click links in text for more info

Ruch Chorzów

Ruch Chorzów is a Polish association football club based in Chorzów, Upper Silesia. It is one of the most successful football teams in Poland: fourteen-time national champions, three-time winners of the Polish Cup; the team plays in the Polish Fourth Division. Their stadium capacity is 9,300 seats. Ruch Chorzów has had a successful female handball team; the club was founded on 20 April 1920 in Bismarkhuta, one of the many industrialised municipalities in the eastern part of Upper Silesia, a disputed province between Poland and Germany. The main incentive was an appeal of the Polish Plebiscite Committee a few months earlier that led to creation of around one hundred sport associations, it took place in between the first and second Silesian Uprisings, to which the name Ruch is a supposed cover reference. The Polish word ruch is however a common noun for movement, not as associated with Polishness as names of many other clubs established after the appeal. On the other hand, the club's first match, a 3:1 win against Orzeł Józefowiec, was played on 3 May 1920, the day of the first Polish Constitution.

After the Upper Silesia plebiscite and the third Silesian Uprising in 1921 Bismarkhuta became part of Poland and the Silesian Voivodeship. The municipality was renamed to Wielkie Hajduki on 1 January 1923, hence the club was known as Ruch Wielkie Hajduki until another merger into the town Chorzów in the early 1939, with a short period in 1923 after the fusion with the older local German club Bismarckhütter Ballspiel Club, when it was known as Ruch BBC Wielkie Hajduki. After the merger the team played its games on the former BBC's pitch known as na Kalinie; the popular nickname of the club Niebiescy clung to the team in the 1920s. In autumn of 1920 Ruch won the promotion to the nascent Silesian Klasa A; the Blues were third out of fourteen teams in its first season, unfinished due to the third Silesian Uprising. The next year Ruch won the championship of the Silesian Klasa A and represented the region in the 1922 Polish Football Championship. In 1924 the club finished second in the regional top league, behind AKS Królewska Huta, before 1924 considered German and known as Verein für Rasenspiele Königshütte, the first team Ruch had developed a local rivalry with.

In 1925 the Silesian Klasa A did not play, instead Stanisław Flieger's Cup took place won by Ruch, which gave the side a start in the only interwar Polish Cup competition in 1926. On 4 July 1926 Józef Sobota, before 1920 a BBC's player, became the first Ruch's player of the Polish National Team, who scored a goal. In the same year, two weeks after the national Cup Ruch won for the second time the regional Klasa A establishing itself as one of the strongest football clubs in this densely populated region and as such it was among the founding clubs of the Polish national league in 1927. In 1933 Ruch won its first Championship as the first side from Silesia, with all the players who were born not further as a few kilometers from the na Kalinie pitch, thus the first golden era began. The local steel mill began to financially support the side. In the winter of 1933 the most noteworthy players such as Edmund Giemsa, Teodor Peterek and Gerard Wodarz were joined by legendary Ernst Wilimowski, bought from 1.

FC Kattowitz, who with Peterek and Wodarz were collectively nicknamed the three kings and helped to win another 4 championships. On 1 November 1934 as the last in the league, employed its first coach, Gustav Wieser; the side was a leader in the unfinished season 1939. The successes rendered the club the most popular in the voivodeship and accelerated building of the new stadium in the years 1934-1935, the current Stadion Miejski. After the German occupation of Poland in 1939, the club was discontinued but unofficially was renamed Bismarckhütter SV 99 and joined the Gauliga Oberschlesien in 1941; the club was re-established after the war. In 1947 Ruch won the regional championships. In 1948, under communist pressure, the club was renamed Unia Chorzów, in 1955 it became Unia-Ruch, in 1956 returned to the name Ruch; as Unia the club finished third in the first season of the reactivated national league in 1948 and in 1950 as the second team. In 1951 the club won the reactivated Polish Cup edition and were rewarded with the title of the National Champions.

