Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,748,148 inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London; the city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, contiguous with its capital, Potsdam; the two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km², Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions. Berlin straddles the banks of the River Spree, which flows into the River Havel in the western borough of Spandau. Among the city's main topographical features are the many lakes in the western and southeastern boroughs formed by the Spree and Dahme rivers. Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. About one-third of the city's area is composed of forests, gardens, rivers and lakes; the city lies in the Central German dialect area, the Berlin dialect being a variant of the Lusatian-New Marchian dialects.
First documented in the 13th century and situated at the crossing of two important historic trade routes, Berlin became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Kingdom of Prussia, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich. Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II and its subsequent occupation by the victorious countries, the city was divided. East Berlin was declared capital of East Germany. Following German reunification in 1990, Berlin once again became the capital of all of Germany. Berlin is a world city of culture, politics and science, its economy is based on high-tech firms and the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations and convention venues. Berlin serves as a continental hub for air and rail traffic and has a complex public transportation network; the metropolis is a popular tourist destination. Significant industries include IT, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology and electronics.
Berlin is home to world-renowned universities, orchestras and entertainment venues, is host to many sporting events. Its Zoological Garden is one of the most popular worldwide. With the world's oldest large-scale movie studio complex, Berlin is an popular location for international film productions; the city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, contemporary arts and a high quality of living. Since the 2000s Berlin has seen the emergence of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene. Berlin lies in northeastern Germany, east of the River Saale, that once constituted, together with the River Elbe, the eastern border of the Frankish Realm. While the Frankish Realm was inhabited by Germanic tribes like the Franks and the Saxons, the regions east of the border rivers were inhabited by Slavic tribes; this is why most of the villages in northeastern Germany bear Slavic-derived names. Typical Germanised place name suffixes of Slavic origin are -ow, -itz, -vitz, -witz, -itzsch and -in, prefixes are Windisch and Wendisch.
The name Berlin has its roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of the area of today's Berlin, may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl-. Since the Ber- at the beginning sounds like the German word Bär, a bear appears in the coat of arms of the city, it is therefore a canting arm. Of Berlin's twelve boroughs, five bear a Slavic-derived name: Pankow, Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Marzahn-Hellersdorf, Treptow-Köpenick and Spandau. Of its ninety-six neighborhoods, twenty-two bear a Slavic-derived name: Altglienicke, Alt-Treptow, Buch, Gatow, Kladow, Köpenick, Lankwitz, Lübars, Marzahn, Prenzlauer Berg, Schmöckwitz, Stadtrandsiedlung Malchow, Steglitz and Zehlendorf; the neighborhood of Moabit bears a French-derived name, Französisch Buchholz is named after the Huguenots. The earliest evidence of settlements in the area of today's Berlin are a wooden beam dated from 1192, remnants of a house foundation dated to 1174, found in excavations in Berlin Mitte; the first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century.
Spandau is first mentioned in 1197 and Köpenick in 1209, although these areas did not join Berlin until 1920. The central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document, Berlin, across the Spree in what is now called the Nikolaiviertel, is referenced in a document from 1244. 1237 is considered the founding date of the city. The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, profited from the staple right on the two important trade routes Via Imperii and from Bruges to Novgorod. In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, their internal administrations still being separated. In 1415, Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440. During the 15th century, his successors established Berlin-Cölln as capital of the margraviate, subsequent members of the Hohenzol
Edmund Rumpler was an Austrian automobile and aircraft designer. Born in Vienna Austro-Hungarian Empire, he worked in Germany. An automotive engineer by training, he collaborated with Hans Ledwinka on the first Tatra car, the Präsident, in 1897. By age 30, in 1902, he had quit Daimler to become technical director of Adler, he designed the first German engine to have gearbox as a unit at Adler. The next year, he patented; the Wright brothers turned Rumpler's attention to aviation. He quit Adler in 1907, in 1910, copying countryman Igo Etrich's Taube, Rumpler became the first aircraft manufacturer in Germany. Rumpler continued to be interested in automobiles, after the First World War, he applied aircraft streamlining to a car, building the Tropfenwagen in Berlin. A production model proved a sensation at the 1921 Berlin Auto Show. Rumpler's efforts produced a car with an astoundingly low Cw of only 0.28. The Rumpler design inspired the 1923 Benz Auto Union Grand Prix racers. Rumpler's Tropfenwagen was not a commercial success, only 100 Tropfenwagen were built, just two of which survive.
