Frank “Chunky” Burge was one of the greatest forwards in the history of rugby league in Australia. Burge became one of the game’s finest coaches, his club career was with the St. George Dragons, he represented New South Wales on eighteen occasions and played thirteen test matches for the Kangaroos and played for Australia in a further twenty-three tour matches. Born on 14 August 1894 in Darlington, New South Wales, Burge was playing first grade rugby union at age 14, the youngest to play senior rugby in either code. Upon switching to the professional New South Wales Rugby Football League, Burge was playing first grade for Glebe at age 16 and was selected for the state at age 18. After his attempt to enlist in the Australian Imperial Force was rejected because of a speech impediment, Burge devoted his energies to rugby league. At 93 kilograms or 14 stone 9 pounds and effective anywhere in the forwards from lock to prop, he had the speed of a back to complement his strength and an anticipation that made him a support player without peer.
Burge was a teetotaller, way ahead of his time in observing a strict diet, he used coaching concepts familiar in modern sports psychology and upheld an all-year training regime that continued right through the long Sydney summer off-season. He debuted for Australia in the domestic 1914 Ashes series against Great Britain appearing in all three Tests, he is listed on the Australian Players Register as Kangaroo No. 88. Burge was the New South Wales Rugby Football League’s top try-scorer in 1915, 1916 and 1918 an rare feat in one year for a forward. On the 1919 tour of New Zealand Burge played in all four tests. In the 1920 season, he was the league’s top point scorer. Burge holds the NSWRFL/NSWRL/ARL/NRL record for most tries in a match, scoring eight in a club match for Glebe in 1920. Again in 1920 he appeared in all three Tests of the domestic Ashes series and was selected on the 1921–22 Kangaroo tour of Great Britain where he played in all three tests and twenty representative tour matches scoring 33 tries in 23 matches, more than any touring forward before or since.
Burge's representative record shows him appearing in every single Australian Test match played in the war-interrupted eight-year period between 1914 and 1922. He played 16 seasons and a record 148 first grade games for Glebe and was club captain for many years, his career tally of 146 first grade tries stood for eighty years as the highest by a forward until Manly-Warringah back rower Steven Menzies broke it in 2004. Burge moved to St. George in 1927, retired as a player at the end of that season, coached the club for a further three seasons, he maintained an average of a try a game for seventeen seasons scoring 218 tries in 213 senior matches with 146 coming from his 154 Sydney first grade matches. That try-scoring tally today stands at eleventh on an all-time list dominated by backs. Burge was awarded life membership of the New South Wales Rugby League in 1934. On 5 July 1958, after watching a Newtown versus North Sydney match at Henson Park, Burge died after suffering a heart attack, 41 days short of his 64th birthday.
A large funeral was held on 8 July at the Heads/Middleton reference quotes his colleague and former University rival Dick O'Brien who said on Burge's death in 1958: "May I say, as Anthony did of Caesar: his life was gentle, the elements so mixed in him that nature might stand up and say to all the world "This was a man"'. Woronora Crematorium where he was cremated, he was survived by his wife Millie. Revered Sun Herald sports journalist, Tom Goodwin said of Burge: "I believe Frank Burge was the greatest forward the game has produced. Indeed, he may have been the greatest league player ever." In 2004 he was admitted into the Australian Rugby League Hall of Fame. In February 2008, Burge was named in the list of Australia's 100 Greatest Players, commissioned by the NRL and ARL to celebrate the code's centenary year in Australia. Burge went on to be named as an interchange player in Australian rugby league's Team of the Century. Announced on 17 April 2008, the team is the panel's majority choice for each of the thirteen starting positions and four interchange players.
