London Records is a British record label that marketed records in the United States and Latin America from 1947 to 1979 before becoming semi-independent. London arose from the split in ownership between the American branches of Decca Records; the American branch of London Records released British Decca records in the U. S. since British Decca could not use the "Decca" name there. The label was noted for classical albums made in state-of-the-art stereophonic sound, such artists as Georg Solti, Joan Sutherland and Luciano Pavarotti; the London name was used by British Decca in the UK market for releases taken from American labels which British Decca licensed, such as Imperial, Dot, Atlantic and Sun, the first two UK releases from Motown. By the 1960s more licensing deals had been made with Big Top, Parrot, Hi, subsidiary labels were London Atlantic, London Dot and London Monument. An unusual feature was the letter code in the numbering system. From the late 1950s until 1973, the label bore the logo "London American Recordings", on Radio Luxembourg it was known as "London American".
In America, the label was best known as the American imprint of the pre–1971 recordings of the Rolling Stones. The label originally issued some early LPs and singles by Texas-based band ZZ Top. In the late 1970s, London signed deals with Bomp! Records and with Big Sound in Connecticut, U. S; this changed the label in the eyes of many from a backwater into something a little more "edgy" compared to the pedestrian contemporary releases from parent company Decca. The president of London Records in the 1970s was D. H. Tollerbond. After British Decca was acquired by PolyGram in 1979, London followed a more independent course with subsidiary labels such as Slash, Pete Tong's Essential Records and FFRR. Universal Music Group acquired PolyGram in 1998. In the 90's Tracy Bennet became President and Colin Bell, Managing Director; when Ames moved to the Warner Music Group, he took the label with him, so all of London's recent back catalogue was acquired by Warner, which acquired the London name and trademark from Decca.
The name is still used for UK-based artists, for ex-Factory Records artists. Notable artists released by that incarnation of London, called London Records 90, include New Order, Happy Mondays, A, Shakespears Sister. After PolyGram took over British Decca, classical-music albums recorded by British Decca continued to be released on the London label in the U. S. with a logo similar to the Decca classical label logo, until American Decca owner Universal bought British Decca owner PolyGram in 1998, after which they were all reissued on the original British Decca label in the U. S; the London pop music catalogue owned by Universal Music is now managed by Polydor Records, with US distribution handled by Mercury Records. Decca Records had a recording studio in West London. In 2010, Universal Music reclaimed ownership of the London Records trademark. On 1 July 2011 Universal Music reclaimed the London Records name and relaunched it under the executive team of Nick Raphael and Jo Charrington who together ran Epic Records for Sony Music Entertainment since 2001.
Both had started their careers at London Records in the Ames era in the 1990s. When Nick Raphael became president of Capitol Records's UK division in 2013, London Records moved there, where it operates as a subsidiary. In July 2017, Because Music announced that it would acquire Warner Music 90, the division of WMG that reissued most London Records artists from the PolyGram era; because completed the deal in August 2017, which includes the rights to over fifty London artists. Warner Music 90 will be rebranded as London Music Stream; because would acquire ten French performers including J. J. Cale's post-Mercury/Shelter catalog with the exception of The Road to Escondido, Mano Negra and The Beta Band from Warners in separate deals. With Because Music being distributed by Caroline Distribution in 2019, this returns London Music Stream to Universal, albeit as an independent label. London Records distributed labels throughout its existence. Among the more familiar labels are: Other subsidiaries include: Astra, All Boy, Ashley, Boot, Best, Brite Leaf, Cannon, Cedwicke, CGD, Chicory, Circle, Collier, Country Capers, Deaux, Domain, Edit, Folk Sing, G.
