The Kakatiya dynasty was a South Indian dynasty whose capital was Orugallu, now known as Warangal. It was conquered by the Delhi Sultanate; the demise of Kakatiya dynasty resulted in confusion and anarchy under alien rulers for sometime, before the Musunuri Nayaks brought stability to the region. Studies of the inscriptions and coinage by the historian Dineshchandra Sircar reveal that there was no contemporary standard spelling of the family name. Variants include Kakatiya, Kakita and Kakatya; the family name was prefixed to the name of the monarch, giving constructs such as Kakatiya-Prataparudra. Some of the monarchs had alternate names; the dynasty's name derives from the word "Kakati", variously thought to be the name of a goddess or a place. It is possible that Kakati was the name of a deity worshipped by the early Kakatiya chiefs, the name of the place where they resided. Kumarasvami Somapithin, a 15th-century writer who wrote a commentary on Vidyanatha's Prataparudriya, states that the dynasty was named after Kakati, a form of the goddess Durga.
Although the Hindu mythological texts do not mention any such form of Durga, the worship of a goddess named Kakati is attested by several other sources. For example, Vallabharaya's Krida-bhiramamu mentions an image of Kakatamma in the Kakatiya capital Orugallu; the 16th century Shitap Khan inscription mentions the reinstallation of the image of goddess Jaganmatrika and the lotus seat of the Kakatirajya, destroyed by the Turushkas. According to one theory, Kakati was a Jain goddess, came to be regarded as a form of Durga; the Bayyaram tank inscription from the reign of Ganapati-deva names the family's founder as Venna, states that he resided at Kakati, because of which his descendants came to be known as Kakatishas. Ganapati-deva's Garavapadu charter names the family's founder as Durjaya, states that his descendant Karikala Chola arrived at a town called Kakati during a hunting expedition, set up his camp there; the modern identity of Kakati is uncertain: different historians have variously attempted to identify it with modern Kakati village in Karnataka and Kanker in Chhattisgarh.
Siddeshvara Charitra, a literary work, states that the ancestors of the Kakatiya family lived at Kandarapura. However, no other evidence supports this tradition. Much of the information about the Kakatiya period comes from inscriptions, including around 1,000 stone inscriptions, 12 copper-plate inscriptions. Most of these inscriptions document matters relating to religion, such as donations to Hindu temples, they are abundant for the period 1175–1324 CE, the period when the dynasty most flourished and are a reflection of that. The probability is that many inscriptions have been lost due to buildings falling into disuse and the ravages of subsequent rulers, most notably the Muslim Mughal Empire in the Telangana region. Inscriptions are still being discovered today but governmental agencies tend to concentrate on recording those that are known rather than searching for new examples. According to a 1978 book, written by P. V. P. Sastry's 1978 book on the history of the Kakatiyas, published by the Government of Andhra Pradesh Information about the Kakatiya period comes from Sanskrit and Telugu literary works written during Kakatiya and post-Kakatiya period.
The most notable among these works include Prataparudriyam, Krida-bhiramamu, Panditaradhya-charitamu, Nitisara, Niti-shastra-muktavali, Nritta-ratnavali, Pratapa-charita, Siddheshvara-charitra, Somadeva-rajiyamu, Palnativira-charitra, Velugotivari-vamsavali, Velugotivari-vamsacharitra. Chronicles by Muslim authors such as Isami and Firishta describe Prataparudra's defeats against the Muslim armies; the Kannada text Kumara-Ramana-charita provides information about Prataparudra's relations with the Kampili kingdom. Besides epigraphs and literature, the forts and tanks constructed during the Kakatiya period are an important source of information about the contemporary society and architecture; the Kakatiya rulers traced their ancestry to a legendary ruler named Durjaya. Many other ruling dynasties of Andhra claimed descent from Durjaya. Nothing further is known about this chief. Most of the Kakatiya records do not mention the varna of the family, but the majority of the ones that do, proudly describe them as Shudra.