The next two years the club won the title, first in 1952 after final against Polonia Bytom, another local bitter rival, in 1953 after finishing the league on the top position. The most renowned player of that era was Gerard Cieślik, who dedicated his whole life to the club and became its icon; the years 1957-1966 are considered a lost decade overshadowed by the successes of the new biggest regional rival, Górnik Zabrze though the club won the championships in 1960. A record of its kind in the national football history as the team consisted of only 14 players, 11 of whom originated in the town of Chorzów; the turn of the tide came in the season 1967/68 when Ruch won the 10th championship title breaking Górnik Zabrze's streak of five consecutive titles. Another golden era for the Blues arrived in the early 1970s with Michal Vičan as a coach. In 1972/73 the club finished second, in 1973/73 they won the only double in the history and advance

Lucy McCallum

Lucy McCallum is a judge of the Supreme Court of New South Wales. McCallum was born in Sydney, NSW, one of five children of naval cipher officers Ann and Douglas McCallum, went to school at North Sydney Girls High School. McCallum studied Arts at the University of NSW, graduating in 1983, continuing on to graduate with a Bachelor of Laws in 1986. During her time at university McCallum worked as a volunteer at the Redfern Legal Centre and created a program to teach legal rights to school children. McCallum commenced working as a solicitor in 1986 at Mallesons Stephen Jaques in commercial litigation, before becoming a prosecutor in the Director of Public Prosecutions for the Commonwealth and Queensland until she became a barrister in 1991. McCallum practised in a wide range of areas that included defamation, administrative law, she was counsel assisting HIH Royal Commission, represented asbestos victims in the James Hardie Inquiry, worked pro bono for refugees who were in immigration detention and in environmental matters.

McCallum was appointed a judge of the NSW Supreme Court on 30 January 2008 in the Common Law Division. Since 2014 McCallum has been the list judge for the Defamation list, has been the trial judge in numerous high-profile defamation and criminal cases, including a long running case brought by Helen Liu in which she seeks to have journalists reveal their sources, the trial of Simon Gittany for murder, McCallum was the first judge in Australia to consider whether Twitter was a separate publication of defamatory material. In considering a sexual harassment claim brought by Brigette Styles against Clayton Utz, McCallum referred to emails by another solicitor as "no advertisement for male sensitivity. In one of the emails, Mr Izzo speaks of'crazy single female chicks' who'just need a good **** to get them back to normal', it is difficult to decide whether it is more surprising that the remarks were made at all or that a lawyer recorded them in an email. In January 2019, Justice McCallum was elevated to the New South Wales Court of Appeal

History of CAD software

Designers have used computers for calculations since their invention. Digital computers were used in power system analysis or optimization as early as proto-"Whirlwind" in 1949. Circuit design theory or power network methodology was algebraic and vector-based. Between the mid-1940s and 1950s, various developments were made in computer software; some of these developments include servo-motors controlled by generated pulse, a digital computer with built-in operations to automatically coordinate transforms to compute radar related vectors, the graphic mathematical process of forming a shape with a digital machine tool. In 1953, MIT researcher Douglas T. Ross saw the "interactive display equipment" being used by radar operators, believing it would be what his SAGE-related data reduction group needed. Ross and the other researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory were the sole users of the complex display systems installed for the pre-SAGE Cape Cod system. Ross claimed in an interview that they "used it for their own personal workstation."

The designers of these early computers built utility programs to ensure programmers could debug software, using flowcharts on a display scope, with logical switches that could be opened and closed during the debugging session. They found that they could create electronic symbols and geometric figures to create simple circuit diagrams and flowcharts; these programs enabled objects to be reproduced at will. This presented numerous possibilities to them. Ross coined the term computer-aided design in 1959; the invention of the 3D CAD/CAM is attributed to French engineer Pierre Bézier. Between 1966 and 1968, after his mathematical work concerning surfaces, he developed UNISURF to ease the design of parts and tools for the automotive industry. UNISURF became the working base for the following generations of CAD software. In the 1960s, technological developments in the industries of aircraft, industrial control, electronics provided advancements in the fields of three-dimensional surface construction, NC programming, design analysis.