In 2008 New South Wales announced their rugby league team of the century. Joining fellow pre-WWII greats Dave Brown and Dally Messenger, Burge was inducted as a Rugby League Immortal in 2018, along with recent greats Norm Provan and Mal Meninga. Burge Family Andrews, Malcolm The ABC of Rugby League, Austn Broadcasting Corpn, Sydney Whiticker, Alan Captaining the Kangaroos, New Holland, Sydney Whiticker, Alan & Hudson, Glen The Encyclopedia of Rugby League Players, Gavin Allen Publishing, Sydney Whiticker, Alan & Collis, Ian The History of Rugby League Clubs, New Holland, Sydney Heads, Ian & Middleton, David A Centenary of Rugby League, MacMillan, Sydney. Howell, Max Born to Lead: Wallaby Test Captains, Celebrity Books, Auckland, NZ. Frank Burge at the Online Dictionary of Australian BiographIes Frank Burge biography at Sport Australia Hall of Fame Queensland Representatives at qrl.com.au
Brian Earl Bevan known by the nickname of "Wing Wizard", was an Australian professional rugby league footballer who played in the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s who became the only player to have been inducted into both the Australian Rugby League Hall of Fame and British Rugby League Hall of Fame. An Other Nationalities representative wing, Bevan scored a world record 796 tries for Warrington. In 2008, the centenary year of rugby league in Australia, he was named on the wing of Australia's Team of the Century. Bevan was the only player chosen in the team; the son of former Eastern Suburbs' player Rick Bevan, Brian Bevan began his career playing for Easts in 1942. He made 8 appearances for the club, although when the Second World War had begun in 1939 he had decided to join the Royal Australian Navy, which restricted his appearances for the club. Bevan, who would go on to break try scoring records in English club football, never scored a try for Easts. Brian was the brother of Owen'Ozzy' Bevan who played for Sydney club the St George Dragons as well as Warrington, is the great uncle of Paul Bevan who plays Australian rules football for the Sydney Swans in the Australian Football League.
He arrived on board HMAS Australia in Britain in 1946, all he had with him was a letter of recommendation, written by former Eastern Suburbs Test winger Bill Shankland. Bevan requested a trial with Leeds, a suggestion from Shankland, but the club decided against signing him due to his frail looking appearance, a catastrophic commercial misjudgement on a level with Decca's turning down the Beatles. Shankland recommended he try Hunslet if Leeds refused to sign him, but once again he was turned down, he decided to try his luck with the Warrington club. Warrington decided to give him an ` A' team trial in November; the club were impressed with his first performance and decided to play him in the first team a week later. The club decided to sign him on a permanent basis on a £300 contract, he returned home to Australia for several months in order to complete his Navy service, before returning to Warrington. In 1946–47, his first season, he scored 48 tries for the club - 14 tries more than any other player in the league.
Within four years at the club he had surpassed the club's try scoring record of 215 set by Jack Fish over thirteen seasons. On five occasions Brian Bevan was the top try scorer in Britain, his best season for try scoring feats was in 1952 -- 53. Only Albert Rosenfeld has scored more tries in a single season in Britain. Rosenfeld holds the top two most tries in a season with 78 in 1911–12 and 80 in 1913–14, he was the 1946–47 Northern Rugby Football League season's top try-scorer with 48. The 1953–54 season saw him become the highest try scorer in the game's history when he passed the 446 tries mark set by Alf Ellaby. In his career in Britain, Bevan scored a hat-trick of tries or more in a single game 100 times. Twice he scored seven tries in a game for Warrington, still a club record. During his sixteen-year career with Warrington he helped the club win the Challenge Cup twice, three RL Championships, a Lancashire Cup and six Lancashire League titles, he played his last game for Warrington on Easter Monday, 1962.
He came out of semi-retirement to play for Blackpool Borough between 1962–64. Brian Bevan played right wing, i.e. number 2, in Warrington's 19-0 victory over Widnes in the 1949–50 Challenge Cup Final during the 1949–50 season at Wembley Stadium, London on Saturday 6 May 1950, in front of a crowd of 94,249, played right wing in the 8-4 victory over Halifax in the 1953–54 Challenge Cup Final replay during the 1953–54 season at Odsal, Bradford on Wednesday 5 May 1954, in front of a record crowd of 102,575 or more. He scored a try in Warrington's 8-14 defeat by Wigan in the 1948–49 Lancashire County Cup Final during the 1948–49 season at Station Road, Swinton on Saturday 13 November 1948, played in Warrington's 5-28 defeat by Wigan in the 1950–51 Lancashire Cup Final during the 1950–51 season at Swinton on Saturday 4 November 1950. and scored a try in Warrington's 5-4 victory over St. Helens in the 1959–60 Lancashire County Cup Final during the 1959–60 season at Central Park, Wigan on Saturday 31 October 1959.