Rumpler returned to aircraft. Because Rumpler was Jewish, he was imprisoned after Adolf Hitler took power in 1933, his career was ruined though he was soon released, he died in 1940, the Nazis destroyed his records. Notable owners of Tatra 77 Lyons, Pete. "10 Best Ahead-of-Their-Time Machines". Car and Driver, 1/88, pp. 73–4. Setright, L. J. K. "Aerodynamics: Finding the Right Shape for the Car Body", in Northey, Tom, ed. World of Automobiles, Vol. 1, p. 38. Wise, David Burgess. "Rumpler: One Aeroplane which Never Flew", in Northey, Tom, ed. World of Automobiles, Vol. 17, p. 1964
The Rumpler B. I was a military reconnaissance aircraft produced in Germany during World War I, it was a conventional two-bay biplane with unstaggered wings of unequal span. It featured two open cockpits in fixed, tailskid undercarriage, its upper wing reflected the wing design of the Etrich Taube. Rumpler built 198 of these aircraft for the Luftstreitkräfte, plus 26 seaplane versions for the Imperial German Navy. 4A - landplane with Mercedes D. I engine, military designation B. I4A13 - B. I with balanced, comma-style rudder 4A14 - version with Benz Bz. III engine 4B - seaplane 4B1 - version with Mercedes D. I engine 4B2 - version with Benz Bz. III engine 4B11 - version with Benz Bz. I engine 4B12 - version with Benz Bz. III engine DenmarkRoyal Danish Air Force - Postwar. GermanyLuftstreitkrafte Kaiserliche Marine TurkeyOttoman Air Force Data from Gray & Thetford 1962, p.518General characteristics Crew: Two and observer Length: 8.40 m Wingspan: 13.00 m Height: 3.10 m Empty weight: 750 kg Gross weight: 970 kg Powerplant: 1 × Mercedes D.
I, 75 kW Performance Maximum speed: 145 km/h Armament Gray, Peter. German Aircraft of the First World War. London: Putnam; the Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft. London: Aerospace Publishing. Kroschel, Günter. Die Deutschen Militärflugzeuge 1910–1918. Herford: Verlag E. S. Mittler & Sohn. Taylor, Michael J. H.. Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions
The Rumpler D. I was a fighter-reconnaissance aircraft produced in Germany at the end of World War I, it was a conventional single-bay biplane with wings of unequal span braced by I-struts. It featured a fixed, tailskid undercarriage; the upper wing was fitted with aerodynamically balanced ailerons and fuselage had an oval cross-section. The D. I had a protracted development through the course of 1917, with at least six development prototypes built before Rumpler settled on a final design in 1918 in time for the Idflieg's D-type competition at Adlershof. Two 8D1s participated, powered by Mercedes D. III engines. Another one participated in the follow-on competition in this time with a BMW engine; the Idflieg approved the type for production and issued the designation D. I, but only a small number were produced. 7D1 - initial prototype with comma-style balanced rudder, wide-chord I-struts, upper wing supported by pylon faired into engine cowling. The entire fuselage was skinned in plywood; the radiator was mounted in the upper wing, set off the port side of the supporting pylon.