Most of these developments were independent of one another and not published until much later. Some of the mathematical description work on curves was developed in the early 1940s by Robert Issac Newton. In his 1957 novel The Door into Summer, Robert A. Heinlein hinted at the possibility of a robotic Drafting Dan. However, more substantial work on polynomial curves and sculptured surface was done by mathematician Paul de Casteljau from Citroen; the development of the SKETCHPAD system at MIT by Ivan Sutherland, who created a graphics technology company with David Evans, was a turning point. The distinctive feature of SKETCHPAD was that it allowed the designer to interact with their computer graphically. In effect, this feature of SKETCHPAD was a prototype for a graphical user interface, an indispensable feature of modern CAD. In 1963, under doctoral adviser Claude Shannon, Sutherland presented his PhD thesis paper, Sketchpad: A Man-Machine Graphical Communication System, at a Joint Computer Conference.

In his paper, he said: For drawings where motion of the drawing or analysis of a drawn problem is of value to the user, Sketchpad excels. For repetitive drawings or drawings where accuracy is required, Sketchpad is sufficiently faster than conventional techniques to be worthwhile. For drawings which communicate with shops, it is better to use conventional paper and pencil. Over time, efforts would be directed toward the goal of having the designers' drawings communicate not just with shops, but with the shop tool itself; the first commercial applications of CAD were in large companies within the automotive and aerospace industries, as well as in electronics. This was because only large corporations could afford the computers capable of performing the necessary calculations. Notable company projects included a joint project between Patrick J. Hanratty from GM and Sam Matsa, Doug Ross's MIT APT research assistant from IBM, to develop a prototype system for design engineers, DAC-1 1964, Lockheed projects, Bell GRAPHIC 1, Renault.

One of the most influential events in the development of CAD was the founding of Manufacturing and Consulting Services Inc. in 1971 by Patrick J. Hanratty, who wrote the system Automated Drafting And Machining, but more supplied code to companies such as McDonnell Douglas, Calma, Gerber and Control Data; as computers became more affordable, the application of CAD expanded into new areas. The development of CAD software for personal desktop computers was the impetus for universal application in all areas of construction. Other notable events in the 1960s and 1970s include the foundation of CAD systems United Computing, Intergraph, IBM, Intergraph IGDS in 1974, as well as the Applicon in 1969 and commercial CAD systems from Japanese manufacturers Seiko and Zuken during the 1970s. CAD implementations have evolved since this early development. With 3D in the 1970s, CAD was limited to producing drawings similar to hand-drafted drawings. Advances in programming and

2013 Zimbabwean general election

General elections were held in Zimbabwe on 31 July 2013. Incumbent President Robert Mugabe was re-elected, whilst his ZANU–PF party won a two-thirds majority in the House of Assembly; this was the first election held under the new constitution approved in a referendum in March 2013 and signed into law by President Robert Mugabe on 22 May. The Supreme Court ruled on 31 May that President Mugabe should set a date as soon as possible, that presidential and parliamentary elections must be held by 31 July; the ruling followed an application to the court by a Zimbabwean citizen, Jealousy Mawarire, demanding that the country's president set the date for elections before the expiry of the tenure of the seventh parliament, on 29 June 2013. Under the new constitution the winner of the presidential election would serve a five-year term. Robert Mugabe, ZANU-PF Welshman Ncube, MDC-N Morgan Tsvangirai, MDC-T Dumiso Dabengwa, ZAPU Kisinoti Mukwazhe, ZDP. Candidacy withdrawn. Most of Zimbabwe's 2010 districts had candidates from all of the three major parties: ZANU-PF, one of the two formulations of the MDC, ZAPU.

