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Rumelia

Rumelia, etymologically "Land of the Romans", was the name of a historical region in Southeast Europe, administered by the Ottoman Empire the Balkan Peninsula. Rumelia included the provinces of Thrace and Moesia, today's Bulgaria and Turkish Thrace, bounded to the north by the rivers Sava and Danube, west by the Adriatic coast, south by the Morea. In 1844, Rumelia spanned 325,805 km² – an area larger than mainland Norway. Owing to administrative changes between 1870 and 1875, the name ceased to correspond to any political division. Eastern Rumelia was constituted as an autonomous province of the Ottoman Empire by the Treaty of Berlin in 1878. Today, in Turkey, the word Trakya has replaced Rumeli when referring to the part of Turkey, in Europe, though Rumelia remains in use in some historical and geographic contexts; the term Rûm means "Roman", while Rumelia means "Land of the Romans" and is a loanword from Latin and Greek in the Ottoman Turkish language, referring to the lands occupied by the Ottomans after the Byzantine Empire, at the time still known as the Roman Empire.

Despite the term " Byzantine Empire" used by modern day historians, the citizens and Emperors of this empire called themselves Romans and had a Roman identity. Various languages in the Balkans have long used the descriptor "Roman" to refer to the lands of the former Roman empire. Indeed, today the term survives in the region as Bosnian: Rumelija, Greek: Ρωμυλία, Romylía, or Ρούμελη, Roúmeli; the old Latin Genoese documents use the term Romania, the common name for the Byzantine Empire in the Middle Ages. The Seljuks used the name "Land of the Rûm" for defining Anatolia, which the armies of the Seljuk Empire conquered from the former Eastern Roman Empire following the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. After the fall of the Seljuk Empire in 1170 the region was called the Sultanate of Rum, meaning Sultanate of Roman Empire or Roman Sultanate; the Sultanate of Rum covered central Anatolia. It was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in the 14th and 15th centuries. However, following the expansion of the Ottoman Empire into the regions of Anatolia and the Balkans in the second half of the 14th century, following the conquest of Constantinople in 1453 by Mehmed II, the term Rumeli came to apply to the Balkan region of the Ottoman Empire.

This region remained populated by Christians but however Bosnians and Albanians converted to Islam. It must be noted that the Rumelia region contributed to the expansion and governing of the Ottoman Empire. Many prime ministers, ministers guvernators, Pashas came from this region. Notably Albanians but Muslim Bosnians gave great contributions to the Ottoman Empire and were a important part of the Ottoman world. Rumelia included the provinces of Thrace and Moesia, today's Bulgaria and Turkish Thrace, bounded to the north by the rivers Sava and Danube, west by the Adriatic coast, south by the Morea; the name Rumelia was applied to a province composed of central Albania and north-western Macedonia, with Bitola for its chief town. Owing to administrative changes effected between 1870 and 1875, the name ceased to correspond to any political division. Eastern Rumelia was constituted as an autonomous province of the Ottoman Empire by the Treaty of Berlin, 1878, but on September 6, 1885, after a bloodless revolution, it was united with Bulgaria.

The Kosovo Vilayet was created in 1877. Today, in Turkey, the word Trakya has replaced Rumeli when referring to the part of Turkey, in Europe, though Rumelia remains in use in historical contexts and the word is used in the context of the culture of current Turkish populations of the Balkans and descendants of Turkish immigrants from the Balkans; this region in Turkey is referred to as Eastern Thrace or Turkish Thrace. In Greece, the term Ρούμελη has been used since Ottoman times to refer to Central Greece when juxtaposed with the Peloponnese or Morea; the word Rumeli is used in some cases to refer to the part of Istanbul Province, situated west of the Bosphorus. Turks in the Balkans Sultanate of Rum Rum Millet Millet Ottoman wars in Europe Ottoman Greece Ottoman Bulgaria Ottoman Vardar Macedonia Ottoman Serbia Ottoman Bosnia and Herzegovina Ottoman Croatia Ottoman Albania Ottoman Montenegro Ottoman Kosovo Ottoman Romania Ottoman Moldova Ottoman Hungary Ottoman Slovakia Ottoman Ukraine Upper Thracian Plain — in Bulgaria.

Western Thrace — in Greece. Septinsular Republic Bronza, Boro. "The Habsburg Monarchy and the Projects for Division of the Ottoman Balkans, 1771-1788". Empires and Peninsulas: Southeastern Europe between Karlowitz and the Peace of Adrianople, 1699–1829. Berlin: LIT Verlag. Pp. 51–62. "Rumelia". Encyclopædia Britannica. 23. 1911

Patryk Niemiec

Patryk Damian Niemiec is a Polish volleyball player, a member of Poland men's national under-19 volleyball team and Polish club VERVA Warszawa ORLEN Paliwa, U19 European Champion 2015, U19 World Champion 2015. On April 12, 2015 Poland men's national under-19 volleyball team, including Niemiec, won title of U19 European Champion 2015, they beat Italy U19 in the final. He took part in European Youth Olympic Festival with Polish national U19 team. On August 1, 2015 he achieved gold medal. On August 23, 2015 Poland achieved first title of U19 World Champion. In the finale his team beat hosts - Argentina. National championships 2017/2018 Polish Cup, with Trefl Gdańsk 2017/2018 Polish Championship, with Trefl GdańskNational team 2015 CEV U19 European Championship 2015 European Youth Olympic Festival 2015 FIVB U19 World Championship 2019 Summer Universiade PlusLiga player profile