S. P. George, Great, Gulf, Hi Country, Imco, Jay Boy, Johen, K&G, KAB, Kingfish, LeJoint, London International, Louis, M. O. C. Mach, Magna Glide, Medway, Nefi, PAC, Pawn, Pen, P-K-M, Renegade, Ritz, Running Bear, Sahara, SCA, Shar-Dee, Siana, Splash, Sultan, Tarheel, Terrace, Tilt, Unison, Watch and XYZ Marion Menswear Gay Dad Onslaught Back to the Planet Banderas Chumbawamba East 17 The Yes/No People Voice of the Beehiv
Gillian Lesley Gilbert is an English musician and singer, best known as the keyboardist and guitarist of the band New Order. Gilbert's family moved from her birthplace, Manchester, to the nearby market town of Macclesfield when she was young. In a 1987 New Order interview, she said that she had disliked living in Cheshire as a teenager and had wanted to live in Manchester. In the late 1970s, she was in a punk band with three girls, The Inadequates, who rehearsed at premises next to Joy Division. In a 1987 interview with Option, Gilbert reflected on the first time she became familiar with Joy Division: "e didn't have a car and us three needed a lift home. So we asked them, they said,'Alright, but you have to buy one of our singles.' So we got it home and played it on this horrible record player. We'd known Stephen before. We thought,'My god, this sounds horrible.'" She would begin dating Stephen Morris. After Ian Curtis's death in May 1980, the three remaining members of Joy Division renamed the band New Order.
Wishing to complete their line-up with someone they knew well and whose musical skill and style was compatible with their own, New Order invited Gilbert to join the band during the early part of October 1980, as keyboardist and guitarist. She had played with Joy Division a number of times, filling in for both Curtis and Sumner playing guitar. New Order's manager Rob Gretton suggested. Gilbert's first live performance with them occurred at The Squat in Manchester on 25 October 1980, her voice can be heard on several New Order tracks: the 1981 single "Procession". Given that fellow band members Sumner and Hook had produced music outside New Order and Morris formed their own band, The Other Two, they released their first single "Tasty Fish" in 1991, recorded two albums: The Other Two & You, released in 1993, Super Highways in 1999. Gilbert and Morris were engaged in 1993, married the following year; the couple live in Rainow, outside Macclesfield, have two daughters. Gilbert stopped touring with New Order in 1998.
Her husband had offered but she suggested that it was her and was admittedly "taken off the faxlist". Their youngest daughter suffered from Neuromyelitis optica. Gilbert reasoned, she participated in the recording of 2001's Get Ready, after which she was replaced by Phil Cunningham in New Order's line-up. In 2007, Gilbert and Morris remixed two tracks for the Nine Inch Nails remixes album Year Zero Remixed; that year she was diagnosed with breast cancer. She rejoined New Order in 2011, after a 10-year absence from their albums. In retrospect, she is glad. Since 2011, New Order have performed across the world, their album Music Complete was released in September 2015. Gilbert's vocals were featured on a Hush remix album titled Lifetime.
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
Technique is the fifth studio album by English rock band New Order, released on 30 January 1989 by Factory Records. Recorded on the island of Ibiza, it incorporates Balearic beat and acid house influences into the group's dance-rock sound; the album was influenced by the growing acid scene, Sumner's experiences in the 500 Club in New York and Shroom in London. It was the first in a few of their albums. Technique was New Order's final studio album to be released under Factory Records. Technique was the first New Order album to reach number one on the UK charts, "Fine Time", the first single from the album, reached number 11. Remixed versions of "Round & Round" and "Run" were released as singles. In the late 1980s, the band felt. Bernard Sumner reflected; that was the nature of the time. The way I saw it was we were still writing band music as well, so we'd reached a compromise." Peter Hook joked that the album was "an epic power struggle between me. I was resisting it valiantly, because I still wanted us to be a rock band."Sumner wrote all of the lyrics.
When recording on the island of Ibiza, the band was influenced by the environment around them and became fascinated by Balearic club music. Gillian Gilbert recalled, "We had Mike with us, so there was always somebody doing something, but it was the beginning of us not being together in the studio when we were doing things, it was like,'oh you do your drums today, I'll do the vocals tonight...' The songs were sort of there but there were huge chunks missing. You'd leave blocks and say,'will you fill that in? I'm off now.'" The band had chosen to record in Ibiza at Hook's urging after a series of records made in "dark and horrible" London studios. Stephen Morris described the sound of the Balearic beat clubs on the island they began to visit as "mad! They'd put an acid record on and the next one would be a Queen one—it was schizophrenic, really. It'd be something Spanish and something daft, it was a odd mix but it all seemed to make sense when you were there. I don't why. Maybe because we were all a bit out of our brains."Following four months spent in Ibiza, the band shifted to Peter Gabriel's Real World Studios to finish recording, which Sumner referred to as a "much more sober atmosphere".