Minor party candidates and independents rounded out the field in some districts. In accepting the election date, Tsvangirai said that reforms should have preceded the election, as he began his election campaign, he claimed that the country wanted to vote Mugabe out. Launching his election campaign, Mugabe called it "a do or die struggle" while making a strong appeal for a peaceful campaign. In the same speech, he warned that he could take Zimbabwe out of SADC "if SADC decides to do stupid things". Although there were initial discussions about forming a grand coalition between the two MDC parties and other opposition parties, by 9 July two separate coalitions had been formed, one comprising MDC-T, Mavambo/Kusile/Dawn and ZANU-Ndonga, the other coalition comprising MDC and ZAPU. During the campaign, party regalia was supplied by the two main political parties in huge quantities. MDC-T supporters wore red apparel, whilst ZANU-PF supporters wore a variety of colours borrowed from the national flag.

Allegations were made in 2011, that a third of registered voters were dead or aged 120. These accusations were repeated in 2013, with the additional claim that a considerable number of young voters had not been registered; the Zimbabwe Election Support Network, a local observer group with 7,000 monitors, listed a litany of offences, including state media bias, a campaign of intimidation in rural areas, the rushed electoral process before key reforms to the security services were in place. But the most effective measure was tampering with the electoral rolls. Held back until the day before the election – thus avoiding proper scrutiny – the roll revealed an estimated one million invalid names, including many deceased voters, it excluded up to one million real ones in urban areas where MDC support is strongest. On the day of the elections, one of Zimbabwe's electoral commissioners resigned. In his resignation letter, Mkhululi Nyathi of the Zimbabwe Electoral Commission wrote, "I do not wish to enumerate the many reasons of my resignation, but they all have to do with the manner the Zimbabwe 2013 harmonised elections were proclaimed and conducted."The Electoral Commission reported that 305,000 voters were turned away from polls, with an additional 207,000 voters being "assisted" in casting their ballots.

There were more than 100,000 centenarian ghost voters on the electoral roll. On 9 August 2013, the Movement for Democratic Change sought to have the results declared null and void. A week they withdrew their petition. Despite their withdrawal the Supreme Court of Zimbabwe ruled that the election was "free and credible". Robert Mugabe won 61 percent of the vote to claim a sixth term as president, was sworn in on Thursday 22 August. Morgan Tsvangirai finished second with 34 per cent of the vote. Mugabe's Zanu-PF party dominated the parliamentary election winning 160 seats. Tsvangirai's Movement for Democratic Change party won 49 seats. Reports by the Zimbabwe Election Support Network monitoring group said as many as one million people in urban areas, were unable to cast votes. Other reports suggested; the African Union had monitors in place and said the election could have been handled better, but that initial reports indicated a fair election had occurred. Western groups were not allowed to send monitors.

A Both the elected independent MPs had failed to win the ZANU-PF nomination for their constituencies. The elections were called a "huge farce" by Tsvangirai who said the country was "in mourning" about the results, he claimed over a million voters were turned away from the polling stations, said the Movement for Democratic Change would no longer work with Mugabe nor participate in government institutions. He promised to fight the results in diplomatically. African Union – The African Union declared that the elections were "free and credible." Botswana – The government of President Ian Khama has called for an audit of the election results and the Foreign Minister, Phandu Skelemani, has stated that "various incidents and circumstances were revealed that call into question whether the entire electoral process, thus its final result, can be recognised as having been fair and credible." Mozambique – President Armando Guebuza demanded that the elections be a topic of the 2013 SADC Summit in Lilongwe, Malawi.

Mauritius – The Prime Minister, Navin Ramgoolam, congratulated President Mugabe and expressed his view that ZANU-PF's victory will usher in a new era of prosperity and peace for Zimbabweans. Namibia – President Hifikepuny

Jack Black (author)

Jack Black was a hobo and professional burglar. Born in 1871 in New Westminster, British Columbia, he was raised from infancy in the U. S. state of Missouri. He wrote You Can't Win, a memoir or sketched autobiography describing his days on the road and life as an outlaw. Black's book was written as an anti-crime book urging criminals to go straight, but it is his statement of belief in the futility of prisons and the criminal justice system, hence the title of the book. Jack Black was writing from experience, having spent thirty years as a traveling criminal and offers tales of being a cross-country stick-up man, home burglar, petty thief, opium fiend, he gained fame through association with William S. Burroughs, his writings had a profound effect on the writings and lives of all the Beat Generation. Jack Black is an anonymous figure; some 1904 news articles name him as Jack Black, alias Tom Callahan, while a 1912 newspaper article names him Thomas Callaghan, alias Jack Black, another gives his alias as Harry Klein.