Finzels Reach

Finzels Reach is a 4.7-acre mixed use development site located in central Bristol, England, on a former industrial site, which occupies most of the south bank of Bristol Floating Harbour between Bristol Bridge and St Philip's Bridge, across the river from Castle Park. A sugar refinery occupied part of the site from 1681, rebuilt by Conrad Finzel I in 1846 to become one of the largest sugar refineries in England. Known as Finzel's Sugar Refinery, it operated until 1881. Georges Bristol Brewery, founded in 1788, grew to occupy most of the site by the mid 20th century, when it was the largest brewery in southwest England. Known after 1961 as the Courage Brewery, it operated until 1999; the site includes the former Tramway Generating Station, a Grade II* listed building built in 1899 which operated as the power station for Bristol Tramways until 1941. Development plans were approved in 2006, but work was halted in 2011 due to financial issues with the developer, HDG Mansur, following the 2008 recession and the site was subsequently put on the market in 2013, after the company went into receivership.

The development was revived when the developer, bought the site in 2014. The original Counterslip Sugar House was founded in the northeast part of the site. German-born Conrad Finzel I acquired the refinery in 1839. After it burnt down in 1846 he rebuilt it, at a cost of £250,000. Finzel's Sugar Refinery, one of the largest in England, employed over 700 workers. After Finzel's death in 1859, his family including Conrad Finzel II kept Finzel & Sons going until 1877. A group of local businessmen took over the refinery, but closed ‌it in 1881. Brewing originated at the western end of the site, where in 1788 the Porter Brewery on Bath Street was acquired by a consortium which became the Philip George Bristol Porter and Beer Company. In 1796 the company built a pale ale brewery next to the porter one. In 1861 the company became Georges and Company, became a public company in 1888. By the early 20th century the Georges Bristol Brewery employed around 170 workers. In 1919 and 1924 more land along Bath Street and Counterslip Street was acquired and by 1933 the brewery developed into a 3-acre complex, the largest brewery in south west England.

After absorbing its local rivals, the company became the dominant brewer in Bristol, but in 1961 it was taken over by Courage, Barclay & Simonds and was renamed Courage. After Courage itself subsequently passed through various owners, the brewery was closed in October 1991 by Scottish & Newcastle; the generating station is at the eastern end of the site, next to St Philip's Bridge. It was built in 1899 for the Bristol Tramways and Carriage Company by the architect William Curtis Green; the eventual demise of Bristol's tramways came on Good Friday 1941 during the Bristol Blitz, when bombs falling on St Philip's Bridge cut the power to the whole tramway system. The generating station was subsequently converted into offices, it is a Grade II* listed building. The £250 million development includes a new footbridge over the Floating Harbour, 168 bed hotel, 420 apartments, shops and bars; the previous design for a footbridge had a different alignment and had planning permission given as part of the original Finzels Reach development.

A new design by Bristol-based Architects The Bush Consultancy was submitted by Finzels Reach Property LLP for a 4.5m wide curved pedestrian and cycle bridge. The proposals were approved in March 2015 despite many objections due to the obstruction of the waterway from people using the harbour and will link Castle Park to Finzels Reach when it is completed in 2017; the bridge will have a height difference of 7.2 metres between the Castle Park end and the Finzels Reach site and is 91 metres long. In November 2014, a deal was signed between Cubex and Palmer Capital with Premier Inn for a 168 bedroom hotel located in the southern part of the site. In May 2016, planning consent was granted by Bristol City Council for an 11-storey apartment block located in Hawkins Lane and another apartment building located on the north east corner of the site along the Floating Harbour; the two buildings will contain 194 one and two bedroom apartments and will be the final phase of residential development on the site.

Willmott Dixon was appointed in late 2016 by Cubex to build the final residential development for the Finzels Reach site with construction starting in February 2017. Completed in 2013, Bridgewater House is an Grade A BREEAM excellent rated office building located in the southern part of the Finzels Reach site; as of Spring 2016, the 115,000 square feet office building is let to Barclays Wealth and BDO. In September 2015, planning permission was given by Bristol City Council to build a seven-storey 95,000 square feet Grade A office building designed by Bristol-based Architects The Bush Consultancy. In late 2015, Willmott Dixon was announced as the preferred bidder to construct the Aurora office building and construction is expected to start in 2016 and completed by late 2017; the Generator Building is a redevelopment of the former Tramways Generating Station into 27,000 square feet of office accommodation. Work is expected to start in 2018; these plans supersede the original ones to create 30 studio flats, under the name Generator House.

In March 2016, Bristol City Council approved plans for an S-shaped footbridge over the Floating Harbour, linking the development to Castle Park, despite concerns it would be visually intrusive. The bridge cost £2.7 million and was opened on 6 April 2017. Castle Bridge is one of the primary pedestrian routes set out by the City Council as part of their wider assessment of access to the city centre, it is said to complete an attractive'walkway from Temple M