He played for the British Empire XIII against New Zealand on Wednesday 23 January 1952 at Stamford Bridge in London. In all he scored 796 tries in his career in Britain in competitive matches, a world record by a rugby player of either code), he scored 740 in 620 appearances. In 1961 he returned to Australia to play for an Eastern Suburbs seven-a-side competition for Keith Holman's testimonial. Bevan played most of his career in Britain, was never selected to represent Australia in a test match, although he did mesmerise Kangaroo touring sides with his guile and skill for two decades. In 1988 Brian Bevan was inducted into the British Rugby League Hall of Fame. The'wing wizard', as he is referred, died in Southport, England in 1991, aged 67. Thousands turned up for his memorial service a month, held on the pitch at Wilderspool, at the time the home of Warrington. Bevan was featured on a British stamp in 1995, one of a series of five to commemorate the centenary of Rugby League. In September, 2005 he was inducted into the Australian Rugby League Hall of Fame.
He is the only player to have been so doubly honoured. A statue of him was erected in the middle of a roundabout close to Wilderspool Stadium moved to the club's new ground, the Halliwell Jones Stadium, in 2004, which includes a mural showing Bevan's face made from primrose and blue bricks, the
Darius Boyd is an Australian professional rugby league footballer, the captain and plays as a fullback and on the wing for the Brisbane Broncos in the NRL. A Queensland State of Origin, Australian international and Prime Minister’s XIII representative, Boyd played for the St George Illawarra Dragons in 2009-2011 and the Newcastle Knights in 2012-2014 all under a single coach: Wayne Bennett before switching back to Broncos in 2015. Boyd has won the 2006 NRL Premiership with the Broncos and the 2010 NRL Premiership with the Dragons. Boyd was born at the Gold Coast Hospital, in Queensland, Australia on 17 July 1987, he was raised by his single mother throughout most of his childhood. He began playing junior football at a young age for the Parkwood Sharks, which led to playing at halftime during a Gold Coast Seagulls match in 1993, he switched clubs to the Mudgeeraba Redbacks. Boyd attended Robina State High School during this time but switched schools to the famed rugby league nursery, Palm Beach Currumbin High School, in Year 10.
It was at this point Boyd's mother became ill and he starting living with his grandmother, as well as spending periods of time living with football friend's families. Following graduation in 2004, he was not recruited by any NRL teams and decided to repeat Year 12 at PBC in the hope of garnering attention from NRL teams; the decision turned out to be a fruitful one with the Brisbane Broncos offering Boyd a scholarship, followed by a $20,000 contract for the 2006 NRL season. In 2005, while playing for Palm Beach Currumbin, Boyd was selected at fullback for the Australian Schoolboys team, he debuted for the Burleigh Bears in the Queensland Cup. After playing for Burleigh, Boyd was signed by the Brisbane Broncos, he said, "I was a bit scared of leaving home as an 18-year-old but Brisbane was always my favourite club since I was a little fella. I had to move into the Broncos' house and was a pretty shy, quiet kid so didn't want to leave the family and different things but after a week or two they made me feel welcome."
In round 1, Boyd made his NRL debut for the Broncos, against the North Queensland Cowboys, scoring a try on debut in the Broncos 36-4 loss at Suncorp Stadium. Playing on the wing for the majority of the season, Boyd got a chance at his preferred position of fullback for a number of games after the regular fullback, Karmichael Hunt, went down with injuries. At the end of the regular season, Boyd won the Broncos' Rookie of the Year award. Boyd played on the wing for the Broncos in their 2006 NRL Grand Final 15-8 win over the Melbourne Storm. Boyd played in 27 matches and scored 11 tries in an impressive debut year in the NRL; as 2006 NRL Premiers, the Brisbane Broncos travelled to England to face 2006 Super League champions, St Helens R. F. C. in the 2007 World Club Challenge. Boyd scored a try in the Broncos 14-18 loss. Boyd finished the 2007 NRL season with him playing in 22 matches and scoring 7 tries. In Round 1 against the Penrith Panthers, Boyd scored a hat-trick in the Broncos 48-12 win at Suncorp Stadium.
In May 2008, Boyd started to receive attention from other clubs as he was off-contract at the end of the year. There was speculation that he would move to the Canterbury-Bankstown Bulldogs, alongside fellow Broncos Michael Ennis and Ben Hannant, or the St. George Illawarra Dragons, following his coach at Brisbane, Wayne Bennett. After leading the NRL try-scoring table for most of the first half of the season, Boyd was selected for the Queensland team to play New South Wales in Game 2 of the 2008 State of Origin series due to teammate Justin Hodges suspension. Boyd scored 2 tries on debut, both from passes from centre Greg Inglis, with Queensland winning 30-0 at Suncorp Stadium Boyd played in Game 3 as the Maroons won 16-10 at ANZ Stadium and won the series 2-1. On 20 August 2008, Boyd signed a 3-year contract with the Dragons starting in 2009, following teammate Nick Emmett and coach Wayne Bennett. Boyd finished the 2008 NRL season with him playing in 24 scoring 13 tries. On 16 October 2008, Boyd was called up to the Australian 2008 World Cup squad due to teammate Justin Hodges being ruled out with a shoulder injury.