One of his nicknames among criminals was Blacky. After his last spell in prison, Black became friends with wealthy patron Fremont Older and worked for Older's newspaper The San Francisco Call, he worked on his autobiography with Rose Wilder Lane and composed essays and lectured throughout the country on prison reform. He was rumored to have received a stipend of $150 a week to draft a screenplay titled Salt Chunk Mary with co-author Bessie Beatty, based around the infamous vagabond ally and fence of the same name in You Can't Win; the play flopped. His philosophy on life was influential to William S. Burroughs, Burroughs associated with similar characters in his early adulthood and mirrored the style of You Can't Win with his first published book, Junkie, he is believed to have committed suicide in 1932 by drowning, as he told his friends that if life got too grim, he would row out into New York Harbor and, with weights tied to his feet, drop overboard. In You Can't Win Black describes this state of mind as being "ready for the river".

You Can't Win. It points a sufficiently obvious moral, yet one that too many at the present day are prone to forget. A deeper question is raised, and, regarding the validity of the practical aims and ideals of the majority of people in our modern world. Jamboree author Black is a graduate of five penitentiaries, was pried loose from a 25-year prison term and helped to overcome his addiction to narcotics by mustachioed Editor Fremont Older of the San Francisco Call-Bulletin; this play is a dramatization of Black's book. "Every character in this play is drawn from the personal experiences of Jack Black during his years as a criminal or as a prisoner. The types are real and these people lived. Jack had been a sort of a reign of terror...just before the earthquake and fire of 1906. Every crime committed in San Francisco during the first three months of that year was ascribed to Jack Black, he returned to New York and Fremont thought Jack did what he always said any down-and-outer should do, "fill his pockets with rocks and take a header into the bay."

Black, Jack. You Can't Win. New York: Macmillan Company, 1926. Foreword by Robert Herrick. OCLC 238829961 _____. You Can't Win: the Autobiography of Jack Black. New York: Amok Press, 1988. Foreword by William S. Burroughs. ISBN 0-941693-07-4 OCLC 153562506 _____. Du kommst nicht durch. Berlin: Kramer, 1998. ISBN 3-87956-240-7 OCLC 75910135 _____. You Can't Win. 2nd edition. Edinburgh: AK Press/Nabat books, 2000. ISBN 1-902593-02-2 OCLC 44737608 _____. You Can't Win.: BN Publishing, 2007. ISBN 956-291-509-3 OCLC 187421471 List of people who disappeared Black, You Can't Win, New York, New York, USA: Macmillan Company, LCCN 26017437, OCLC 238829961. "Out of prison", San Francisco Bulletin, February/March 1917. "The big break at Folsom", San Francisco Bulletin, January 1917. Black, Jack "What's wrong with the right people?", Harper's Monthly Magazine, June 1929. Black, Jack "A burglar looks at laws and codes", Harper's Monthly Magazine, February 1930. "Jack Black's Tales of Jail Birds", New York World, December 21, 1930.

Jamboree, with Jack Black and Bessie Beatty. San Francisco Call, Volume 111, Number 36, 5 January 1912

Warrior Formation

The Cambrian Warrior Formation is a mapped limestone bedrock unit in Pennsylvania. The Warrior Formation is described by Berg and others as gray, thin- to medium-bedded, cyclic limestone bearing stromatolites, interbedded with shale and sandstone. Trilobites, including Crepicephalus and Llanoaspidella Brachiopods Cryptozoon, a type of trace fossil Stromatolites Type section: Warrior Run, 1 mile east of Williamsburg, Blair County Warrior Creek, east of Warriors Mark, Huntingdon County Section near Waddle, Pennsylvania. Relative age dating places the Warrior Formation in the middle to late Cambrian