Munich is the capital and largest city of the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps. Munich is the third largest city in Germany, after Berlin and Hamburg, the Munich Metropolitan Region is home to 5.8 million people. According to the Globalization and World Rankings Research Institute Munich is considered an alpha-world city, the name of the city is derived from the Old/Middle High German term Munichen, meaning by the monks. It derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who ran a monastery at the place that was to become the Old Town of Munich, Munich was first mentioned in 1158. From 1255 the city was seat of the Bavarian Dukes and gold—the colours of the Holy Roman Empire—have been the citys official colours since the time of Ludwig the Bavarian, when it was an imperial residence. Following a final reunification of the Wittelsbachian Duchy of Bavaria, previously divided and sub-divided for more than 200 years, like wide parts of the Holy Roman Empire, the area recovered slowly economically.
In 1918, during the German Revolution, the house of Wittelsbach, which governed Bavaria since 1180, was forced to abdicate in Munich. In the 1920s, Munich became home to political factions, among them the NSDAP. During World War II, Munich was heavily bombed and more than 50% of the entire city, the postwar period was characterised by American occupation until 1949 and a strong increase of population and economic power during the years of the Wirtschaftswunder after 1949. The city is home to corporations like BMW, Siemens, MAN, Linde and MunichRE as well as many small. Munich is home to national and international authorities, major universities, major museums. Its numerous architectural attractions, international events and conferences. Munich is one of the most prosperous and fastest growing cities in Germany and it is a top-ranked destination for migration and expatriate location, despite being the municipality with the highest density of population in Germany. Munich nowadays hosts more than 530,000 people of foreign background, the year 1158 is assumed to be the foundation date, which is the earliest date the city is mentioned in a document.
The document was signed in Augsburg, by that time the Guelph Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, had built a bridge over the river Isar next to a settlement of Benedictine monks—this was on the Old Salt Route and a toll bridge. In 1175, Munich was officially granted city status and received fortification, in 1180, with the trial of Henry the Lion, Otto I Wittelsbach became Duke of Bavaria and Munich was handed over to the Bishop of Freising. In 1240, Munich was transferred to Otto II Wittelsbach and in 1255, Duke Louis IV, a native of Munich, was elected German king in 1314 and crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in 1328. He strengthened the position by granting it the salt monopoly
Max Planck Institute for Medical Research
The Max Planck Institute for Medical Research in Heidelberg, Germany, is a facility of the Max Planck Society for basic medical research. Since its foundation, six Nobel Prize laureates worked at the Institute, Otto Fritz Meyerhof, Richard Kuhn, Walther Bothe, André Michel Lwoff, Rudolf Mößbauer, the Institute has close ties with Heidelberg University. The institute was opened in 1930 as the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Medical Research and its original goal was to apply the methods of Physics and Chemistry to basic medical research, and it included departments of Chemistry and Biophysics. In the 1960s, new developments in biology were reflected with the establishment of the Department of Molecular Biology, toward the end of the 1980s and during the 1990s, investigations began into the specific functions of muscle and nerve cells. New departments were established in Cell Physiology, Molecular Cell Research, Molecular Neurobiology, Biomedical Optics, the independent junior research groups for Ion Channel Structure and Developmental Genetics of the Nervous System were founded.
The institute currently has three departments and two independent junior research groups, the Department of Biomedical Optics studies the activity of groups of nerve cells in tissue preparations and in laboratory animals with the use and continued development of multiquantum microscopy. The research in the Department of Biomolecular Mechanisms is aimed at establishing the basis of model reactions, using the methods of biophysics. The independent junior research group Behavioural Neurophysiology aims to understand how complex behaviour emerges from the properties of molecules, the Emeritus Group on Biophysics focuses on structures of actin and myosin at atomic resolution. Scientists are particularly interested in the nature of synapses, the points between nerve cells in the neural network. How information is stored and retrieved in synapses, how new synapses are formed, there are plans to miniaturise multiquantum microscopy and improve the level of penetration to measure activity in the cerebral cortex of freely moving mice.