On 9 November 2008, Boyd made his international debut for Australia against Papua New Guinea, playing on the wing in the 46-6 win at 1300SMILES Stadium. Boyd only played in 1 match in the World Cup tournament. In Round 1 of the 2009 NRL season, Boyd made his club debut for the St George Illawarra Dragons against the Melbourne Storm, playing at fullback in the Dragons 17-16 loss against the Melbourne Storm at Olympic Park. In Round 4, Boyd travelled to Brisbane for his and Wayne Bennett's, first match against their old club, which the Dragons won 25-12 at Suncorp Stadium, ending the Broncos unbeaten start to the season. On 8 May 2009, Boyd played for Australia in the Anzac Test against New Zealand, playing on the wing and scoring a try in the 38-10 win over New Zealand. Boyd was selected in the Queensland squad for the 2009 State of Origin series, playing in all 3 matches and scoring 1 try in the Maroons record breaking 4th consecutive series win. In Round 20 against the New Zealand Warriors, Boyd scored his first try as a Dragon in the 29-4 win at Mt Smart Stadium.
In August, Boyd's performance at a press conference, in which the 22-year-old fullback delivered one-sentence responses to eight questions posed to him at a training session in Wollongong, drew an apology to journalists from Dragons coach Wayne Bennett. Boyd finished his first year with the Dragons with him playing 22 scoring 2 tries. In Round 5 against his former team the Brisbane Broncos, Boyd played his 100th career match in the Dragons 34-16 win and was named Man of the Match at WIN Stadium. In Round 7, Boyd received the inaugural "Spirit of ANZAC Medal
Fullback (rugby league)
Fullback is one of the positions in a rugby league football team. Wearing jersey number 15, the fullback is a member of the team's'back-line'; the position's name comes from their duty of standing the furthest back in defence, behind the forwards, half backs and the three-quarter backs. Fullbacks are therefore the last line of defence, having to tackle any opposition players and regather the ball from any kicks that make it through their teammates, it is for this reason that the fullback is referred to as the sweeper or custodian. Being able to secure high bomb kicks is a sought quality in fullbacks. Fullback is one of the most important positions in attack, handling the ball nearly every set of six and running into open space on the field. Therefore, together with the two half backs and hooker, fullback is one of the four key positions that make up what is referred to as a team's'spine'; because the fullback makes the most support runs, players in the role complete more high-intensity running than any other position.
The Rugby League International Federation's Laws of the Game state that the'fullback' is to be numbered 1. However, traditionally players' jersey numbers have varied, in the modern Super League, each squad's players are assigned individual numbers regardless of position. Fullbacks who feature in their respective nations' rugby league halls of fame are France's Puig Aubert, Australia's Clive Churchill and Charles Fraser, Wales' Jim Sullivan and New Zealand's Des White. Churchill's attacking flair as a player in the 1950s is credited with having changed the role of the fullback. So too is Darren Lockyer's. Rugby league positions Rugby league gameplay
Tom van Vollenhoven
Karel Thomas van Vollenhoven was a South African rugby league and rugby union footballer who played in the 1950s and 1960s. He enjoyed a prolific rugby league career with English club St. Helens after switching codes from rugby union in the 1950s. Van Vollenhoven became a rugby league sensation with the club in a career spanning ten seasons from the 1957 to the 1967–68 season. During this time he amassed; this includes a record 62 in the 1958–59 Northern Rugby Football League season. In 2000, he was inducted into the Rugby League Hall of Fame. Van Vollenhoven was born 29 April 1935 in Free State, South Africa, he played rugby union for Northern Transvaal, scored a hat-trick for the Springboks against the British Lions, toured Australasia the following year with the national team before going to Britain to play professionally in 1957. Tom van Vollenhoven had been scouted by the 13-a-side code in 1955 in a'cloak and dagger' style operation which saw English club St. Helens vie off the competition of Wigan for his services, the attention of the South African RFU.
Van Vollenhoven was brought into a Saints side to add a scoring threat out wide, in a side that at the time, was more noted for its forward prowess. His rugby league début was against Leeds at Knowsley Road, his first experience of the code was a negative one as he was responsible for a blunder which gifted the Yorkshire side a try; however such disappointment was short lived as Van Vollenhoven produced a harbinger with a well taken try in the same match much to the excitement of the Knowsley Road faithful. His centre, Duggie Greenall was given strict orders to nurse and protect Van Vollenhoven whilst he found his way in his new game. Greenall was noted as something of a hardman, notably involved in a scandal with the Australians who claimed Greenall's ruthless tackling had more to do with him using a plaster cast as to his tackling itself. Regardless, Greenall proved to be a fine centre for Van Vollenhoven in his early days, ensuring that the wingman received little risky ball and that adequate defensive cover was provided when necessary.
Van Vollenhoven equalled St. Helens' club record for most tries in a match with 6 against Wakefield Trinity in 1957; the crew cut wingman would prove over the years what an extraordinary talent he was, with arguably his finest moment coming in the 1958–59 Championship Final at Odsal, where his hat trick of tries helped Saints overcome Hunslet. His first try is noted in rugby league folklore as one of the greatest tries in the history of the game. Van Vollenhoven beat a series of defenders in a blistering run down the touchline culminating in a try under the sticks. Regrettably, there is no video footage of this achievement as the cameras were not filming for this short period of the game. Many contend that until Van Vollenhoven's intervention, there was every chance that the Yorkshiremen could have overturned the favourites. Tom van Vollenhoven played right wing and scored a length-of-the-field try in St. Helens' 12–6 victory over Wigan in the 1961 Challenge Cup Final during the 1960–61 season at Wembley Stadium, London on Saturday 13 May 1961, in front of a crowd of 94,672, played right wing in the 21–2 victory over Wigan in the 1966 Challenge Cup Final during the 1965–66 season at Wembley Stadium on Saturday 21 May 1966, in front of a crowd of 98,536.
Tom van Vollenhoven played right wing in St. Helens' 2–12 defeat by Oldham in the 1958 Lancashire Cup Final during the 1958–59 season at Station Road, Swinton on Saturday 25 October 1958, played right wing in the 4–5 defeat by Warrington in the 1959 Lancashire Cup Final during the 1959–60 season at Central Park, Wigan on Saturday 31 October 1959, played right wing, scored a try in the 15–9 victory over Swinton in the 1960 Lancashire Cup Final during the 1960–61 season at Central Park on Saturday 29 October 1960, played right wing, scored a try in the 25–9 victory over Swinton in the 1961 Lancashire Cup Final during the 1961–62 season at Central Park on Saturday 11 November 1961, played right wing, scored a try in the 7–4 victory over Swinton in the 1962 Lancashire Cup Final during the 1962–63 season at Central Park on Saturday 27 October 1962, played right-centre and scored a try in the 15–4 victory over Leigh in the 1963 Lancashire Cup Final during the 1963–64 season at Station Road, Swinton on Saturday 26 October 1963, played right wing in the 2–2 draw with Warrington in the 1967 Lancashire Cup Final during the 1967–68 season at Central Park on Saturday 7 October 1967, played right wing in the 13–10 victory over Warrington in the replay Station Road on Saturday 2 December 1967.
Tom van Vollenhoven played right wing in St. Helens' 0–4 defeat by Castleford in the 1965 BBC2 Floodlit Trophy Final during the 1965–66 season at Knowsley Road, St. Helens on Tuesday 14 December 1965. Over the years Van Vollenhoven matured into a fine all round athlete, honing the other areas of the game that a modern-day winger is required to fulfil; this is supported by the fact that Van Vollenhoven had appeared at centre and played one game at full-back. He established himself as a strong defensive wingman, capable of rushing over to the other flank to pull off try-saving cover tackles, whilst he was a stronger player than looks would suggest; the 1960s were a golden era for wingers in the British league, debate continues to this day over who can lay claim to be the premier winger of the generation. Commentators are split over whether Van Vollenhoven's searing speed, or the sheer power of Billy Boston marked them as the finest winger of their era. Tom van Vollenhoven's final Saints match was against Hull Kingston Rovers in April 1968 and his final game of rugby league was guesting for Great Britain in a trial m
The Brisbane Broncos Rugby League Football Club Ltd. referred to as the Brisbane Broncos or colloquially as Red Hill, are an Australian professional rugby league football club based in the city of Brisbane, the capital of the state of Queensland. Founded in April 1988, the Broncos play in Australia's elite competition, the National Rugby League premiership, they have won six premierships,including two NSWRL titles, a Super League premiership and three NRL premierships. They have two World Club Challenges; the Broncos have achieved four minor premierships during their 29 years in multiple competitions, making them Rugby League's most successful club over the past three decades. Until 2015, Brisbane had never been defeated in a grand final, since 1991, have only failed to qualify for the finals twice, they are the most successful club in the National Rugby League, since it began in 1998, winning three premierships. It is one of the most successful clubs in the history of rugby league, having won 62.5% of games played since its induction in 1988, second only to Melbourne Storm with 65.2%.
Since the club's founding, Brisbane has never received the wooden spoon. The club records the highest annual revenue of all NRL clubs – $A32.8m for the 2012 financial year – and is one of the most valuable clubs of any code in Australia, worth over $42 million. Along with financial competitiveness, the Broncos have been voted one of Australia's most popular and most watched football teams, has one of the highest average attendances of any rugby league club in the world; the club was founded in April 1988 as part of the Winfield Cup's national expansion, along with the Gold Coast-Tweed Giants, one of Queensland's first two participants in the New South Wales Rugby League premiership. The Broncos became the dominant force in the competition before playing a significant role in the Super League War of the mid-1990s continuing to compete in the newly created National Rugby League competition; the Broncos are based in the Brisbane suburb of Red Hill where their training ground and Leagues club are located, but they play their home games at Milton's Lang Park.
It is the only publicly listed sporting club on the Australian Securities Exchange, trading as Brisbane Broncos Limited. The club's current head coach is former South Sydney Rabbitohs coach, Anthony Seibold, the Dally M coach of the year for 2018. Queensland's success in the 1980s, the early years of the State of Origin series between Queensland and New South Wales, in addition to the inclusion of a combined Brisbane Rugby League team in the mid-week competition, convinced the New South Wales Rugby League to invite a Queensland-based team into the competition. After tough competition between the various syndicates for the Brisbane licence, the Queensland Rugby League chose the bid of former Brisbane Rugby League players, Barry Maranta and Paul "Porky" Morgan. At the first meeting with the NSWRL hierarchy, the newly formed Brisbane Broncos were asked to pay a $500,000 fee; the Broncos secured the services of Australian Kangaroos captain Wally Lewis and former BRL coach Wayne Bennett. The team made their debut in the NSWRL's 1988 Winfield Cup premiership against reigning premiers, the Manly-Warringah Sea Eagles, defeated them 44–10.
However, after this promising start they failed to make the finals. In their second season they won the 1989 Panasonic Cup; the club first tasted premiership success in 1992, again in 1993, defeating the St. George Dragons in both years at Sydney Football Stadium. In 1990, in order to increase in the Winfield Cup, Wayne Bennett controversially sacked Wally Lewis as the Broncos' captain and inserted Gene Miles into the job. Once Gene Miles retired, Wayne thought he could lessen the reliance on Wally Lewis, who he said was not a good club man or a good trainer. In 1995, the Super League War broke out. After threats of expulsion from the NSWRL, the Broncos were one of the last clubs to sign with the new league and all players followed suit. Broncos CEO John Ribot moved to take over the running of the rebel Super League, leading to a perception that the conflict was orchestrated by the club. Brisbane won the only Super League premiership in 1997, before winning the first National Rugby League trophy in the re-unified 1998 competition.1999 was disappointing for the club with a terrible early-season form hindering their attempt at a third consecutive premiership losing 8 of their first 10 matches.
