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Rudi Altig

Rudi Altig was a German professional track and road racing cyclist who won the 1962 Vuelta a España and the world championship in 1966. After his retirement from sports he worked as a television commentator. Rudi Altig was born in Mannheim, Germany, an area which had produced good track riders, he began racing following his older brother, Willi. The brothers teamed for madison and other two-man races; the British promoter, Jim Wallace, booked Altig to ride with Hans Jaroszewicz at a meeting on Herne Hill velodrome in Good Friday in 1956. He said: What a pair they made! They just about slaughtered a top-class field of international riders, with all our best home lads. Only Michel Rousseau that year to become world sprint champion, was able to take a points sprint from them; that was in the first sprint, too. They went on to Coventry and did much the same thing, winning everything in which they rode, so classy was their performance. Altig became national sprint champion in 1957 and 1958. Karly Ziegler, a coach, took over his preparation when he joined the Endspurt Mannheim club and Altig became a pursuiter.

He won the madison championship with his brother. That year he beat many of the world's best pursuiters to become world champion in Amsterdam. Altig was allowed by the Union Cycliste Internationale to turn professional in 1960 within a year of his world championship, he rode his first professional six-day, in Denmark, that winter. Wallace said: No man settled down better or quicker to a pro career than the able Altig. In the hurly-burly world of indoor track racing. Rudi never seemed a novice. Settling down at once, tearing strips off established stars, he soon started to fill indoor tracks which had long forgotten the welcome sight of a'house full' sign, he brought back the biggest winter racing boom to Germany for many years, reminiscent of the balmy pre-war days. With seven tracks at home - more than in the rest of Europe - Altig had a busy time and was soon in the big money, he won 62 races on the track. He won 22 six-day races in Germany, including four in Cologne and Dortmund, he never rode the Giro di Lombardia because it clashed with the start of the winter season on the track.

He said: I rode the track because I could win money. If I hadn't been able to win money on the track, I wouldn't have travelled all the velodromes of the world to ride six-days. Now, riders are better paid and they don't need to hammer themselves on the road and the track. We, in our era, we did everything to try to win money. Modern times are different, you have to understand that. You can't compare the two eras, but I don't regret ours. Altig, 1.80 m tall and weighed 80 kg, sprinted on the track on 52 or 53 × 16 and rode pursuits on 52 × 15. "He gave his bikes as hard a time as he gave his adversaries," said the writer, Olivier Dazat. Altig started his professional career as a track rider. Altig agreed, he won the Vuelta a España and three of its stages in 1962. He led the general classification for five days in his first Tour de France that same season, winning three stages and the points competition, finishing 31st, he won his first classic in 1964, the Tour of Flanders after riding 60 km alone and winning by four minutes.

In the same year he won the German National Road Race. In 1965 he finished second to Englishman Tom Simpson in the professional road championship in San Sebastián, Spain. Simpson said: I could not accept that Altig could beat me. Going round the back of the circuit we came to a gentleman's agreement. Both of us had worked hard in our little break and therefore we each deserved an equal chance of victory. We agreed to separate when we reached the one kilometre to go ride in side by side. Altig was quite happy about this. So there we were, two gentlemen fighting a duel over the last kilometre. I was glad. I have always regarded him as a great rider and his showing that day did nothing to make me change my mind, but the world title was not denied for long: he won the 1966 championship not too far away from his home, at the Nürburgring. There was controversy because Altig had been helped by Gianni Motta, riding that day for Italy but Altig's companion in the Molteni team; the concern was overshadowed by the refusal of the first three riders to give urine samples for a drugs check.

They were protesting at what they saw was the laxity with which tests were carried out and at what they considered restrictions on the way they prepared themselves. Altig said: "We are professionals, not sportsmen." The three were disqualified and suspended but ten days the Union Cycliste Internationale allowed the result to stand. Altig took three stages in that year's Tour, finishing 12th place overall, two more in the Giro d'Italia, in which he came 13th; the second and final classic win came in the 1968 Milan–San Remo. He took two stages of that year's Vuelta, finishing 18th overall. In 1969 he finished 9th in the Giro, won the prologue individual time trial of the Tour de France. Altig rode his first Tour as a domestique and as team sprinter for Jacques Anquetil; the two developed a rocky relationship in the Tour of Spain that hardened when Altig took the yellow jersey early in the Tour de France. Anqueti

Carole Lombard

Carole Lombard was an American film actress. She was noted for her energetic off-beat roles in the screwball comedies of the 1930s, she was the highest-paid star in Hollywood in the late 1930s. Lombard was born into a wealthy family in Fort Wayne, but was raised in Los Angeles by her single mother. At 12, she was recruited by the film director Allan Dwan and made her screen debut in A Perfect Crime. Eager to become an actress, she signed a contract with the Fox Film Corporation at age 16, but played bit parts, she was dropped by Fox just before her 18th birthday after a shattered windshield from car accident left a scar on her face. Lombard appeared in 15 short comedies for Mack Sennett between 1927 and 1929, began appearing in feature films such as High Voltage and The Racketeer. After a successful appearance in The Arizona Kid, she was signed to a contract with Paramount Pictures. Paramount began casting Lombard as a leading lady in drama films, her profile increased when she married William Powell in 1931, but the couple divorced after two years.