For Hook, "Technique sounds fantastic considering. I think it catches a summer sound brilliantly." Morris mentioned that the album had an "end of term, last day of school feel about it". To promote the album, music videos were produced for the three singles. An instrumental version of "Vanishing Point" was used at the time on the BBC series Making Out. John Denver's publishing company filed a lawsuit, alleging that the guitar break in "Run" too resembled Denver's "Leaving on a Jet Plane"; the case was settled out of court. Technique received positive reviews from music critics upon its release. Melody Maker's Chris Roberts hailed the album as "a rare and ravishing triumph", while NME wrote that the band had "fashioned an LP of unflinching honesty, free from the masks of false identities of their past." Robert Christgau of The Village Voice called New Order a "lot franker and happier than Depeche Mode" and felt that the band had "lightened up". Craig Lee of the Los Angeles Times wrote that "with the exception of'Fine Time,' there may be little new ground broken here, but when it comes to the sound of a broken psyche, New Order never misses a beat."
Ira Robbins, writing in Rolling Stone, stated that Technique "delivers a solid blast of sonic presence with immaculate playing" and called it a "surprisingly inviting album from this reserved outfit". Technique has since garnered critical acclaim in retrospective reviews. John Bush of AllMusic referred to the album as "another classic record" by New Order and stated that their "instincts for blending rock and contemporary dance resulted in another confident, superb LP." Spin magazine's 1995 Alternative Record Guide cited Technique as New Order's best album because it represented the perfect synthesis of the band's abilities as a punk-influenced rock band and as synthpop pioneers. David Quantick of Uncut called it a "powerfully contradictory album: not only is it an Ibiza record that's New Order's least techno-ey, but it's a chirpy, upbeat album with mature lyrics"; the A. V. Club's Josh Modell referred to Technique as New Order's "last great album", as did BBC Music's Ian Wade, who added that the album showed "a New Order ready for the next decade, adding to their superb reputation."
Keith Gwillim of Stylus Magazine contended that New Order "may have made better records, but none of them defines them, sounds so quintessentially like what they were always reaching for, quite as well as Technique."Tom Ewing of Pitchfork labelled Technique as "magnificent" in 2008 and stated that the album "takes the easy interplay and full-band sound of Brotherhood and drenches it in good Ibiza vibes". However, he criticised the Collector's Edition bonus material as containing only "listless B-sides and instrumentals, functional remixes". Technique has been listed by several publications as one of the best albums of the 1980s and of all time. I
Power, Corruption & Lies
Power, Corruption & Lies is the second studio album by English rock band New Order, released on 2 May 1983 by Factory Records. The album features more electronic tracks than their 1981 debut Movement, with heavier use of synthesisers, it was included in the top 100 albums of the 1980s lists in both Rolling Pitchfork Media. The title of the album was chosen by Bernard Sumner from a 1981 conceptual art exhibition in Cologne, Germany. On the opening night of the exhibition the artist Gerhard Richter vandalised the exterior of the Kunsthalle by spray painting the text, "Power and Lies". Peter Saville's design for the album had a colour-based code to represent the band's name and the title of the album, but they were not written on the original UK sleeve itself, although the catalogue number "FACT 75" does appear on the top-right corner; the decoder for the code was featured prominently on the back cover of the album and can be seen on the "Blue Monday" and "Confusion" singles and for Section 25's album From the Hip.