Club legend Allan Langer retired mid-season as a result of the team's form. Despite the club's mid-season turnaround, which resulted in qualification for the finals after an 11-match winning streak, the team was eliminated by the Cronulla Sharks in the first week of the finals. However, the Broncos' rebounded in 2000 with their fifth premiership; the game marked the retirement of veterans Kevin Michael Hancock. Not long after the disappointment of the previous year, in 2000, the Broncos rested on the top of the ladder from round 4. Queensland Representative, Allan Langer returned to the club in 2002 for one season before retiring. 2002 was the beginning of Brisbane's "post-Origin slump", which has haunted the club in the years since. Many players represent Queensland in the State of Origin series, with 7 Broncos players on average included in the Queensland Origin team; this extra workload has caused a loss of form for the club after the series, evidenced in 2003 when the lad
A battering ram is a siege engine that originated in ancient times and designed to break open the masonry walls of fortifications or splinter their wooden gates. In its simplest form, a battering ram is just a large, heavy log carried by several people and propelled with force against an obstacle. Rams encased the log in an arrow-proof, fire-resistant canopy mounted on wheels. Inside the canopy, the log was swung from suspensory ropes. Rams proved effective weapons of war because old fashioned wall-building materials such as stone and brick were weak in tension, therefore prone to cracking when impacted with force. With repeated blows, the cracks would grow until a hole was created. A breach would appear in the fabric of the wall—enabling armed attackers to force their way through the gap and engage the inhabitants of the citadel; the introduction in the Middle Ages of siege cannons, which harnessed the explosive power of gunpowder to propel weighty stone or iron balls against fortified obstacles, spelled the end of battering rams and other traditional siege weapons.
Smaller, hand-held versions of battering rams are still used today by law enforcement officers and military personnel to bash open locked doors. During the Iron Age, in the ancient Middle East and Mediterranean, the battering ram's log was slung from a wheeled frame by ropes or chains so that it could be made more massive and be more bashed against its target; the ram's point would be reinforced with a metal head or cap while vulnerable parts of the shaft were bound with strengthening metal bands. Vitruvius details in his text On Architecture that Ceras the Carthaginian was the first to make a ram with a wooden base with wheels and a wooden superstructure. Within this the ram was hung; this structure moved so however, that he called it the testudo. Another type of ram was one that maintained the normal shape and structure, but the support beams were instead made of saplings that were lashed together; the frame was covered in hides as normal to defend from fire. The only solid beam present was the actual ram, hung from the frame.
The frame itself was so light that it could be carried on the shoulders of the men transporting the ram, the same men could beat the ram against the wall when they reached it. Many battering rams possessed curved or slanted wooden roofs and side-screens covered in protective materials fresh wet hides skinned from animals eaten by the besiegers; these hide canopies stopped the ram from being set on fire. They safeguarded the operators of the ram against arrow and spear volleys launched from above. A well-known image of an Assyrian battering ram depicts how sophisticated attacking and defensive practices had become by the 9th century BC; the defenders of a town wall are trying to set the ram alight with torches and have put a chain under it. The attackers are trying to pull on the chain to free the ram, while the aforementioned wet hides on the canopy provide protection against the flames; the first confirmed employment of rams in the Occident happened from 503 to 502 BC when Opiter Verginius became consul of the Romans during the fight against Aurunci people: Soldier in a first line followed Opiter Verginius, next to them, there were battering-rams which were used for war Second appeared in 427 BC, when the Spartans besieged Plataea.
The first use of rams within the actual Mediterranean Basin, featuring in this case the simultaneous employment of siege towers to shelter the rammers from attack, occurred on the island of Sicily in 409 BC, at the Selinus siege. Defenders manning castles, forts or bastions would sometimes try to foil battering rams by dropping obstacles in front of the ram, such as a large sack of sawdust, just before the ram's head struck a wall or gate, or by using grappling hooks to immobilize the ram's log. Alternatively, the ram could be set ablaze, doused in fire-heated sand, pounded by boulders dropped from battlements or invested by a rapid sally of troops; some battering rams were instead supported by rollers. This allowed the ram to achieve a greater speed before striking its target, making it more destructive; such a ram, as used by Alexander the Great, is described by the writer Vitruvius. Alternatives to the battering ram included the drill, the sapper's mouse, the pick, the siege hook, the hunting ram.
These devices could be used in confined spaces. Battering rams had an important effect on the evolution of defensive walls, which were constructed more ingeniously in a bid to nullify the effects of siege engines. Historical instances of the usage of battering rams in sieges of major cities include: The destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans The Crusades The Sack of Rome The various sieges of ConstantinopleThere is a popular myth in Gloucester that the famous children's rhyme, Humpty Dumpty, is about a battering ram used in the siege of Gloucester in 1643, during the English Civil War. However, the story is certainly untrue; the idea seems to have originated in a spoof history essay by Professor David Daube written for The Oxford Magazine in 1956, believed despite obvious improbabilities. A capped ram is a battering ram that has an accessory at the head (usually made of iron or