Rugby football is a collective name for the team sports of rugby league and rugby union, as well as the earlier forms of football from which both games evolved. Canadian football, to a lesser extent American football were broadly considered forms of rugby football but are now referred to as such. Rugby football started about 1845 at Rugby School in Rugby, England, although forms of football in which the ball was carried and tossed date to medieval times. Rugby split into two sports in 1895, when twenty-one clubs split from the Rugby Football Union to form the Northern Rugby Football Union in the George Hotel, over broken-time payments to players who took time off from work to play the sport, thus making rugby league the first code to turn professional and pay players. Rugby union turned professional one hundred years in 1995, following the 1995 Rugby World Cup in South Africa; the respective world governing bodies are the Rugby League International Federation. Rugby football was one of many versions of football played at English public schools in the 19th century.
Although rugby league used rugby union rules, they are now wholly separate sports. In addition to these two codes, both American and Canadian football evolved from rugby football in the beginning of the 20th century. Following the 1895 split in rugby football, the two forms rugby league and rugby union differed in administration only. Soon the rules of rugby league were modified. 100 years rugby union joined rugby league and most other forms of football as an professional sport. The Olympic form of rugby is known as Rugby Sevens. In this form of the game, each team has seven players on the field at one time playing seven-minute halves; the rules and pitch size are the same as rugby union. The Greeks and Romans are known to have played many ball games, some of which involved the use of the feet; the Roman game harpastum is believed to have been adapted from a Greek team game known as "ἐπίσκυρος" or "φαινίνδα", mentioned by a Greek playwright and referred to by the Christian theologian Clement of Alexandria.
These games appear to have resembled rugby football. The Roman politician Cicero describes the case of a man, killed whilst having a shave when a ball was kicked into a barber's shop. Roman ball games knew the air-filled ball, the follis. Episkyros is recognised as an early form of football by FIFA. In 1871, English clubs met to form the Rugby Football Union. In 1892, after charges of professionalism were made against some clubs for paying players for missing work, the Northern Rugby Football Union called the Northern Union, was formed; the existing rugby union authorities responded by issuing sanctions against the clubs and officials involved in the new organization. After the schism, the separate clubs were named "rugby league" and "rugby union". Rugby union is both a professional and amateur game, is dominated by the first tier unions: New Zealand, Wales, South Africa, Argentina, Scotland and France. Second and third tier unions include Belgium, Canada, Fiji, Germany, Hong Kong, Kenya, the Netherlands, Romania, Samoa, Tonga, the United States and Uruguay.
Rugby Union is administered by World Rugby, whose headquarters are located in Ireland. It is the national sport in New Zealand, Fiji, Tonga and Madagascar, is the most popular form of rugby globally; the Olympic Games have admitted the seven-a-side version of the game, known as Rugby sevens, into the programme from Rio de Janeiro in 2016 onwards. There was a possibility sevens would be a demonstration sport at the 2012 London Olympics but many sports including sevens were dropped. In Canada and the United States, rugby developed into gridiron football. During the late 1800s, the two forms of the game were similar, but numerous rule changes have differentiated the gridiron-based game from its rugby counterpart, introduced by Walter Camp in the United States and John Thrift Meldrum Burnside in Canada. Among unique features of the North American game are the separation of play into downs instead of releasing the ball upon tackling, the requirement that the team with the ball set into a set formation for at least one second before resuming play after a tackle, the allowance for one forward pass from behind the site of the last tackle on each down, the evolution of hard plastic equipment, a smaller and pointier ball, favorable to being passed but makes drop kicks impractical, a smaller and narrower field measured in customary units instead of metric, a distinctive field with lines marked in five-yard intervals.
Rugby league is both a professional and amateur game, administered on a global level by the Rugby League International Federation. In addition to amateur and semi-professional competitions in the United States, Lebanon, Serbia and Australasia, there are two major professional competitions—the Australasian National Rugby League and the Super League. International Rugby League is dominated
Tihon Konstantinov was a Moldavian SSR and Ukrainian SSR politician. Konstantinov was born in the village Khoroshoe of Yekaterinoslav Governorate; the village was located by the Samara river, while next to the village there was the estate Dobrenkoe. In the 1938-1940, he was a chairman of the council in the Moldavian ASSR in Tiraspol and a people's deputy of the Verkhovna Rada of the Ukrainian SSR. Tihon Konstantinov was the prime minister of Moldavian SSR; the exact name was Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars. During his mandate as prime minister, Piotr Borodin and Nikita Salogor were first secretaries of the Communist Party of Moldova. Order of Lenin, for prominent successes in Agriculture and for over-fulfillment of plans for major agricultural works. Enciclopedia sovietică moldovenească
Regina B. Schofield is a former United States Assistant Attorney General for the Office of Justice Programs. Schofield was raised in Bude, Mississippi, she received her bachelor's degree in business administration from Mississippi College and an M. B. A. from Jackson State University. In 2005, she was nominated to Who’s Who Among American Women and in 2014, Mississippi College's School of Business awarded her the Alumna of the Year Award. In 2015, she earned a Mediation Certificate to work in General District Courts across the Commonwealth of Virginia. Schofield serves on several national boards, including the Cal Ripken Sr. Foundation, Innovate + Educate, the Maryland Business Roundtable for Education, the National Center for the Prevention of Community Violence. In the spring of 1993, Schofield began working for the International Council of Shopping Centers. ICSC is the global trade association of the shopping center industry, its members include shopping center owners, managers, marketing specialists, lenders and other professionals as well as academics and public officials.
While at ICSC, she lobbied on environmental issues, telecommunications deregulation and indoor air standards. Schofield was recruited by Casey Family Programs in 2007 to leave the U. S. Department of Justice, she left with the belief that public-private partnerships are vital in strengthening local communities. Casey Family Programs has a compelling mission to safely reduce the need for foster care 50 percent by the year 2020, increase the safety and success of children and strengthen the resilience of families. While at Casey she was awarded the President and CEO's Jim Casey Leadership Award in recognition of her efforts to transform and align the foundation's strategic plan with stronger public policy engagement at the state and federal levels of government; as one of the most important corporate leaders and innovators of his time, Jim Casey understood that ensuring the safety and success of every child was critical to the continued prosperity of our nation. Schofield's efforts at Casey led to the October 2008 passage of the most significant child welfare legislation enacted in over a decade by the U.
S. Congress. Schofield left Casey Family Programs in 2010 to work for the world's largest non-profit research and development organization, Battelle, a 501 charitable trust. Battelle was founded on industrialist Gordon Battelle’s vision that business and scientific interests can go hand-in-hand as forces for positive change. Battelle's mission includes a strong charitable commitment to community education. In this role, Schofield is responsible for executing a STEM agenda. Battelle's inclusive approach is focused on strengthening minority & underserved populations exposure to STEM roles in an complex world. Schofield began her civil service career as a political appointee in 1991 with President George H. W. Bush as a Confidential Assistant to the Assistant Secretary of Education for Policy and Planning in the United States Department of Education. Before leaving the Department in 1993, she became the Deputy White House Liaison. In 1998, she went to work for the United States Postal Service as Manager of Government Relations and managed postal service relationships in 7 states west of the Mississippi River.
Schofield left the USPS in 2001 to serve in President George W. Bush's Administration as the White House Liaison to the United States Department of Health and Human Services, she served in that role until her departure in 2005, but in 2002 Secretary Tommy Thompson appointed her to serve as the Department's director of Intergovernmental Affairs. Her passion in that role involved working with Native American communities to strengthen their access to the Department resources beyond the Indian Health Service. For her commitment to youth in Indian County, Regina was awarded the National Youth Service Award, Native American National Advisory Council for Boys & Girls Clubs of America, 2007 Schofield was confirmed Assistant Attorney General for the Office of Justice Programs on June 8, 2005, she was the National AMBER Alert coordinator and oversaw initiatives including Project Safe Neighborhoods, Project Safe Childhood, the President's DNA Initiative, the Prisoner Reentry Initiative, Helping America's Youth.
She announced her resignation on September 13, 2007—just one day prior to the release of an internal DOJ audit revealing extravagant travel and banquet expenses—effective September 28, 2007. An internal Justice Department audit, released one day after her resignation, on September 14, 2007, revealed that the department had sent employees to 10 conferences over the last two years, with unusually high expenses, including $4.04 per serving of Swedish meatballs at a dinner. Six of the 10 conferences were approved by Schofield's department, it is not known. The department spent more than $13,000 on cookies and brownies for 1,542 attendees of a four-day conference in 2005. A networking session that offered butterfly shrimp, coconut lobster skewers and Swedish meatballs for a Community Oriented Policing Services conference in July 2006 cost more than $60,000. Speculation exists regarding a link between Schofield's departure date and the report release date one day later. In the aftermath of her departure, she was described as "someone who'takes care of herself' and is'perfectly coiffed.'"
She was tight.(source: http://abovethelaw.com/2007/09/musical-chairs-cricket