The cover is a reproduction of the painting "A Basket of Roses" by French artist Henri Fantin-Latour, part of the National Gallery's permanent collection in London. Saville had planned to use a Renaissance portrait of a dark prince to tie in with the Machiavellian theme of the title, but couldn't find a suitable portrait. At the gallery Saville picked up a postcard with Fantin-Latour's painting, his girlfriend mockingly asked him if he was going to use it for the cover. Saville realised it was a great idea. Saville suggested that the flowers "suggested the means by which power and lies infiltrate our lives. They're seductive." The cover was intended to create a collision between the overly romantic and classic image which made a stark contrast to the typography based on the modular, colour-coded alphabet. Saville and Tony Wilson, the head of the label said that the owner of the painting first refused Factory Records access to it. Wilson called up the gallery director to ask who owned the painting and was given the answer that the Trust belonged to the people of Britain, at some point.
Wilson replied, "I believe the people want it." The director replied, "If you put it like that, Mr Wilson, I'm sure we can make an exception in this case."The cover was among the ten chosen by the Royal Mail for a set of "Classic Album Cover" postage stamps issued in January 2010. Influential fashion designer Raf Simons used the album's cover art on one of his most coveted pieces from the Autumn/Winter 2003 "Closer" collection producing four fishtail parkas in varying colours with various pieces of New Order/Joy Division artwork spread around the pieces; the street-fashion label Supreme included the album's floral motif as part of their Spring-Summer 2013 collection. Power, Corruption & Lies was well-received on its release, is still well-regarded. In a contemporary review for Rolling Stone magazine, Steve Pond felt that the band had separated themselves from their past Joy Division associations, calling the album a "remarkable declaration of independence" and a "quantum leap" over Movement.
Robert Christgau of The Village Voice found it "relatively gentle and melodic in its ambient postindustrial polyrhythms, their nicest record ever", but "pretty much like the others." The album placed at number 23 in The Village Voice's 1983 Jop critics' poll. In a retrospective review, Josh Modell of The A. V. Club called Power, Corruption & Lies "the sound of a band coming out of the shadows, retaining some of the pop elements of older days, but embracing happiness and a whole new world of sequencers," crediting the album's humanity as a part of its charm. John Bush of AllMusic stated that the album "cemented New Order's place as the most exciting dance-rock hybrid in music."In 1989, Corruption & Lies was ranked number 94 on Rolling Stone's list of the 100 greatest albums of the 1980s, with the magazine citing it as "a landmark album of danceable, post-punk music". It was placed at number 28 on Pitchfork's list of the best albums of the 1980s, with William Bowers' accompanying write-up for the album citing it as "the peak of the New Order's stellar 80s output."
Slant Magazine listed the album at number 23 on its list of the best albums of the 1980s and stated that it "marks the real beginning of New Order's career" and was "their first perfect pop record". In 2013, it was ranked at 216 on NME's list of the 500 greatest albums of all time. All tracks written except where indicated. New OrderBernard Sumner – vocals, melodica and programming Peter Hook – 4- and 6-stringed bass and electronic percussion Stephen Morris – drums and programming Gillian Gilbert – synthesizers and programmingTechnicalNew Order – production Michael Johnson – engineering Barry Sage and Mark Boyne – assistants UK 12" – Factory Records UK cassette – Factory Records US 12" – Factory Records/Rough Trade Records UK CD – London Records GR 12" Factory Records VG50085After the release of Music Complete, the album was remastered and rereleased for the US iTunes Store. New Order discography Power, Corruption & Lies on New Order Online Power, Corruption & Lies on World in Motion
Australian Recording Industry Association
The Australian Recording Industry Association is a trade group representing the Australian recording industry, established in 1983 by six major record companies, EMI, Festival, CBS, RCA, WEA and Universal replacing the Association of Australian Record Manufacturers, formed in 1956. It oversees the collection and distribution of music licenses and royalties; the association has more than 100 members, including small labels run by one to five people, medium size organisations and large companies with international affiliates. ARIA is administered by a Board of Directors comprising senior executives from record companies, both large and small; as of October 2010, the directors were Denis Handlin, George Ash, Mark Poston, Sebastian Chase, David Vodica and Tony Harlow. In 1956, the Association of Australian Record Manufacturers was formed by Australia's major record companies, it was replaced in 1983 by the Australian Recording Industry Association, established by the six major record companies operating in Australia, EMI, Festival Records, CBS, RCA, WEA and Polygram.