Examples include the Vaddamanu inscriptions of Ganapati's general Malyala Gunda senani. The Kakatiyas maintained marital relations with other Shudra families, such as the Kotas and the Natavadi chiefs. All these pieces of evidence indicate. A few copper-plate inscriptions of the Kakatiya family describe them as belonging to the Kshatriya varna; these inscriptions document grants to brahmans, appear to be inspired by the genealogies of the imperial Cholas. For example, the Motupalli inscription of Ganapati counts legendary solar dynasty kings such as Rama among the ancestors of Durjaya, the progenitor of the Kakatiya family; the Malkapuram inscription of Vishveshvara Shivacharya, the preceptor of Kakatiya rulers Ganapati-deva and Rudrama-devi connects the Kakatiyas to the solar dynasty. The term "Kshatriya" in these panegyric records appears to signify the family's warrior-like qualities rather than their actual varna; the regnal years of the early members of the Kakatiya family are not certain.
Venna, said to have been
Kannada is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India in the state of Karnataka, by significant linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Telangana and abroad. The language has 43.7 million native speakers, who are called Kannadigas. Kannada is spoken as a second and third language by over 12.9 million non-Kannada speakers living in Karnataka, which adds up to 56.6 million speakers. It is one of the scheduled languages of India and the official and administrative language of the state of Karnataka; the Kannada language is written using the Kannada script, which evolved from the 5th-century Kadamba script. Kannada is attested epigraphically for about one and a half millennia, literary Old Kannada flourished in the 6th-century Ganga dynasty and during the 9th-century Rashtrakuta Dynasty. Kannada has an unbroken literary history of over a thousand years. Kannada literature has been presented with 8 Jnanapith awards, the most for any Dravidian language and the second highest for any Indian language.
Based on the recommendations of the Committee of Linguistic Experts, appointed by the ministry of culture, the government of India designated Kannada a classical language of India. In July 2011, a center for the study of classical Kannada was established as part of the Central Institute of Indian Languages at Mysore to facilitate research related to the language. Kannada is a Southern Dravidian language, according to Dravidian scholar Sanford B. Steever, its history can be conventionally divided into three periods: Old Kannada from 450–1200 CE, Middle Kannada from 1200–1700, Modern Kannada from 1700 to the present. Kannada is influenced to an appreciable extent by Sanskrit. Influences of other languages such as Prakrit and Pali can be found in the Kannada language; the scholar Iravatham Mahadevan indicated that Kannada was a language of rich oral tradition earlier than the 3rd century BCE, based on the native Kannada words found in Prakrit inscriptions of that period, Kannada must have been spoken by a widespread and stable population.
The scholar K. V. Narayana claims that many tribal languages which are now designated as Kannada dialects could be nearer to the earlier form of the language, with lesser influence from other languages; the sources of influence on literary Kannada grammar appear to be three-fold: Pāṇini's grammar, non-Paninian schools of Sanskrit grammar Katantra and Sakatayana schools, Prakrit grammar. Literary Prakrit seems to have prevailed in Karnataka since ancient times; the vernacular Prakrit speaking people may have come into contact with Kannada speakers, thus influencing their language before Kannada was used for administrative or liturgical purposes. Kannada phonetics, vocabulary and syntax show significant influence from these languages; some naturalised words of Prakrit origin in Kannada are: baṇṇa derived from vaṇṇa, hunnime from puṇṇivā. Examples of naturalized Sanskrit words in Kannada are: varṇa, arasu from rajan, paurṇimā, rāya from rāja. Like the other Dravidian languages Kannada has borrowed words such as dina, surya, nimiṣa and anna.
Purava HaleGannada: This Kannada term translated means "Previous form of Old Kannada" was the language of Banavasi in the early Common Era, the Satavahana, Chutu Satakarni and Kadamba periods and thus has a history of over 2500 years. The Ashoka rock edict found at Brahmagiri has been suggested to contain words in identifiable Kannada. According to Jain tradition, the daughter of Rishabhadeva, the first Tirthankara of Jainism, invented 18 alphabets, including Kannada, which points to the antiquity of the language. Supporting this tradition, an inscription of about the 9th century CE, containing specimens of different alphabets Dravidian, was discovered in a Jain temple in the Deogarh fort. In some 3rd–1st century BCE Tamil inscriptions, words of Kannada influence such as'nalliyooraa','kavuDi' and posil' have been introduced; the use of the vowel a' as an adjective is not prevalent in Tamil but its usage is available in Kannada. Kannada words such as'gouDi-gavuDi' transform into Tamil's kavuDi' for lack of the usage of Ghosha svana in Tamil.
Hence the Kannada word'gavuDi' becomes'kavuDi' in Tamil.'Posil' was introduced into Tamil from Kannada and colloquial Tamil uses this word as'Vaayil'. In a 1st-century CE Tamil inscription, there is a personal reference to ayjayya', a word of Kannada origin. In a 3rd-century CE Tamil inscription there is usage of'oppanappa vIran'. Here the honorific'appa' to a person's name is an influence from Kannada. Another word of Kannada origin is found in a 4th-century CE Tamil inscription. S. Settar studied the'sittanvAsal' inscription of first century CE as the inscriptions at'tirupparamkunram','adakala' and'neDanUpatti'; the inscriptions were studied in detail by Iravatham Mahadevan also. Mahadevan argues that the words'erumi','kavuDi','poshil' and'tAyiyar' have their origin in Kannada because Tamil cognates are not available. Settar adds the words'nADu' and'iLayar' to this list. Mahadevan feels that some grammatical categories found in these inscriptions are unique to Kannada rather than Tamil. Both these scholars attribute these influences to the movements and spread of Jainas in these regions.
These inscriptions belong to the period between the first century BCE and fourth century CE. These are some examples that are proof of the early usage of a few Kannada origin words in early Tamil inscriptions before the common era and in the
Gunasekar is an Indian film director and screenwriter known for his works in Telugu cinema. Gunasekhar directed the Children's classic Ramayanam, which won the National Film Award for Best Children's Film, including several state Nandi Awards for that year, was screened at the International Children’s Film Festival of India; the 2003 action film, which won eight state Nandi Awards, four Filmfare Awards South including the Filmfare Award for Best Director – Telugu, the blockbuster film became the highest grossing Telugu film for that year, was remade into various Indian languages. His latest venture is the historical film, Rudhramadevi, released in October 2015 for wide positive reviews and became one of the biggest hits of the year. Before venturing into mainstream film direction, Gunasekar worked as an associate director to D. V. Narsaraju, Kranthi Kumar, Ram Gopal Varma. Gunasekhar made his directorial debut with the socio-political Lathi, for which he received the state Nandi Award for Best First Film of a Director.
He directed the super-hit romance film, Sogasu Chooda Tharamaa, which again received the Nandi Award for Best Feature Film, the super-hit action thriller, Choodalani Vundi, which introduced the DTS sound to the Telugu screen, the film was remade into Hindi as Calcutta Mail. He directed the political thriller, which again bagged the Nandi Award for Best Story, the Nandi Award for Best Feature Film; the 2004 drama film Arjun was screened at the International Film Festival of India in the mainstream section. Home page Gunasekhar on IMDb
Seuna (Yadava) dynasty
The Seuna, Sevuna or Yadavas of Devagiri was an Indian dynasty, which at its peak ruled a kingdom stretching from the Tungabhadra to the Narmada rivers, including present-day Maharashtra, north Karnataka and parts of Madhya Pradesh, from its capital at Devagiri. The Yadavas ruled as feudatories of the Western Chalukyas. Around the middle of the 12th century, as the Chalukya power waned, the Yadava king Bhillama V declared independence; the Yadava kingdom reached its peak under Simhana II, flourished until the early 14th century, when it was annexed by the Delhi Sultanate. The Seuna dynasty claimed descent from the Yadavas and therefore, its kings are referred to as the "Yadavas of Devagiri"; the correct name of the dynasty, however, is Sevuna. The inscriptions of this dynasty, as well as those of contemporary kingdoms, the Hoysala, Kakatiya dynasty and Western Chalukyas call them Seunas; the name is derived from the name of their second ruler, "Seunachandra". The "Sevuna" name was brought back into use by John Faithfull Fleet in his book The dynasties of the Kanarese districts of the Bombay Presidency from the earliest historical times to the Musalman conquest of A.
D. 1318. The earliest historical ruler of the Seuna/Yadava dynasty can be dated to the mid-9th century, but the origin of the dynasty is uncertain. Little is known about their early history: their 13th century court poet Hemadri records the names of the family's early rulers, but his information about the pre-12th century rulers is incomplete and inaccurate; the dynasty claimed descent from a hero mentioned in the Puranic legends. According to this account, found in Hemadri's Vratakhanda as well as several inscriptions, their ancestors resided at Mathura, migrated to Dvaraka in present-day Gujarat. A Jain mythological legend states that the Jain saint Jainaprabhasuri saved the pregnant mother of the dynasty's founder Dridhaprahara from a great fire that destroyed Dvaraka. A family feudatory to the Yadavas migrated from Vallabhi to Khandesh, but otherwise, no historical evidence corroborates their connection to Dvaraka. The dynasty never tried to conquer Dvaraka, or establish any political or cultural connections with that region.
