the two cities by arbitration. Demosthenes, the famous Greek patriot and orator, spoke on this matter to the Athenian Senate in 341 BC his "Oration On The State Of The Chersonesus": "Our present concernment is about the affairs of the Chersonesus, Philip's expedition into Thrace...but most of our orators insist upon the actions and designs of Diopithes...which, if one moment neglected, the loss may be irreparable. And if he does, shall we accuse him of involving us in a war?...none of you can be weak enough to imagine that Philip's desires are centered in those paltry villages of Thrace...and has no designs on the ports...arsenals...navies...silver mines, all the other revenues of Athens.

Impossible! No. Cardia was the birthplace of Alexander's secretary Eumenes and of the historian Hieronymus. Plutarch in the "Life of Eumenes" writes that the young men and boys of Cardia were exercising in the Pankration and wrestling. Curtius, Ernst. "Cardia". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray