click links in text for more info

Rubik's Cube

Rubik's Cube is a 3-D combination puzzle invented in 1974 by Hungarian sculptor and professor of architecture Ernő Rubik. Called the Magic Cube, the puzzle was licensed by Rubik to be sold by Ideal Toy Corp. in 1980 via businessman Tibor Laczi and Seven Towns founder Tom Kremer and won the German Game of the Year special award for Best Puzzle that year. As of January 2009, 350 million cubes had been sold worldwide, making it the world's top-selling puzzle game, it is considered to be the world's best-selling toy. On the original classic Rubik's Cube, each of the six faces was covered by nine stickers, each of one of six solid colours: white, blue, orange and yellow; some current versions of the cube have been updated to use coloured plastic panels instead, which prevents peeling and fading. In sold models, white is opposite yellow, blue is opposite green, orange is opposite red, the red and blue are arranged in that order in a clockwise arrangement. On early cubes, the position of the colours varied from cube to cube.

An internal pivot mechanism enables each face to turn thus mixing up the colours. For the puzzle to be solved, each face must be returned to have only one colour. Similar puzzles have now been produced with various numbers of sides and stickers, not all of them by Rubik. Although the Rubik's Cube reached its height of mainstream popularity in the 1980s, it is still known and used. Many speedcubers continue to practice similar puzzles. Since 2003, the World Cube Association, the Rubik's Cube's international governing body, has organised competitions worldwide and recognises world records. In March 1970, Larry D. Nichols invented a 2×2×2 "Puzzle with Pieces Rotatable in Groups" and filed a Canadian patent application for it. Nichols's cube was held together by magnets. Nichols was granted U. S. Patent 3,655,201 on 11 April 1972, two years before Rubik invented his Cube. On 9 April 1970, Frank Fox applied to patent an "amusement device", a type of sliding puzzle on a spherical surface with "at least two 3×3 arrays" intended to be used for the game of noughts and crosses.

He received his UK patent on 16 January 1974. In the mid-1970s, Ernő Rubik worked at the Department of Interior Design at the Academy of Applied Arts and Crafts in Budapest. Although it is reported that the Cube was built as a teaching tool to help his students understand 3D objects, his actual purpose was solving the structural problem of moving the parts independently without the entire mechanism falling apart, he did not realise that he had created a puzzle until the first time he scrambled his new Cube and tried to restore it. Rubik applied for a patent in Hungary for his "Magic Cube" on 30 January 1975, HU170062 was granted that year; the first test batches of the Magic Cube were produced in late 1977 and released in Budapest toy shops. Magic Cube was held together with interlocking plastic pieces that prevented the puzzle being pulled apart, unlike the magnets in Nichols's design. With Ernő Rubik's permission, businessman Tibor Laczi took a Cube to Germany's Nuremberg Toy Fair in February 1979 in an attempt to popularise it.

It was noticed by Seven Towns founder Tom Kremer and they signed a deal with Ideal Toys in September 1979 to release the Magic Cube worldwide. Ideal wanted at least a recognisable name to trademark; the puzzle made its international debut at the toy fairs of London, Paris and New York in January and February 1980. After its international debut, the progress of the Cube towards the toy shop shelves of the West was halted so that it could be manufactured to Western safety and packaging specifications. A lighter Cube was produced, Ideal decided to rename it. "The Gordian Knot" and "Inca Gold" were considered, but the company decided on "Rubik's Cube", the first batch was exported from Hungary in May 1980. After the first batches of Rubik's Cubes were released in May 1980, initial sales were modest, but Ideal began a television advertising campaign in the middle of the year which it supplemented with newspaper adverts. At the end of 1980 Rubik's Cube won a German Game of the Year special award, won similar awards for best toy in the UK, the US.

By 1981 Rubik's Cube had become a craze, it is estimated that in the period from 1980 to 1983 around 200 million Rubik's Cubes were sold worldwide. In March 1981 a speedcubing championship organised by the Guinness Book of World Records was held in Munich, a Rubik's Cube was depicted on the front cover of Scientific American that same month. In June 1981 The Washington Post reported that the Rubik's Cube is "a puzzle that's moving like fast food right now... this year's Hoola Hoop or Bongo Board", by September 1981 New Scientist noted that the cube had "captivated the attention of children of ages from 7 to 70 all over the world this summer."As most people could only solve one or two sides, numerous books were published including David Singmaster's Notes on Rubik's "Magic Cube" and Patrick Bossert's You Can Do the Cube. At one stage in 1981 three of the top ten best selling books in the US were books on solving the Rubik's Cube, the best-selling book of 1981 was James G. Nourse's The Simple Solution to Rubik's Cube which sold over 6 million copies.

In 1981 the Museum of Modern Art in New York exhibited a Rubik's Cube, at the 1982 World's Fair in Knoxville, Tennessee a six-foot Cube was put on display. ABC Television developed a cartoon show called Rubik, the Amazing Cube. In June 1982 the First Rubik's Cube World Champi

Osmanthus delavayi

Osmanthus delavayi is a species of flowering plant in the olive family Oleaceae. It is an evergreen shrub native to the Guizhou and Yunnan regions of southern China, cultivated as an ornamental in temperate and subtropical zones elsewhere. Osmanthus delavayi was discovered by the Jesuit missionary-botanist Fr Pierre Jean Marie Delavay in the mountains near Lan-kong in Yunnan province, China, in 1890, he sent seed to the French nurseryman Vilmorin. Though Maurice de Vilmorin distributed the seed among various correspondents, only a single seed germinated. All the O. delavayi of European gardens were cloned from this one source, until George Forrest obtained further supplies of seed in China after World War I. Over several weeks in late winter to spring, Osmanthus delavayi bears fragrant flowers that are more prominent but less fragrant than Osmanthus fragrans, but substitutes for O. fragrans in less balmy gardens. The shrub holds an Award of Garden Merit from the Royal Horticultural Society which it first received in 1923 and has been praised by British garden writers.

