Rubus idaeus

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Rubus idaeus
Malina.jpg
Fruit on a wild raspberry, Czech Republic
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Rubus
Subgenus:
Species:
R. idaeus
Binomial name
Rubus idaeus
L. 1753 not Blanco 1837 nor Vell. 1829 nor Pursh 1814 nor Thunb. 1784
Synonyms[1]

Rubus idaeus (raspberry, also called red raspberry or occasionally as European raspberry to distinguish it from other raspberries) is a red-fruited species of Rubus native to Europe and northern Asia and commonly cultivated in other temperate regions.[2][3]

Taxonomy[edit]

A closely related plant in North America, sometimes regarded as the variety Rubus idaeus var. strigosus, is more commonly treated as a distinct species, Rubus strigosus (American red raspberry), as is done here.[4] Red-fruited cultivated raspberries, even in North America, are generally Rubus idaeus or horticultural derivatives of hybrids of R. idaeus and R. strigosus; these plants are all addressed in the present article.

Description[edit]

Plants of Rubus idaeus are generally perennials which bear biennial stems ("canes") from a perennial root system. In its first year, a new, unbranched stem ("primocane") grows vigorously to its full height of 1.5–2.5 m (5.0–8.3 feet), bearing large pinnately compound leaves with five or seven leaflets, but usually no flowers. In its second year (as a "floricane"), a stem does not grow taller, but produces several side shoots, which bear smaller leaves with three or five leaflets; the flowers are produced in late spring on short racemes on the tips of these side shoots, each flower about 1 cm (0.4 inches) diameter with five white petals. The fruit is red, edible, and sweet but tart-flavoured, produced in summer or early autumn; in botanical terminology, it is not a berry at all, but an aggregate fruit of numerous drupelets around a central core. In raspberries (various species of Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus), the drupelets separate from the core when picked, leaving a hollow fruit, whereas in blackberries and most other species of Rubus, the drupelets stay attached to the core.[5][6][7][8]

Biotope[edit]

As a wild plant, R. idaeus typically grows in forests, forming open stands under a tree canopy, and denser stands in clearings. In the south of its range (southern Europe and central Asia), it only occurs at high altitudes in mountains;[7] the species name idaeus refers to its occurrence on Mount Ida near Troy in northwest Turkey, where the ancient Greeks were most familiar with it.[8]

Cultivation and uses[edit]

A red raspberry plant in a nursery in Cranford, New Jersey.
A bowl of fresh-picked wild red raspberries in Riverdale, New Jersey.

R. idaeus is grown primarily for its fruits, but occasionally for its leaves, roots, or other parts.

Fruits[edit]

The fruit of R. idaeus is an important food crop, though most modern commercial raspberry cultivars derive from hybrids between R. idaeus and R. strigosus.[8] The fruits of wild plants have a sweet taste and are very aromatic.

Leaves and other parts[edit]

Red raspberries contains 31 μg/100 g of folate.[9] Red raspberries have antioxidant effects that play a minor role in the killing of stomach and colon cancer cells.[10][11]

Young roots of Rubus idaeus prevented kidney stone formation in a mouse model of hyperoxaluria.[12] Tiliroside from raspberry is a potent tyrosinase inhibitor and might be used as a skin-whitening agent and pigmentation medicine.[13]

Raspberry fruit may protect the liver.[14]

Chemistry[edit]

Vitamin C and phenolics are present in red raspberries. Most notably, the anthocyanins cyanidin-3-sophoroside, cyanidin-3-(2(G)-glucosylrutinoside) and cyanidin-3-glucoside, the two ellagitannins sanguiin H-6 and lambertianin C are present together with trace levels of flavonols, ellagic acid and hydroxycinnamate.[15]

Polyphenolic compounds from raspberry seeds have antioxidant effects in vitro,[16][17] but have no proven antioxidant effect in humans.[18] Raspberry ketones are derived from various fruits and plants, not raspberries, and are marketed as having weight loss benefits.[19] There is no clinical evidence for this effect in humans.[20]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Rubus idaeus L.". Richard Pankhurst et al. Royal Botanic Gardens Edinburgh – via The Plant List.CS1 maint: others (link)
  2. ^ "Rubus idaeus". Flora Europaea.
  3. ^ "Rubus idaeus". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 15 December 2017.
  4. ^ "Rubus idaeus var. strigosus". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 15 December 2017.
  5. ^ "Rubus idaeus". Flora of NW Europe.
  6. ^ Lu, Lingdi; Boufford, David E. "Rubus idaeus". Flora of China. 9 – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  7. ^ a b Blamey, M.; Grey-Wilson, C. (1989). Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. ISBN 0-340-40170-2..
  8. ^ a b c Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-47494-5..
  9. ^ Martin, H; Comeskey, D; Simpson, RM; Laing, WA; McGhie, TK (2010). "Quantification of folate in fruits and vegetables: a fluorescence-based homogeneous assay". Anal Biochem. 402 (2): 137–145. doi:10.1016/j.ab.2010.03.032.
  10. ^ Nutr Res. 30(11):777-782
  11. ^ McDougall, GJ; Ross, HA; Ikeji, M; Stewart, D (2008). "Berry extracts exert different antiproliferative effects against cervical and colon cancer cells grown in vitro". J Agric Food Chem. 56 (9): 3016–3023. doi:10.1021/jf073469n.
  12. ^ Ghalayini, IF; Al-Ghazo, MA; Harfeil, MN (2011). "Prophylaxis and therapeutic effects of raspberry (Rubus idaeus) on renal stone formation in Balb/c mice". Int Braz J Urol. 37 (2): 259–267.
  13. ^ Lu, YH; Chen, J; Wei, DZ; Wang, ZT; Tao, XY (2009). "Tyrosinase inhibitory effect and inhibitory mechanism of tiliroside from raspberry". J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 24 (5): 1154–1160. doi:10.1080/14756360802694252.
  14. ^ Gião, MS; Pestana, D; Faria, A; Guimarães, JT; Pintado, ME; Calhau, C; Azevedo, I; Malcata, FX (2010). "Effects of extracts of selected medicinal plants upon hepatic oxidative stress". J Med Food. 13 (1): 131–136. doi:10.1089/jmf.2008.0323.
  15. ^ Mullen, W.; Stewart, A. J.; Lean, M. E.; Gardner, P.; Duthie, G. G.; Crozier, A. (2002). "Effect of freezing and storage on the phenolics, ellagitannins, flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity of red raspberries". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 50 (18): 5197–5201. doi:10.1021/jf020141f. PMID 12188629.
  16. ^ Godevac, D; Tesević, V; Vajs, V; Milosavljević, S; Stanković, M (2009). "Antioxidant properties of raspberry seed extracts on micronucleus distribution in peripheral blood lymphocytes". Food Chem Toxicol. 47 (11): 2853–2859. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2009.09.006.
  17. ^ Aiyer, HS; Kichambare, S; Gupta, RC (2008). "Prevention of oxidative DNA damage by bioactive berry components". Nutr Cancer. 60 (Suppl 1): 36–42.
  18. ^ Gross, P (2009). "New Roles for Polyphenols. A 3-Part report on Current Regulations & the State of Science". Nutraceuticals World. Rodman Media. Retrieved April 11, 2013.
  19. ^ "The Sweet Taste of Weight Loss". Ohio State University Food Innovation Center. 2014. Retrieved 3 Sep 2014.
  20. ^ "Raspberry Ketone". WebMD.

External links[edit]