The research in the Department of Biomolecular Mechanisms is aimed at establishing the basis of model reactions, using the methods of biophysics. The Department of Molecular Neurobiology led by Prof. Peter H, the independent junior research group Behavioural Neurophysiology aims to understand how complex behaviour emerges from the properties of molecules and ensembles of cells. The library of the Max Planck Institute for Medical Research is a library containing specialized scientific literature. It serves teaching and research in the fields of sciences, biology. The opening time for users are from Monday to Friday,09.00 AM to 12.00 AM02.00 PM to 04.00 PM For members of the Institute
Pieter Zeeman was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Hendrik Lorentz for his discovery of the Zeeman effect. Pieter Zeeman was born in Zonnemaire, a town on the island of Schouwen-Duiveland, Netherlands, to Catharinus Forandinus Zeeman, a minister of the Dutch Reformed Church. He became interested in physics at an early age, in 1883 the Aurora borealis happened to be visible in the Netherlands. Zeeman, a student at the school in Zierikzee, made a drawing and description of the phenomenon and submitted it to Nature. The editor praised the careful observations of Professor Zeeman from his observatory in Zonnemaire, after finishing high school in 1883 he went to Delft for supplementary education in classical languages, a requirement for admission to University. He stayed at the home of Dr J. W. Lely, co-principal of the gymnasium and brother of Cornelis Lely, while in Delft, he first met Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, who was to become his thesis adviser. After Zeeman passed the exams in 1885, he studied physics at the University of Leiden under Kamerlingh Onnes.
In 1890, even finishing his thesis, he became Lorentzs assistant. This allowed him to participate in a programme on the Kerr effect. In 1893 he submitted his thesis on the Kerr effect. After obtaining his doctorate he went for half a year to Friedrich Kohlrauschs institute in Strasbourg, in 1895, after returning from Strasbourg, Zeeman became Privatdozent in mathematics and physics in Leiden. The same year he married Johanna Elisabeth Lebret, they had three daughters and one son and he was fired for his efforts, but he was vindicated, he won the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics for the discovery of what has now become known as the Zeeman effect. As an extension of his thesis research, he began investigating the effect of magnetic fields on a light source and he discovered that a spectral line is split into several components in the presence of a magnetic field. The next Monday, Lorentz called Zeeman into his office and presented him with an explanation of his observations, the importance of Zeemans discovery soon became apparent.
It confirmed Lorentzs prediction about the polarization of light emitted in the presence of a magnetic field and this conclusion was reached well before Thomsons discovery of the electron. The Zeeman effect thus became an important tool for elucidating the structure of the atom, because of his discovery, Zeeman was offered a position as lecturer in Amsterdam in 1897. In 1900 this was followed by his promotion to professor of physics at the University of Amsterdam, in 1902, together with his former mentor Lorentz, he received the Nobel Prize for Physics for the discovery of the Zeeman effect. Five years later, in 1908, he succeeded Van der Waals as full professor and Director of the Physics Institute in Amsterdam, a new laboratory built in Amsterdam in 1923 was renamed the Zeeman Laboratory in 1940
California Institute of Technology
The California Institute of Technology is a private doctorate-granting university located in Pasadena, United States. The vocational and preparatory schools were disbanded and spun off in 1910, the university is one among a small group of Institutes of Technology in the United States which is primarily devoted to the instruction of technical arts and applied sciences. Caltech has six divisions with strong emphasis on science and engineering, managing $332 million in 2011 in sponsored research. Its 124-acre primary campus is located approximately 11 mi northeast of downtown Los Angeles, first-year students are required to live on campus, and 95% of undergraduates remain in the on-campus House System at Caltech. Although Caltech has a tradition of practical jokes and pranks. The Caltech Beavers compete in 13 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA Division IIIs Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference, Caltech is frequently cited as one of the worlds best universities. There are 112 faculty members who have elected to the United States National Academies.