It included smaller record companies representing independent acts/labels and has over 100 members. By 1997, the six major labels provided 90% of all recordings made in Australia. ARIA is administered by a Board of Directors comprising senior executives from record companies, both large and small; as of October 2010, the directors were Denis Handlin, George Ash, Mark Poston, Sebastian Chase, David Vodica and Tony Harlow. Australian TV pop music show Countdown presented its own annual awards ceremony, Countdown Music and Video Awards, co-produced by Carolyn James during 1981–1984 in collaboration with ARIA. ARIA provided peer voting for some awards, while Countdown provided coupons in the related Countdown Magazine for viewers to vote for populist awards. At the 1985 Countdown awards ceremony, held on 14 April 1986, fans of INXS and Uncanny X-Men scuffled during the broadcast and as a result ARIA decided to hold their own awards. Since 2 March 1987, ARIA administered its own peer-voted ARIA Music Awards, to "recognise excellence and innovation in all genres of Australian music" with an annual ceremony.
Included in the same awards ceremonies, it established the ARIA Hall of Fame in 1988 and has held separate annual ceremonies since 2005. The ARIA Hall of Fame "honours Australian musicians' achievements have had a significant impact in Australia or around the world". In February 2004, the Australian Record Industry Association announced its own legal action against Kazaa, alleging massive copyright breaches; the trial began on 29 November 2004. On 6 February 2005, the homes of two Sharman Networks executives and the offices of Sharman Networks in Australia were raided under a court order by ARIA to gather evidence for the trial. In 2006, ARIA formed sponsorship deals with Motorola and Nova and changed the appearance and conduct of the charting. Motorola took naming-rights sponsorship seeing the charts referred to in the media as the Motorola ARIA Charts. ARIA, have commented that as part of the same marketing printed charts would be reintroduced into media retailing shops and their website would be redesigned.
As part of the deal Nova began broadcasting the charted singles in reverse order on a Sunday afternoon show before it was released on the ARIA charts website. The ARIA Charts is the main Australian music sales charts, issued weekly by the Australian Recording Industry Association; the charts are a record of albums in various genres. All charts are compiled from data of both digital sales from retailers in Australia. A music single or album qualifies for a platinum certification if it exceeds 70,000 copies shipped to retailers and a gold certification for 35,000 copies shipped; the diamond certification was created for albums in November 2015 to mark 500,000 sales/shipments. For music DVDs, a gold accreditation represented 7,500 copies shipped, with a platinum accreditation representing 15,000 units shipped. Prior to ARIA taking on the role of certification authority in 1983, the music industry used the following certification levels: The ARIA No. 1 Chart Awards were established in 2002 to recognise Australian recording artists, who reached number one on the ARIA albums and music DVDs charts.
The ARIA Music Awards is an annual series of awards nights celebrating the Australian music industry. The event has been held annually since 1987. Like most recording industry associations, ARIA has been criticised for fighting copyright infringement matters aggressively, although in Australia this has taken the form of aggressive advertising campaigns in cinemas directly preceding movies; this criticism is stauncher in Australia due to the absence of an equivalent Digital Millennium Copyright Act or state crimes acts which establish copyright infringement as a crime. In February 2004, the Australian Record Industry Association took legal action against Kazaa, alleging massive copyright breaches; the trial began on 29 November 2004. On 6 Febr
The twelve-inch single is a type of gramophone record that has wider groove spacing and shorter playing time compared to LPs. This allows for louder levels to be cut on the disc by the mastering engineer, which in turn gives a wider dynamic range, thus better sound quality; this record type is used in disco and dance music genres, where DJs use them to play in clubs. They are played at either 45 rpm. Twelve-inch singles have much shorter playing time than full-length LPs, thus require fewer grooves per inch; this extra space permits a broader dynamic range or louder recording level as the grooves' excursions can be much greater in amplitude in the bass frequencies important for dance music. Many record companies began producing 12-inch singles at 33 1⁄3 rpm, although 45 rpm gives better treble response and was used on many twelve-inch singles in the UK; the gramophone records cut for dance-floor DJs came into existence with the advent of recorded Jamaican mento music in the 1950s. By at least 1956 it was standard practice by Jamaican sound systems owners to give their "selecter" DJs acetate or flexi disc dubs of exclusive mento and Jamaican rhythm and blues recordings before they were issued commercially.