Its rulers started claiming to be descendants of Yadu and migrants from Dvaraka after becoming politically prominent. Dvaraka was associated with Yadu's descendants, the dynasty's claim of connection with that city may be a result of their claim of descent from Yadu rather than their actual geographic origin; the Hoysalas, the southern neighbours of the dynasty claimed descent from Yadu and claimed to be the former lords of Dvaraka. The territory of the early Yadava rulers was located in present-day Maharashtra, several scholars have claimed a "Maratha" origin for the dynasty. However, the language of present-day Maharashtra, began to appear as the dominant language in the dynasty's inscriptions only in the 14th century, before which Kannada and Sanskrit were the primary language of their inscriptions. Marathi appears in around two hundred Yadava inscriptions, but as translation of or addition to Kannada and Sanskrit text. During the last half century of the dynasty's rule, it became the dominant language of epigraphy, which may have been a result of the Yadava attempts to connect with their Marathi-speaking subjects, to distinguish themselves from the Kannada-speaking Hoysalas.
The earliest instance of the Yadavas using the term "marathe" as a self-designation appears in a 1311 inscription recording a donation to the Pandharpur temple, towards the end of the dynasty's rule. Epigraphic evidence suggests that the dynasty emerged from a Kannada-speaking background. Around five hundred Yadava inscriptions have been discovered, Kannada is the most common language of these inscriptions, followed by Sanskrit. Of the inscriptions found in present-day Karnataka, most are in Kannada script. Older inscriptions from Karnataka attest to the existence of Yadava feudatories ruling in the Dharwad region in the 9th century, although these feudatories cannot be connected to the main line of the dynasty with certainty. Many of the dynasty's rulers had Kannada names and titles such as "Dhadiyappa", "Bhillama", "Rajugi", "Vadugi" and "Vasugi", "Kaliya Ballala"; some kings had names like "Simhana" and "Mallugi", which were used by the Kalachuris of Kalyani, who ruled in present-day Karnataka.
Records show that one of the early rulers, Seunachandra II, had Sellavidega. The rulers had close matrimonial relationships with Kannada-speaking royal families throughout their rule. Bhillama II was married to Lachchiyavve, from a Rashtrakuta descendant family in Karnataka. Vaddiga was married to daughter of Rashtrakuta chieftain Dhorappa. Wives of Vesugi and Bhillama III were Chalukya princesess; the early Seuna coins had Kannada legends engraved on them indicating it was a court language. The early Yadavas may have migrated northwards owing to the political situation in the Deccan region, or may have been dispatched by their Rashtrakuta overlords to rule the northern regions; the earliest attested ruler of the dynasty is Dridhaprahara, said to have established the city of Chandradityapura. He rose to prominence by protecting the people of Khandesh region from enemy raiders, amid the instability brought by the Pratihara-Rashtrakuta war. Dridhaprahara son and successor was Seun
Telugu cinema known by its sobriquet Tollywood, is the segment of Indian cinema dedicated to the production of motion pictures in the Telugu language, based in Film Nagar, a neighborhood of Hyderabad, Telangana. Since 1909, filmmaker Raghupathi Venkaiah was involved in producing short films and travelling to different regions in Asia to promote film work. In 1921, he produced Bhishma Pratigna, he is cited as the father of Telugu cinema. Tollywood is the second largest film industry in India after bollywood. In 1933, East India Film company has produced Savitri in Telugu; the film was based on a popular stage play by Mylavaram Bala Bharathi Samajam, directed by father of the "Telugu theatre Movement" Chittajallu Pullaiah and cast stage actors Vemuri Gaggaiah and Dasari Ramathilakam as "Yama" and "Savithri" respectively. The film was shot with a budget of estimated ₹1 million in Calcutta; the blockbuster film has received an honorary diploma at the 2nd Venice International Film Festival. The first film studio in South India, Durga Cinetone, was built in 1936 by Nidamarthi Surayya in Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh.