In addition, numerous faculty members are associated with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute as well as NASA, according to a 2015 Pomona College study, Caltech ranked number one in the U. S. for the percentage of its graduates who go on to earn a PhD. Caltech started as a school founded in Pasadena in 1891 by local businessman and politician Amos G. Throop. The school was known successively as Throop University, Throop Polytechnic Institute, the vocational school was disbanded and the preparatory program was split off to form an independent Polytechnic School in 1907. At a time when research in the United States was still in its infancy, George Ellery Hale. He joined Throops board of trustees in 1907, and soon began developing it and he engineered the appointment of James A. B. Scherer, a literary scholar untutored in science but a capable administrator and fund raiser, scherer persuaded retired businessman and trustee Charles W. Gates to donate $25,000 in seed money to build Gates Laboratory, the first science building on campus.
In 1910, Throop moved to its current site, arther Fleming donated the land for the permanent campus site. The promise of Throop attracted physical chemist Arthur Amos Noyes from MIT to develop the institution and assist in establishing it as a center for science, with the onset of World War I, Hale organized the National Research Council to coordinate and support scientific work on military problems. This institution, with its able investigators and excellent research laboratories, through the National Research Council, Hale simultaneously lobbied for science to play a larger role in national affairs, and for Throop to play a national role in science. During the course of the war, Hale and Millikan worked together in Washington on the NRC, they continued their partnership in developing Caltech. Under the leadership of Hale and Millikan, Caltech grew to prominence in the 1920s
Research reactors are nuclear reactors that serve primarily as a neutron source. They are called non-power reactors, in contrast to power reactors that are used for electricity production, heat generation, Research reactors that produce radioisotopes for medical or industrial use are sometimes called isotope reactors. Reactors that are optimised for beamline experiments nowadays compete with spallation sources, Research reactors are simpler than power reactors and operate at lower temperatures. They need far less fuel, and far less fission products build up as the fuel is used and they have a very high power density in the core, which requires special design features. Like power reactors, the core needs cooling, typically natural or forced convection with water, as neutron production is their main function, most research reactors benefit from reflectors to reduce neutron loss from the core. The International Atomic Energy Agency and the U. S, by that time the U. S. had supplied research reactors and highly enriched uranium to 41 countries as part of its Atoms for Peace program.
In 2004, the U. S. Department of Energy extended its Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance program until 2019, in 2004, the Texas A&M reactor switched to LEU after decades using HEU. These changes are a part of an initiative since 9/11 begun by the Bush Administration. The market has consolidated today into a few companies that concentrate the key projects on a worldwide basis, the most recent international tender for a research reactor was that organized by ANSTO for the design and commissioning of the OPAL reactor. Four companies were prequalified, AECL, INVAP, Siemens and Technicatom, the project was awarded to INVAP that built the reactor. In recent years, AECL withdrew from this market, and Siemens, Research centers that operate a reactor, BR2 Reactor research reactor at the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK•CEN, Belgium. OPAL at Lucas Heights near Sydney, Australia IEA-R1 pool-type reactor at Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares in São Paulo, pool-type reactor at Moscow Engineering Physics Institute in Moscow.
NMI3 - EU-FP7 Integrated Infrastructure Initiative for Neutron Scattering and Muon Spectroscopy
Elliott Cresson Medal
The Elliott Cresson Medal, known as the Elliott Cresson Gold Medal, was the highest award given by the Franklin Institute. The award was established by Elliott Cresson, life member of the Franklin Institute, the medal was first awarded in 1875,21 years after Cressons death. The Franklin Institute continued awarding the medal on a basis until 1998 when they reorganized their endowed awards under one umbrella. A total of 268 Elliott Cresson Medals were given out during the awards lifetime
Antoine Henri Becquerel was a French physicist, Nobel laureate, and the first person to discover evidence of radioactivity. For work in this field he, along with Marie Skłodowska-Curie and Pierre Curie, the SI unit for radioactivity, the becquerel, is named after him. Roentgen discovered X-rays on November 8,1895, the press reported this on January 5,1896, shortly before Becquerel did his famous experiment. Thus radioactivity was discovered the year but within a year of the discovery of X-rays. Becquerel was born in Paris into a family which produced four generations of scientists, Becquerels grandfather, father. He studied engineering at the École Polytechnique and the École des Ponts et Chaussées, in 1890 he married Louise Désirée Lorieux. In 1892, he became the third in his family to occupy the chair at the Muséum National dHistoire Naturelle. In 1894, he became chief engineer in the Department of Bridges, Becquerels earliest works centered on the subject of his doctoral thesis, the plane polarization of light, with the phenomenon of phosphorescence and absorption of light by crystals.