It is a garden staple in the east coast of Australia as far south as Tasmania. Its USDA Zone range is 7-9, making it hardy in sheltered locations as far north as coastal New York and in the Pacific Northwest, it is a medium sized shrub reaching up to 4 m tall and broad, though this may take up to 20 years, as the plant is slow-growing. O. × burkwoodii, a garden hybrid of Osmanthus decorus × Osmanthus delavayi, is a popular garden shrub, has won an Award of Garden Merit. Growing to 3 m tall and broad, it is somewhat more compact than O. delavayi. It is named after the brothers Arthur and Albert Burkwood, 19th century hybridisers

Robert K. Scott (diplomat)

Robert K. Scott is an American diplomat who has served as the United States Ambassador to Malawi since 2019. Scott earned a Bachelor of Arts from Lawrence University and a Master of Arts from American University, he studied at the University of Göttingen in Germany on a United States Fulbright Grant. Scott has been a career member of the Senior Foreign Service, class of Counselor, has served as an American diplomat since 1994, he served as Deputy Chief of Mission at the United States Embassies in Harare and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and in multiple senior leadership positions at the United States Department of State. On August 13, 2018, President Trump announced his intent to nominate Scott to be the next United States Ambassador to Malawi. On August 16, 2018, his nomination was sent the United States Senate. On April 11, 2019, his nomination was confirmed in the United States by voice vote, he presented his credentials to President Peter Mutharika on August 6, 2019. He speaks fluent German as well as French.

He has two children, twins Jennifer and Nicholas. List of ambassadors of the United States


Bochorna is a highland village in Akhmeta Municipality, northeast Georgia. Located in the Caucasus Mountains, at 2,345 metres above sea level, it is the highest inhabited place in the country and one of the highest in Europe. Bochorna had a permanent resident population of only one man at the time of the 2014 national census. Bochorna lies in the Gometsari gorge, on the southern slopes of the Makratela range, a spur of the Greater Caucasus crest, 80 kilometres northeast of the town of Akhmeta. According to the traditional subdivision of Georgia, the village is included in the Chaghma community of the province of Tusheti, part of the modern-day region of Kakheti and home to the Tush subgroup of Georgians, who have been involved in transhumant lifestyle of sheep farming; the environs are part of the Tusheti National Park. Bochorna known as Bochorma, like many other highland hamlets in Tusheti, was an abandoned settlement at the time of the 2002 census, but was reported resettled—by one elderly man continuously and a few others in summer months—in the next national census of 2014.

Thus, the government of Georgia restored the locale to a village status and announced it to be the "highest permanently inhabited place in Europe," a status hitherto claimed by the northwestern Georgian village of Ushguli

Head and lateral line erosion

Head and lateral line erosion, or hole-in-the-head is a disease in fish. Chronic ulcerative dermatopathy or chronic erosive dermatopathy are symptoms of similar conditions with different etiology. HLLE begins as small pits of receding epithelium around the fish's head and/or lateral line, sometimes onto the unpaired fins. Fatal, it does cause disfigurement, making the fish less suitable for public aquarium display. At least 20 families of fish have been identified as having developed HLLE in captivity. Not all species of fish show the same symptoms, do not always develop lesions to the same degree. HLLE has not been sufficiently studied to identify all causes. In marine fish, two studies point to the use of activated carbon in closed aquarium ecosystems as contributors. Hole in the head can be reversed by removing all activated carbon and conducting large percentage water changes. Greater than 90% water changes may need to be done to reduce the effects of activated carbon. More cures are made by moving the fish to a new aquarium that has never had fish develop HLLE in it

Aaron Brown (defensive lineman)

Aaron Lewis Brown, Jr. was an American football defensive lineman born in Port Arthur, Texas. Brown played for the Kansas City Chiefs from 1966 to 1972 and Green Bay Packers from 1973 to 1974. Brown is an alumnus of the University of Minnesota. Brown was selected by the Kansas City Chiefs with their first round selection in the 1966 American Football League Draft and that year Brown participated in the first AFL-NFL World Championship game with the team. Three years Brown was on the 1969 Chiefs' team that won the final AFL-NFL World Championship. Due to his speed of 4.7 in the 40 yard dash, Hank Stram, coach of the Chiefs, decided to try Brown at running back. Brown developed callouses on his thighs. Brown's greatest disappointment was failure to be in the starting lineup for Super Bowl I, when Stram decided to start Chuck Hurston at right end instead. In the 1969 AFL Championship, Brown registered 2.5 sacks in the Chiefs 17-7 victory over the Raiders. Brown made up for the missed Super Bowl I opportunity in Super Bowl IV, where he had one sack and tackled Minnesota quarterback Joe Kapp, forcing him to leave the game in the 4th quarter.

He died on November 15, 1997, in Houston, when struck from behind by a motorist after walking home one day before his 54th birthday. List of American Football League players player page