7D2 - identical to 7D1 but with vertical stabiliser added 7D4 - similar to 7D2 with conventional struts in place of I-struts, conventional cabane struts in place of central pylon, radiator moved to wing centreline, central fuselage skinned in fabric. 7D5 7D7 - similar to 7D4 but with wing bracing again using I-struts and the bracing wires simplified. The flush-mounted radiator in the wing was replaced by ear-style frontal radiators on the forward fuselage 7D8 - similar to 7D7, with wire bracing simplified further 8D1 - final version approved for production as D I German EmpireLuftstreitkräfte Data from Kroschel and Stützer 1994, p. 159. General characteristics Crew: One Length: 5.75 m Wingspan: 8.42 m Height: 2.56 m Empty weight: 630 kg Gross weight: 846 kg Powerplant: 1 × Mercedes D. III, 120 kW Performance Maximum speed: 180 km/h Range: 360 km Service ceiling: 7,000 m Armament 2 × fixed, forward-firing 7.92 mm LMG 08/15 machine guns Rumpler 7D 1, Experimental Single-seat Fighter Airplane
The Rumpler C. III was a biplane military reconnaissance aircraft built in Germany during World War I, it was a development of the Rumpler C. I design incorporating many aerodynamic refinements, including wing planform, airfoil section, horn-balanced ailerons, revised empennage, new rear fuselage decking with compound curves; this latter feature was removed and replaced with a simplified structure, at which point the factory designation was changed to 6A 6. Performance was improved over that of the C. I, the C. III was selected for limited production, thought to be about 75 aircraft; the Frontbestand table of C-type aircraft at the front shows a maximum of 42 C. III aircraft at the front on 28 February 1917. With the introduction of the more powerful Rumpler C. IV based on a refined C. III airframe, the number of operational C. III aircraft at the front dropped and by the autumn of 1917 only one was at the front; the C. III was a qualified success, but its design served as a stepping stone to the further refined C.
IV. Data from Kroschel & Stützer 1994, p.127General characteristics Crew: Two and observer Length: 8.20 m Wingspan: 12.66 m Height: 3.25 m Wing area: 34.8 m2 Empty weight: 839 kg Gross weight: 1,264 kg Powerplant: 1 × Benz Bz. IV, 160 kW Performance Maximum speed: 136 km/h Range: 480 km Service ceiling: 4,000 m Armament 1 × fixed, forward-firing 7.92 mm machine gun 1 × trainable, rearward-firing 7.92 mm machine gun 100 kg of bombs Gray, Peter. German Aircraft of the First World War. London: Putnam; the Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft. London: Aerospace Publishing. Kroschel, Günter. Die Deutschen Militärflugzeuge 1910–1918. Herford: Verlag E. S. Mittler & Sohn. Taylor, Michael J. H.. Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions
William A. Wellman
William Augustus Wellman was an American film director notable for his work in crime and action genre films focusing on aviation themes, a particular passion. He directed several well-regarded satirical comedies. Beginning his film career as an actor, he went on to direct over 80 films, at times co-credited as producer and consultant. In 1927, Wellman directed Wings, which became the first film to win an Academy Award for Best Picture at the 1st Academy Awards ceremony, he won the Academy Award for Best Story for his 1937 film A Star Is Born. Wellman was born in Massachusetts, his father, Arthur Gouverneur Wellman, was a New England Brahmin of English-Welsh-Scottish and Irish descent. William was a five times great-grandson of Puritan Thomas Wellman, who immigrated to the Massachusetts Bay Colony about 1640, he was a great-great-great grandson of Francis Lewis of New York, one of the signatories to the Declaration of Independence. Wellman's much-beloved mother, Cecilia McCarthy, was an Irish immigrant.
Wellman was expelled from Newton High School in Newtonville, for dropping a stink bomb on the principal's head. His mother was a probation officer, asked to address Congress on the subject of juvenile delinquency. Wellman worked as a salesman and at a lumber yard, before ending up playing professional ice hockey, where he was first seen by Douglas Fairbanks, who suggested that with Wellman's good looks he could become a film actor. In World War I Wellman enlisted in the Norton-Harjes Ambulance Corps as an ambulance driver. While in Paris, Wellman joined the French Foreign Legion and was assigned on December 3, 1917 as a fighter pilot and the first American to join N.87 escadrille in the Lafayette Flying Corps, where he earned himself the nickname "Wild Bill" and received the Croix de Guerre with two palms. N.87, les Chats Noir was stationed at Lunéville in the Alsace-Lorraine sector and was equipped with Nieuport 17 and Nieuport 24 "pursuit" aircraft. Wellman's combat experience culminated in three recorded "kills", along with five probables, although he was shot down by German anti-aircraft fire on March 21, 1918.