A turning point in Lombard's career came when she starred in Howard Hawks's pioneering screwball comedy Twentieth Century. The actress found her niche in this genre, continued to appear in films such as Hands Across the Table, My Man Godfrey, for which she was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress, Nothing Sacred. At this time, Lombard married "the King of Hollywood", Clark Gable, the supercouple gained much attention from the media. Keen to win an Oscar, Lombard began to move towards more serious roles at the end of the decade. Unsuccessful in this aim, she returned to comedy in Alfred Hitchcock's Mr. & Mrs. Smith and Ernst Lubitsch's To Be or Not to Be —her final film role. Lombard's career was cut short when she died at the age of 33 on board TWA Flight 3 on Mount Potosi, while returning from a war bond tour. Today, she is remembered as one of the definitive actresses of the screwball comedy genre and American comedy, ranks among the American Film Institute's greatest female stars of classic Hollywood cinema.

Lombard was born in Fort Indiana, on October 6, 1908 at 704 Rockhill Street. Christened with the name Jane Alice Peters, she was the third child and only daughter of Frederick Christian Peters and Elizabeth Jayne "Bessie" Peters, her two older brothers, to each of whom she was close, both growing up and in adulthood, were Frederick Charles and John Stuart. Lombard's parents both descended from wealthy families and her early years were lived in comfort, with the biographer Robert Matzen calling it her "silver spoon period"; the marriage between her parents was strained, in October 1914, her mother took the children and moved to Los Angeles. Although the couple did not divorce, the separation was permanent, her father's continued financial support allowed the family to live without worry, if not with the same affluence they had enjoyed in Indiana, they settled into an apartment near Venice Boulevard in Los Angeles. Described by her biographer Wes Gehring as "a free-spirited tomboy", the young Lombard was passionately involved in sports and enjoyed watching movies.

At Virgil Junior High School, she participated in tennis and swimming, won trophies for her achievements in athletics. At the age of 12, this hobby unexpectedly landed Lombard her first screen role. While playing baseball with friends, she caught the attention of the film director Allan Dwan, who recalled seeing "a cute-looking little tomboy... out there knocking the hell out of the other kids, playing better baseball than they were. And I needed someone of her type for this picture." With the encouragement of her mother, Lombard took a small role in the melodrama A Perfect Crime. She was on set for two days. Dwan commented, "She ate it up". A Perfect Crime was not distributed, but the brief experience spurred Lombard and her mother to look for more film work; the teenager attended several auditions. While appearing as the queen of Fairfax High School's May Day Carnival at the age of 15, she was scouted by an employee of Charlie Chaplin and offered a screen test to appear in his film The Gold Rush.

Lombard was not given the role. Her test was seen by the Vitagraph Film Company, which expressed an interest in signing her to a contract. Although this did not materialize, the condition that she adopt a new first name lasted with Lombard throughout her career, she selected the name "Carol" after a girl with. In October 1924, shortly after these disappointments, 16-year-old Lombard was signed to a contract with the Fox Film Corporation. How this came about is uncertain: in her lifetime, it was reported that a director for the studio scouted her at a dinner party, but more recent evidence suggests that Lombard's mother contacted Louella Parsons, the gossip columnist, who got her a screen test. According to the biographer Larry Swindell, Lombard's beauty convinced Winfield Sheehan, head of the studio, to sign her to a $75-per-week contract; the teenager abandoned her schooling to embark on this new career. Fox was happy to use the name Carol. From this point, she became "Carol Lombard", the new name taken from a family friend.

The majority of Lombard's appearances with Fox were bit parts in low-budget Westerns and adventure films. She comment

Annie Kemp Bowler

Annie Kemp Bowler was a popular stage actress and singer, best known for appearing in the original cast of The Black Crook in 1866. Born Annie Kemp, she played the role of Stalacta in that musical. In the original advertisements, she was billed as "Miss Annie Kemp, Prima donna Contralto from Covent Garden, her first appearance in America in six years." She married English tenor Brookhouse Bowler performed with the Richings company and other opera companies. She died on August 21, 1876 from injuries sustained from a fall five days earlier, while rehearsing the famed transformation scene of The Black Crook for a performance at Philadelphia's National Theater, she was buried at Mount Moriah Cemetery in Philadelphia. In New York unless otherwise stated: Linda di Chamounix Acis and Galatea by F. C. Burnand as Acis The Black Crook The White Fawn Fra Diavolo Macbeth as Hecate, in farewell performance of Charlotte Cushman at Booth's Theatre. Kemp's rendition of Auld Lang Syne to close out the night was noted at the time.

Annie Kemp Bowler at the Internet Broadway Database CDV of Bowler, at

Hounsfield scale

The Hounsfield scale, named after Sir Godfrey Hounsfield, is a quantitative scale for describing radiodensity. It is used in CT scans, where its value is termed CT number; the Hounsfield unit scale is a linear transformation of the original linear attenuation coefficient measurement into one in which the radiodensity of distilled water at standard pressure and temperature is defined as zero Hounsfield units, while the radiodensity of air at STP is defined as -1000 HU. In a voxel with average linear attenuation coefficient μ, the corresponding HU value is therefore given by: H U = 1000 × μ − μ water μ water − μ air where μ water and μ air are the linear attenuation coefficients of water and air. Thus, a change of one Hounsfield unit represents a change of 0.1% of the attenuation coefficient of water since the attenuation coefficient of air is nearly zero. It is the definition for CT scanners; the above standards were chosen as they are universally available references and suited to the key application for which computed axial tomography was developed: imaging the internal anatomy of living creatures based on organized water structures and living in air, e.g. humans.

The Hounsfield scale applies to medical-grade CT scans but not to cone beam computed tomography scans. A practical application of this is in evaluation of tumors, for example, an adrenal tumor with a radiodensity of less than 10 HU is rather fatty in composition and certainly a benign adrenal adenoma. Cone beam computed tomography#Bone density and the Hounsfield scale Feeman, Timothy G.. The Mathematics of Medical Imaging: A Beginner's Guide. Springer Undergraduate Texts in Technology. Springer. ISBN 978-0387927114. "Hounsfield unit". Medcyclopaedia. GE. Hounsfield Unit - "Introduction to CT physics". Archived from the original on 2007-09-26. Imaging of deep brain stimulation leads using extended Hounsfield unit CT. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2009. Doi: 10.1159/000209296


Urpín is a mountain in the city of Banská Bystrica, Slovakia. It is situated above the old town. Despite its low elevation of 510 m AMSL, Urpín dominates the cityscape due to its proximity to the city center; the mountain offers a panoramic view of the Hron basin from the easternmost outskirts of Banská Bystrica to the town of Zvolen, as well as of the surrounding mountain ranges of the Low Tatras and the Veľká Fatra. It is accessible by several hiking trails from the center of Banská Bystrica. Historical monuments located on Urpín chart the turbulent history of the city built underneath this mountain. However, in defiance of its urban environs, the forested mountain is characterized by the diverse fauna and flora. Urpín is covered by a beech forest. Other widespread trees are the pine and tilia; the top of the mountain has a typical forest steppe vegetation. Despite its proximity to a major city, Urpín contains 35 endangered animal species and many rare plant species, it is home to 280 species of spiders.

An alley of 64 Tilia platyphyllos trees was planted in the 18th century, but the aged trees are now an important part of the ecosystem. A nature preserve founded in 1997 covers an area of 5.02 ha of Urpín. The Ottoman Empire's advance northwards in the 16th century threatened rich mining towns in central Slovakia. Banská Bystrica, a European leading producer of copper, responded to a new danger by modernizing its fortification; as part of its early warning system, the city built a watchtower on one of Urpín's summits in 1587. The Slovak archaic word for a watchtower gave the name to the summit itself; the watchtower was connected to the city by a secret underground passage, passing under the river of Hron. After it was damaged during the World War II, the tower was converted into an astronomical observatory. Another historical monument on Urpín is the Calvary. Although Banská Bystrica was in the 17th century part of an empire ruled by a Catholic dynasty of the Habsburgs, the city itself was purely Protestant.