The 1951 film Patala Bhairavi was the only South Indian film screened at the first India International Film Festival, held in Mumbai on 24 January 1952. CNN-IBN listed Patala Bhairavi, Devadasu, Nartanasala, Maro Charithra, Maa Bhoomi, Sagara Sangamam and Siva, among The 100 Greatest Indian Films of All Time. In the years 2005, 2006, 2008, 2014 the industry has produced the largest number of films in India, exceeding the number of films produced in Bollywood; the industry holds the Guinness World Record for the largest film production facility in the world, Ramoji Film City. The Prasads IMAX located in Hyderabad is one of the largest 3D IMAX screens, the most attended cinema screen in the world; as per the CBFC report of 2014, the industry is placed first in India, in terms of films produced yearly. The industry holds a memorandum of understanding with the Motion Picture Association of America to combat video piracy; the Telugu film industry was originated with silent films in 1912, with the production and release of Anusha Adusumalli in 1921 The film was directed by Raghupathi Venkaiah Naidu and his son R. S. Prakash.
On the other hand, Yaragudipati Varada Rao and, R. S. Prakash Rao have established a long-lasting precedent of focusing on religious themes. In 1935, Andhra Cine Tone was built in Visakhapatnam by Gottumukkala Jagannadha Raju, he introduced digital theater sound with the 1935 film Jagadamba. The first Telugu film with audible dialogue, Bhakta Prahlada, was produced by H. M. Reddy, who directed the first South Indian talkie Kalidas. Bhakta Prahlada was completed on 15 September 1931, which henceforth became known as "Telugu Film Day" to commemorate its completion. Popularly known as talkies, films with sound grew in number and popularity. In 1934, the industry saw its first major commercial success with Lavakusa. Directed by C. Pullaiah and starring Parupalli Subbarao and Sriranjani in lead roles, the film attracted unprecedented numbers of viewers to theatres and thrust the young industry into mainstream culture. By 1936, the mass appeal of film allowed directors to move away from religious and mythological themes.
That year, under the direction of Krithiventi Nageswara Rao, Prema Vijayam, a film focusing on social issues, was released. Its success prompted the production of dozens of other immensely successful'social films', notably 1939's Vandemataram, touching on societal problems like the practice of giving dowry, Telugu films focused on contemporary living: 29 of the 96 films released between 1937 and 1947 had social themes. In 1938, Gudavalli Ramabrahmam, has co-produced and directed the social problem film, Mala Pilla which dealt with the crusade against untouchability, prevailing in pre-independent India. In 1939, He directed Raithu Bidda; the film was banned by the British administration in the region, for depicting the uprise of the peasantry among the Zamindar's during the British raj. 1940 film, Viswa Mohini, is the first Indian film, depicting the Indian movie world. The film was directed by Y. V. Rao and scripted by Balijepalli Lakshmikanta Kavi, starring Chittor V. Nagaiah in the lead role.
1951 film Malliswari is the first Telugu film, to be screened at International film festivals like Asia Pacific Film Festival. The film had a public release with thirteen prints along with Chinese subtitles at Beijing on 14, March 1953, a 16 mm film print was screened in the United States; the film was directed by Bommireddy Narasimha Reddy, a recipient of the Dada Saheb Phalke Award, the Doctor of Letters honour. The outbreak of World War II and the subsequent resource scarcity caused the British Raj to impose a limit on the use of filmstrip in 1943 to 11,000 feet, a sharp reduction from the 20,000 feet, common till then; as a result, the number of films produced during the war was lower than in previous years. Nonetheless, before the ban, an important shift occurred in the industry: Independent studios formed and actresses were signed to contracts limiting whom they could work for, films moved from social themes to folklore legends. Ghantasala Balaramayya, has directed the mythological Seetarama Jananam under his home production, Prathiba Picture, marking veteran ANR's Telugu film acting debut in 1944.
Moola Narayana Swamy and B. N. Reddy founded Vijaya Vauhini Studios in 1948 in the city of Chennai. Indian film doyen L. V
Warangal is a city in the Indian state of Telangana. It is the district headquarters of Warangal Urban District. Warangal is the second largest and Metropolitan City in Telangana after Hyderabad, spreading across 471 km2 with a population of 819,406. Warangal City Development Plan is proposed to cover an area of 1805 sq.km with population of about 819,406 Along with 11 other cities in the country known for having a rich cultural heritage, it has been chosen for the HRIDAY – Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana scheme by the Government of India. It was selected as a smart city in the "fast-track competition", which makes it eligible for additional investment to improve urban infrastructure and industrial opportunities under the Smart Cities Mission. Kakatiya Urban Development Authority was constituted by the local government for the planning and management of the Kakatiya Urban Development Area under the aegis of the Urban Areas Act of 1975 vide G. O. Ms. No. 1177 M. A. dated 6-11-1981.