Songs such as Theophilus Beckford's "Easy Snappin'" were played as exclusives by Sir Coxson's Downbeat sound system for years before they were released in 1959 – only to become major local hits pressed in the UK by Island Records and Blue Beat Records as early as 1960. As the 1960s creativity bloomed along, with the development of multitrack recording facilities, special mixes of rocksteady and early reggae tunes were given as exclusives to dancehall DJs and selecters. With the 1967 Jamaican invention of remix, called dub on the island, those "specials" became valuable items sold to allied sound system DJs, who could draw crowds with their exclusive hits; the popularity of remix sound engineer King Tubby, who singlehandedly invented and perfected dub remixes from as early as 1967, led to more exclusive dub plates being cut. By 10-inch records were used to cut those dubs. By 1971, most reggae singles issued in Jamaica included on their B-side a dub remix of the A-side, many of them first tested as exclusive "dub plates" on dances.
Those dubs included drum and bass-oriented remixes used by sound system selecters. The 10-inch acetate "specials" would remain popular until at least the 2000s in Jamaica. Several Jamaican DJs such as DJ Kool Herc exported much of the hip hop dance culture from Jamaica to the Bronx in the early 1970s, including the common Jamaican practice of DJs rapping over instrumental dub remixes of hit songs leading to the advent of rap culture in the United States. Most the widespread use of exclusive dub acetates in Jamaica led American DJs to do the same. In the United States, the twelve-inch single gramophone record came into popularity with the advent of disco music in the 1970s after earlier market experiments. In early 1970, Cycle/Ampex Records test-marketed a twelve-inch single by Buddy Fite, featuring "Glad Rag Doll" backed with "For Once in My Life"; the experiment aimed to energize the struggling singles market, offering a new option for consumers who had stopped buying traditional singles. The record was pressed at 33 rpm, with identical run times to the seven-inch 45 rpm pressing of the single.
Several hundred copies were made available for sale for 98 cents each at two Tower Records stores. Another early twelve-inch single was released in 1973 by soul/R&B musician/songwriter/producer Jerry Williams, Jr. a.k.a. Swamp Dogg. Twelve-inch promotional copies of "Straight From My Heart" were released on his own Swamp Dogg Presents label, with distribution by Jamie/Guyden Distribution Corporation, it was manufactured by Jamie Record Co. of Pennsylvania. The B-side of the record is blank; the first large-format single made for DJs was a ten-inch acetate used by a mix engineer in need of a Friday-night test copy for famed disco mixer Tom Moulton. The song was; as no 7-inch acetates could be found, a 10–inch blank was used. Upon completion, found that such a large disc with only a couple of inches worth of grooves on it made him feel silly wasting all that space, he asked Rodríguez to re-cut it so that the grooves looked more spread out and ran to the normal center of the disc. Rodriguez told him.
Because of the wider spacing of the grooves, not only was a louder sound possible but a wider overall dynamic range as well. This was noticed to give a more favorable sound for discothèque play. Moulton's position as the premiere mixer and "fix it man" for pop singles ensured that this fortunate accident would become industry practice; this would have been a natural evolution: as dance tracks became much longer than had been the average for a pop song, the DJ in the club wanted sufficient dynamic range, the format would have enlarged from the seven-inch single eventually. The broad visual spacing of the grooves on the twelve-inch made it easy for the DJ in locating the approximate area of the "breaks" on the disc's surface in dim club light. A quick study of any DJs favorite discs will reveal mild wear in