During the state-sponsored Counter-reformation, the Order of Jesuits arrived to Banská Bystrica in 1648. In 1689 the Jesuits founded a pilgrimage site on Urpín. A church was built on the top in 1713 and small shrines representing the Stations of the Cross were raised along the trail leading to the church in 1714; the interior of the church featured a flag decorated with 1.21 kg of silver. The church and shrines were reconstructed in 2007; the works were finished by putting in a new bell weighing 80 kg. Along with the reconstruction began the building of a small monastery in the vicinity of the old church, achieved in 2008. A celebratory mass was held in the church on 28 September 2008 by Mons. Rudolf Baláž, bishop of Banská Bystrica; the church is dedicated to the Holy Cross and during Lent, there are processions of Way of the Cross organized every week. Urpín has been a popular place of recreation; the trails leading to the top used to be equipped with nightlights. Until the 1960s, dixieland bands played music on Urpín every Sunday afternoon, attracting dancers and partygoers from the city beneath the mountain.

As a natural dominant of Banská Bystrica, the mountain has given its name to some of the city's companies and organizations, such as the Urpiner Beer, Hotel Urpín, the Urpín folklore ensemble

KDI School of Public Policy and Management

The KDI School of Public Policy and Management is a government-run graduate school located in Sejong City, South Korea and is affiliated to the Korea Development Institute and a member of the National Research Council for Economics and Social Sciences. The school was first established in 1997 in Dongdaemun District, before moving to Sejong City in 2015 under the South Korean government's actions to establish the city as the de facto administrative capital of the country; the school specializes in fostering international experts in the field of development economics and public policy. Selective, the school takes on a small number of Korean and international students for its Master and Ph. D programs taught in an institute-style research environment; the KDI School was established in 1997 under the authorization of the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development by the Korea Development Institute, an autonomous economic policy think tank set up by the South Korean government in 1971 to provide research and analysis of economic policy decisions and to monitor South Korea's rapid economic development.

As Korea's leading think tank, the Korea Development Institute established the KDI School of Public Policy and Management to educate and develop the next generation of leaders in a changing global economy. Throughout its young history, the KDI School of Public Policy and Management has formed partnerships with major institutions and agencies related to South Korea's economic and international activities. In 1999, the school was appointed by the Korea International Cooperation Agency as a partner institution, sharing knowledge and resources while supporting a small number of students with scholarships. In 2001, the KDI School was designated as the Korean hub for the World Bank's Global Development Learning Network. More the World Bank has appointed the school with the role of Global Development Learning Network Global Secretariat. In 2015, the KDI School was relocated from Dongdaemun District, to Sejong City; this move was, in part, due to the earlier creation of Sejong City from parts of both South Chungcheong Province and North Chungcheong Province by the Korean government.

The Korean government established Sejong City as a de facto administrative capital for South Korea and since construction, over 36 government agencies have relocated from Seoul and other cities to it. As the Korea Development Institute's main mission is to conduct economic research and produce reports for government agencies and private businesses, the move of the KDI School was in coordination with the greater movement of government agencies that the Korea Development Institute works with. Since its establishment, KDI School of Public Policy and Management has developed an innovative educational program focusing on policy and international issues in order to transform mid-career professionals into leaders of their respective fields by equipping them with new knowledge, vision and a global perspective; the curriculum is policy-focused and draws upon the wealth of research and resources from the Korea Development Institute. From the institute's history in documenting South Korea's economic growth, the affiliation between the institute and the graduate school has contributed in disseminating Korea's unique economic and social development experiences with the global community.

The KDI School has been recognized throughout Korea and the world as a premier institution for research and learning in the field of development studies, development economics, public policy. The KDI School is counted as 6th Top think tank in Asia, 22nd in the world and 8th best affiliated think tank in the world; the postgraduate programs have undergone significant change since the school's establishment. While offering a Master of Development Policy, Master of Public Management, Master of Public Policy, a Ph. D. program, in the past, the KDI School has offered a Master of Business Administration, Master of Business, Master of Foreign Direct Investment, Master in Asset Management and an International Master's Program in Practicing Management. The KDI School of Public Policy and Management offers master's degree programs and a Ph. D. program. The school's curricula draw from accumulated resources of KDI and strive to meet the diverse and professional demands of the global economy. Master of Public Policy Master of Development Policy Master of Public Management Ph.

D. Program Non-Degree Certificate ProgramsThe Master's programs are divided into full-time and part-time courses. Full-time students are able to complete their coursework by the end of the first year and spend the second year working on their research component. Full-time students are able to graduate in 18 months. Part-time programs operate in a flexible combination of weekend classes. Part-time students may graduate within two years while maintaining their current careers. Both full-time and part-time courses are available for the MPP programs. All classes are conducted in English; the Master's programs in the KDI School are divided into three programs: Master of Development Policy Program Based on KDI's hands-on experience in development policy, the Master of Development Policy program examines various socio-economic issues in both theoretical and practical frameworks. The program provides capacity building for international professionals, including government officials, development consultants and regional specialists who wish to contribute to development policy-making.

Additional focus falls on fostering professionals in the field of official d