Becquerels discovery of radioactivity is a famous example of serendipity. Becquerel had long interested in phosphorescence, the emission of light of one color following a bodys exposure to light of another color. His first experiments appeared to show this, one places on the sheet of paper, on the outside, a slab of the phosphorescent substance, and one exposes the whole to the sun for several hours. When one develops the photographic plate, one recognizes that the silhouette of the phosphorescent substance appears in black on the negative. If one places between the phosphorescent substance and the paper a piece of money or a metal screen pierced with a cut-out design, one must conclude from these experiments that the phosphorescent substance in question emits rays which pass through the opaque paper and reduce silver salts. But further experiments led him to doubt and abandon this hypothesis, since the sun did not come out in the following days, I developed the photographic plates on the 1st of March, expecting to find the images very weak.
Instead the silhouettes appeared with great intensity, the present experiments, without being contrary to this hypothesis, do not warrant this conclusion. I hope that the experiments which I am pursuing at the moment will be able to bring some clarification to this new class of phenomena. In 1903, Becquerel shared the Nobel Prize in Physics with Pierre, by 1861, Niepce de Saint-Victor realized that uranium salts produce a radiation that is invisible to our eyes. Niepce de Saint-Victor knew Edmond Becquerel, Henri Becquerels father, in 1868, Edmond Becquerel published a book, La lumière, ses causes et ses effets
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, the exploration of the interactions of matter and energy across the physical universe. A physicist is a scientist who specializes or works in the field of physics, physicists generally are interested in the root or ultimate causes of phenomena, and usually frame their understanding in mathematical terms. Physicists can apply their knowledge towards solving real-world problems or developing new technologies, some physicists specialize in sectors outside the science of physics itself, such as engineering. The study and practice of physics is based on a ladder of discoveries. Many mathematical and physical ideas used today found their earliest expression in ancient Greek culture and Asian culture, the bulk of physics education can be said to flow from the scientific revolution in Europe, starting with the work of Galileo and Kepler in the early 1600s. New knowledge in the early 21st century includes an increase in understanding physical cosmology.
The term physicist was coined by William Whewell in his 1840 book The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences, many physicist positions require an undergraduate degree in applied physics or a related science or a Masters degree like MSc, MPhil, MPhys or MSci. In a research oriented level, students tend to specialize in a particular field, Physics students need training in mathematics, and in computer science and programming. For being employed as a physicist a doctoral background may be required for certain positions, undergraduate students like BSc Mechanical Engineering, BSc Electrical and Computer Engineering, BSc Applied Physics. etc. With physics orientation are chosen as research assistants with faculty members, the highest honor awarded to physicists is the Nobel Prize in Physics, awarded since 1901 by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. The three major employers of career physicists are academic institutions and private industries, with the largest employer being the last, physicists in academia or government labs tend to have titles such as Assistants, Professors, Sr.
/Jr. As per the American Institute for Physics, some 20% of new physics Ph. D. s holds jobs in engineering development programs, while 14% turn to computer software, a majority of physicists employed apply their skills and training to interdisciplinary sectors. For industry or self-employment. and in science and programming. Hence a majority of Physics bachelors degree holders are employed in the private sector, other fields are academia and military service, nonprofit entities and teaching