KUDA is in the process of preparation of a Master Plan for the horizon year 2041. The region is spread over three districts – Warangal Rural, Warangal Urban and Jangaon in Telangana covering 19 Mandals and 181 Villages with a combined area of 1,805 square kilometres. Total population as per 2011 census is 819,406, with around 62% of the population living in urban areas; the Master Plan is being prepared in accordance with the provisions of Telangana Urban Areas Act, 1975. The KUDA/ Government of Telangana has appointed LEA Associates South Asia Pvt. Ltd. India, A LEA Group Company, for Preparation of Master Plan for the KUDA Area; the Plan is aimed to be prepared in 9 months duration starting from July 2017. Warangal served as the capital of the Kakatiya dynasty, established in 1163; the monuments left by the Kakatiyas include fortresses, lakes and stone gateways which, in the present, helped the city to become a popular tourist attraction. The Kakatiya Kala Thoranam was included in the emblem of Telangana by the state government.
During the Kakatiya rule, Warangal was referred with various names like Orugallu, Ekasila Nagaram, or Omatikonda all these means a'single stone' referring to a huge granite boulder present in the Warangal fort. When the kakatiyan dynasty was defeated by Delhi Sultanate in 1323, ruler Juna khan conquered the city and renamed it as Sultanpur. Musunuri Nayaks recaptured warangal in 1336 A. D. and named it Orugallu again. Warangal was the ancient capital of kakatiya dynasty, it was ruled by many kings such as BetaRaja I, ProlaRaja I, BetaRaja II, ProlaRaja II, Mahadeva, Ganapathideva and Rani Rudrama Devi, the only woman to rule over Telugu region. Beta Raja I is the founder of Kakatiya Dynasty and ruled the kingdom for 30 years and was succeeded by his son Prola Raja I who shifted his capital to Hanamkonda. During the rule of Ganapathideva, the capital was shifted from Hanamkonda to Warangal. Kakatiya Period Inscriptions praised Warangal as best city within all of Telugu region up to shores of the Ocean.
The Kakatiyas left many monuments, including an impressive fortress, four massive stone gateways, the Swayambhu temple dedicated to Shiva, the Ramappa temple situated near Ramappa Lake. The cultural and administrative distinction of the Kakatiyas was mentioned by Marco Polo. After the defeat of Prataparudra II, the Musunuri Nayaks united 72 Nayak chieftains and captured Warangal from Delhi Sultanate and ruled for fifty years. After the demise of the Nayaks, Warangal was part of the Bahmani Sultanate and the Sultanate of Golconda; the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb conquered Golconda in 1687, it remained part of the Mughal empire until the southern provinces of the empire split away to become the state of Hyderabad in 1724, which included the Telangana region and some parts of Maharashtra and Karnataka. Hyderabad was annexed to India in 1948, became an Indian state called as Hyderabad state. In 1956 Hyderabad state was partitioned as part of the States Reorganisation Act, Telangana, the Telugu-speaking region of Hyderabad state, which includes Warangal, became part of Andhra Pradesh.
After the Telangana movement, Telangana state was formed on 2 June 2014, warangal became part of Telangana State. Warangal is located at 18.0°N 79.58°E / 18.0. It has an average elevation of 302 metres, it is settled in the eastern part of Deccan Plateau made up of granite rocks and hill formations which left the region barren making the cultivation dependent on seasonal rainfall. There are no major rivers flowing near the city, making it reliant on the Kakatiya Canal which originates from Sriram Sagar Project to meet the city's water requirements. Located in the semi-arid region of Telangana, Warangal has a predominantly dry climate. Summer starts in March, peak in May with average high temperatures in the 42 °C range; the monsoon lasts until September with about 550 mm of precipitation. A dry, mild winter starts in October and lasts until early February, when there is little humidity and average temperatures in the 22–23 °C range. Many hill rocks and lakes are located around warangal. Padmakshi hill, mettu gutta, hanumathgiri gutta, ursu gutta and Govinda Rajula Gutta are famous hills with temples.
Bhadrakali Lake, Dharmasagar lake and Waddepally Lake are the three famous lakes which adds scenic beauty and are the major sources of drinking water. Greater Warangal Municipal Corporation is the civic body of the city, which oversees the civic needs. Established in 1899, it is one of the oldest urban local bodies in India; the GWMC covers an area of 406.87 square kilometres. City planning is governe
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who