Wellman survived the crash but he walked with a pronounced limp for the rest of his life. Wellman's credits: January 19, 1918 a German "Rumpler" shot down in front of American lines in Lorraine by Wellman and Thomas Hitchcock. January 20, 1918 a German "Rumpler" shot down near German Airfield at France. March 9, 1918 shot down a German "Rumpler". March 9, 1918 shot down a German "Albatros" Pilot killed. March 18, 1918 shot down a German "Rumpler". Maréchal des Logis Wellman received a medical discharge from the Foreign Legion and returned to the United States a few weeks later, he spoke at War Savings Stamp rallies in his French uniform. In September 1918 his book about French flight school and his eventful four months at the front, "Go Get'Em!" was published. He joined the United States Army Air Service but too late to fly for America in the war. Stationed at Rockwell Field, San Diego, he taught combat tactics to new pilots. While in San Diego, Wellman would fly to Hollywood for the weekends in his Spad fighter, using Fairbanks' polo field in Bel Air as a landing strip.
Fairbanks was fascinated with the true-life adventures of "Wild Bill" and promised to recommend him for a job in the movie business. Wellman was hired for the role of a young officer in Evangeline, but was fired for slapping the leading lady, the actress Miriam Cooper, who happened to be the wife of director Raoul Walsh. Wellman hated being an actor, thinking it an "unmanly" profession, was miserable watching himself on screen while learning the craft, he soon switched to working behind the camera, aiming to be a director, progressed up the line as "a messenger boy, as an assistant cutter, an assistant property man, a property man, an assistant director, second unit director and eventually... director." His first assignment as an assistant director for Bernie Durning provided him with a work ethic that he adopted for future film work. One strict rule that Durning enforced was no fraternization with screen femme fatales, which immediately Wellman broke, leading to a confrontation and a thrashing from the director.
Despite his transgression, both men became lifelong friends, Wellman progressed to more difficult first unit assignments. Wellman made his uncredited directorial debut in 1920 at Fox with The Twins of Suffering Creek; the first films he was credited with directing were The Man Who Won and Second Hand Love, released on the same day in 1923. After directing a dozen low-budget'horse opera' films, Wellman was hired by Paramount in 1927 to direct Wings, a major war drama dealing with fighter pilots during World War I, highlighted by air combat and flight sequences; the film culminates with the epic Battle of Saint-Mihiel. In the 1st Academy Awards it was one of two films to win Best Picture, due to tensions within
The Rumpler G. I was a bomber aircraft produced in Germany during World War I, together with refined versions known as the G. II and G. III. Based on a prototype with the factory designation 4A15, the G. I and its successors were built to a conventional bomber design for their time, two-bay biplanes with unstaggered wings of unequal span; the pilot sat in an open cockpit just forward of the wings, open positions were provided in the nose and amidships for a gunner and observer. The engines were mounted pusher-fashion in nacelles atop the lower wings and enclosed in streamlined cowlings. Fixed tricycle undercarriage was fitted, with dual wheels on each unit; the G. II version was identical, but featured more powerful engines and carried a second 7.92 mm machine gun and increased bombload. The G. III was again similar, but had engine nacelles that were now mounted on short struts clear of the lower wing. 4A15 - prototype with Benz Bz. III engines 5A15 - G. I production version with single machine gun and Benz Bz.
III or Mercedes D. III engines 5A16 - G. II production version with Benz Bz. IV engines and two machine guns 6G2 - G. III production version with Mercedes D. IVa engines and two machine guns Data from Kroschel & Stützer 1994, p.140General characteristics Crew: Three Length: 12.00 m Wingspan: 19.30 m Height: 4.50 m Wing area: 73.0 m2 Empty weight: 2,365 kg Gross weight: 3,620 kg Powerplant: 2 × Mercedes D. IVa, 190 kW eachPerformance Maximum speed: 165 km/h Range: 700 km Service ceiling: 5,000 m Armament 1 × trainable 7.92 mm Parabellum MG14 machine gun in nose 1 × trainable 7.92 mm Parabellum MG14 machine gun in dorsal position 250 kg of bombs Gray, Peter. German Aircraft of the First World War. London: Putnam; the Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft. London: Aerospace Publishing. Kroschel, Günter. Die Deutschen Militärflugzeuge 1910–1918. Herford: Verlag E. S. Mittler & Sohn. Taylor, Michael J. H.. Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions