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Rugby Football Union

The Rugby Football Union is the governing body for rugby union in England. It was founded in 1871, was the sport's international governing body prior to the formation of what is now known as World Rugby in 1886, it promotes and runs the sport, organises international matches for the England national team, educates and trains players and officials. The RFU is an industrial and provident society owned by over 2,000 member clubs, representing over 2.5 million registered players, forms the largest rugby union society in the world, one of the largest sports organisations in England. It is based at London. In September 2010 the equivalent women's rugby body, the Rugby Football Union for Women, was able to nominate a member to the RFU Council to represent women and girls rugby; the RFUW was integrated into the RFU in July 2012. On 4 December 1870, Edwin Ash of Richmond and Benjamin Burns of Blackheath published a letter in The Times suggesting that "those who play the rugby-type game should meet to form a code of practice as various clubs play to rules which differ from others, which makes the game difficult to play."

On 26 January 1871 a meeting attended by representatives from 21 clubs was held in London at the Pall Mall Restaurant on Regent Street. The 21 clubs present at the meeting were: Blackheath, Ravenscourt Park, West Kent, Marlborough Nomads, Wimbledon Hornets, Civil Service, The Law Club, Wellington College, Guy's Hospital, Clapham Rovers, Harlequin F. C. King's College Hospital, St Paul's, Queen's House, Addison and Belsize Park; the one notable omission was the Wasps. According to one version, a Wasps' representative was sent to attend the meeting, but owing to a misunderstanding was sent to the wrong venue at the wrong time on the wrong day. Ealing Rugby Club received an invitation, but their representative stopped in a public house and missed the meeting; as a result of this meeting the Rugby Football Union was founded. Algernon Rutter was elected as the first president of the RFU, Edwin Ash was elected as treasurer. Three lawyers who were Rugby School alumni drew up the first laws of the game, which were approved in June 1871.

Although similar unions were organised during the next few years in Ireland, Scotland, New Zealand, France, South Africa, the United States, the RFU was the first and therefore had no need to distinguish itself from others by calling itself the English RFU. Twenty-two rugby clubs from across the north of England met on 29 August 1895 in the George Hotel in Huddersfield, where they voted to secede from the Rugby Football Union; the main reason for the split was the wish of players to be compensated for lost wages when playing Rugby. Many working class players in the North lost wages to play; the R. F. U. Opposed players being paid, they set up the Northern Rugby Football Union. The RFU took strong action against the clubs involved in the formation of the NRFU, all of whom were deemed to have forfeited their amateur status and therefore to have left the RFU. A similar interpretation was applied to all players who played either for or against such clubs, whether or not they received any compensation.

These players were barred indefinitely from any involvement in organised rugby union. These comprehensive and enduring sanctions, combined with the localised nature of most rugby competition, meant that most northern clubs had little practical option but to affiliate with the NRFU in the first few years of its existence; the RFU long resisted competitions and leagues fearing that they would encourage foul play and professionalism. The first club competition known as the R. F. U. Club Competition, took place in 1972. Following a sponsorship agreement it became known as the John Player Cup in 1976; the RFU agreed to the formation of a league pyramid in 1987. In 2005 the RFU began talks about a merger with the governing body for women's rugby union the RFUW. In September 2010 the RFUW was able to nominate a member to the RFU Council to represent women and girls rugby; the RFUW was integrated into the RFU in July 2012. In response to the faltering results of the England national team, Rob Andrew was appointed on 18 August 2006 by the RFU to the post of Director of Elite Rugby, to oversee all aspects of representative rugby in England from the regional academies to the full senior side, including senior team selection powers and the power to hire and fire coaches at all levels of English rugby.

Andrew had the task of building bridges with the premiership clubs and the RFU in terms of players withdrawal from their club duties for international duties. On 6 January 2011 his role of Director of Elite Rugby was scrapped in an overhaul of the organisation's structure. Chief executive John Steele opted to create a single rugby department divided into the areas of performance and development with the emphasis on "delivering rugby at all levels", with each area having its own director; the England national rugby union team competes in the annual Six Nations Championship with France, Scotland and Wales. They have won this championship outright on a total of 28 occasions, 13 times winning the Grand Slam and 25 times winning the Triple Crown, making them the most successful team in the tournament's history. England are to date the only team from the northern hemisphere to

Shadowlands (1993 film)

Shadowlands is a 1993 British biographical drama film about the relationship between academic C. S. Lewis and American poet Joy Davidman, her death from cancer, how this challenged Lewis's Christian faith, it was directed by Richard Attenborough with a screenplay by William Nicholson based on his 1985 television film and 1989 stage play of the same name. The 1985 script began life as I Call It Joy written for Thames Television by Brian Sibley and Norman Stone. Sibley wrote the book, Shadowlands: The True Story of C. S. Lewis and Joy Davidman. In the 1950s, the reserved, middle-aged bachelor C. S. Lewis is an Oxford University academic at Magdalen College and author of The Chronicles of Narnia series of children's books, he meets the married American poet Joy Davidman Gresham and her young son Douglas on their visit to England, not yet knowing the circumstances of Gresham's troubled marriage. What begins as a formal meeting of two different minds develops into a feeling of connection and love.

Lewis finds his quiet life with his brother Warnie disrupted by the outspoken Gresham, whose uninhibited behaviour contrasts with the rigid sensibilities of the male-dominated university. Each provides the other with new ways of viewing the world, their marriage is one of convenience, a platonic union designed to allow Gresham to remain in England. But when she is diagnosed with cancer, deeper feelings surface, Lewis' faith is tested as his wife tries to prepare him for her imminent death. Shadowlands received positive reviews from critics; the review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes reported that 97% of critics have given the film a positive review based on 30 reviews, with an average rating of 8.02/10. The site's critics consensus reads, "Thanks to brilliant performances from Debra Winger and Anthony Hopkins, Shadowlands is a moving portrait of British scholar C. S. Lewis's romance with American poet Joy Gresham."Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times called the film "intelligent and beautifully acted."Rita Kempley of The Washington Post described it as "a high-class tear-jerker" and a "literate hankie sopper" and added, "William Nicholson's screenplay brims with substance and wit, though it's a soap opera with a Rhodes scholarship... and Hopkins lend great tenderness and dignity to what is a rather corny tale of a love, meant to be."In Variety, Emanuel Levy observed, "It's a testament to the nuanced writing of William Nicholson... that the drama works on both personal and collective levels...

Attenborough opts for modest, unobtrusive direction that serves the material and actors... Hopkins adds another laurel to his recent achievements; as always, there's music in his speech and nothing is over-deliberate or forced about his acting... Coming off years of desultory and unimpressive movies, Winger at last plays a role worthy of her talent." The stage play opens with Lewis giving a talk about the mystery of suffering, whereas this film intersperses a similar talk several times throughout the narrative. The television film opens with Lewis giving a radio broadcast about the sanctity of marriage. In the stage play as in reality and Davidman honeymoon in Greece. In the film, on their honeymoon they look for a "Golden Valley" in Herefordshire, England, as depicted in a painting hanging in Lewis' study; as in the stage play, though not the earlier television film, Joy has only one son. In the original television film, as in reality, Joy had two sons and David. Academy Award for Best Actress Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay BAFTA Alexander Korda Award for Best British Film BAFTA Award for Best Film BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role BAFTA Award for Best Direction BAFTA Award for Best Adapted Screenplay National Board of Review Award for Best Actor Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Actor Southeastern Film Critics Association Award for Best Actor Hopkins was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor for his performance in The Remains of the Day, so he was ineligible for Oscar consideration for this film.

Shadowlands on IMDb Shadowlands at Box Office Mojo Shadowlands at Rotten Tomatoes Shadowlands at Arts&Faith.com

T Leporis

T Leporis is a variable star in the constellation of Lepus, the Hare. It is located half a degree from ε Leporis in the sky, it has the spectral type M6ev, is a Mira variable — as is R Leporis, in the same constellation — whose apparent magnitude varies between +7.40 and +14.30 with a period of 368.13 days. The annual parallax of T Leporis was measured by the Hipparcos mission, but the results were hopelessly imprecise; the parallax from Gaia Data Release 2 yields a distance of 340 ± 20 pc. The distance has been measured using very-long-baseline interferometry and found to be 327±4 pc. Mira variables are some of the major sources of molecules and dust in the Universe. With each pulsation, T Leporis expels matter into space, each year losing an amount equivalent to the mass of Earth. Images of T Leporis obtained with the Very Large Telescope interferometer of the European Southern Observatory have revealed a shell of gas and dust surrounding the star, whose diameter is some 100 times larger than that of the Sun.

Given the great distance at which this class of stars lie, its apparent angular diameter — despite its enormous size — is no more than a millionth of the solar apparent angular diameter. Mira Ceti