Philip Rundell was an English jeweller, known for his association with royalty, the accumulation of a large business fortune. With his partner John Bridge, he ran Rundell and Bridge, a firm with widespread interests in the jewellery and precious metal trades, he was the son of Richard Rundell and his wife Ann Ditcher, born into a large family, baptised at Norton St Philip, near Bath, Somerset. His siblings included Francis Rundell the actor-manager, a sister who married a Mr Harpur and was the mother of Elizabeth Bannister the actress, Thomas Rundell of Bath the surgeon who married Maria Ketelby the writer, Elizabeth who married the mercer Thomas Bigge, his great-nephew Joseph Neeld, who inherited more than half his fortune, was grandson of Susannah Rundell who married John Bond. Rundell was apprenticed, went into the London goldsmith's business Theed & Pickett, it became Pickett & Rundell in 1781. The firm had a major showroom at 32 Ludgate Hill, "at the sign of the Golden Salmon", in the period around 1768 to 1785.
They retailed goods made by others such as John Emes. They had manufacturing subsidiaries, one run by Benjamin Smith in Greenwich, another by Paul Storr in Dean Street. Philip Rundell withdrew capital from the firm in 1823, he died in 1827, leaving a fortune that went off the probate scale, which stopped at £1,000,000. The residual estate, after bequests to the sum of £500,000, went to Joseph Neeld, about £800,000. Money left to the Bigge family was reported to have exceeded £100,000; the Gentleman's Magazine reported that Rundell and without a home, liked to spend his time with his Brompton niece or Elizabeth Bannister, another niece. Hartop, with foreword by HRH The Prince of Wales, introduction by Philippa Glanville and essays by Diana Scarisbrick, Charles Truman, David Watkin and Matthew Winterbottom. Royal Goldsmiths: The Art of Rundell & Bridge 1797–1843 Cambridge: John Adamson ISBN 978-0-9524322-3-4
Imperial State Crown
The Imperial State Crown is one of the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom and symbolises the sovereignty of the monarch. It has existed in various forms since the 15th century; the current version was made in 1937 and is worn by the monarch after a coronation and used at the annual State Opening of Parliament. The crown is adorned with 2,901 precious stones, including the Cullinan II diamond, St Edward's Sapphire, the Stuart Sapphire, the Black Prince's Ruby. St Edward's Crown, used to crown English monarchs, was considered to be a holy relic, kept in the saint's shrine at Westminster Abbey and therefore not worn by monarchs at any other time. Instead, a "great crown" with crosses and fleurs-de-lis, but without arches, was a king's usual headgear at state occasions until the time of Henry V, depicted wearing an imperial crown of state with gold arches. Arches were a symbol of sovereignty, by this point in history, the king of England was being celebrated as rex in regno suo est imperator – an emperor of his own domain – owing obedience to no one but God, unlike some continental rulers, who owed fealty to more powerful kings or the Holy Roman Emperor.
Henry VII or his son and successor Henry VIII may have commissioned a more elaborate version of the state crown, first described in detail in an inventory of royal jewels in 1521, again in 1532, 1550, 1574 and 1597, was included in a painting by Daniel Mytens of Charles I in 1631. The Tudor Crown had more pearls and jewels than its medieval predecessor, the centre petals of each of the fleurs-de-lis had images of Christ, the Virgin Mary and St George; the crown weighed 3.3 kg and was set with 168 pearls, 58 rubies, 28 diamonds, 19 sapphires and 2 emeralds. Following the abolition of the monarchy and the execution of Charles I in 1649, the Tudor Crown was broken up by Oliver Cromwell during the Interregnum, its valuable components were sold for £1,100. Upon the restoration of the monarchy in 1660, a new state crown was made for Charles II by Sir Robert Vyner. About 10 versions of the crown have existed since the restoration; the one made for Queen Victoria in 1838 is the basis for today's crown.
Made by Rundell and Bridge in 1838 using old and new jewels, it had a crimson velvet cap with ermine border and a lining of white silk. It weighed 39.25 troy ounces and was decorated with 1,363 brilliant-cut, 1,273 rose-cut and 147 table-cut diamonds, 277 pearls, 17 sapphires, 11 emeralds, 4 rubies, the Black Prince's Ruby. At the State Opening of Parliament in 1845, the Duke of Argyll was carrying the crown before Queen Victoria when it fell off the cushion and broke. Victoria wrote in her diary, "it was all crushed and squashed like a pudding that had sat down"; the gems in the crown were remounted for the coronation of George VI in 1937 by Co.. The crown was adjusted for Queen Elizabeth II's coronation in 1953, with the head size reduced and the arches lowered by 25 mm to give it a more feminine appearance; the Imperial State Crown is 31.5 cm tall and weighs 1.06 kg, has four fleurs-de-lis and four crosses pattée, supporting two arches topped by a monde and cross pattée. Its purple velvet cap is trimmed with ermine.
The frame is made of gold and platinum, decorated with 2,868 diamonds, 273 pearls, 17 sapphires, 11 emeralds, 5 rubies. Notable stones are St Edward's Sapphire on the top cross, reputedly taken from the ring of Edward the Confessor when he was re-interred at Westminster Abbey in 1163, the Black Prince's Ruby on the front cross. In 1909, the 104-carat Stuart Sapphire, set in the front of the crown, was moved to the back and replaced by the 317-carat Cullinan II. Below the monde hang four pearls, three of which are said to have belonged to Queen Elizabeth I, but the association is certainly erroneous; the crown is worn by the monarch on leaving Westminster Abbey at the end of her coronation. It is worn or carried at the annual State Opening of Parliament, although in 1974 and 2017, when snap general elections were held, Queen Elizabeth II chose to wear a hat, while the crown was carried beside her, it is taken to the Palace of Westminster under armed guard in its own carriage and placed in the Robing Room, where the Queen dons her robes and puts on the crown before giving her speech to Parliament.
If a State Opening occurs before a coronation, the crown is placed on a cushion beside the monarch. In 1689, one week after being proclaimed king, William III wore his crown in Parliament to pass the Crown and Parliament Recognition Act 1689; when not in use, the Imperial State Crown is on public display in the Jewel House at the Tower of London. Imperial Crown of India Kenneth J. Mears; the Crown Jewels. Historic Royal Palaces. ASIN B000HHY1ZQ. Dale Hoak. Tudor Political Culture. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-52014-0. "The Imperial State Crown". Royal Collection Trust. Inventory no. 31701. "Frame of Queen Victoria's Imperial State Crown". Royal Collection Trust. Inventory no. 75002. The Crown Jewels at the Royal Family website
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, she inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held little direct political power. Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840, their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire, she was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III; until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children.
In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower; the Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace, she was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, the Prince Regent. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent; the Prince Regent had no surviving children, the Duke of York had no children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants.
The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820. A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, Victoria became heir presumptive; the Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy".
Her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them; the Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin, but she spoke only English at home. In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to oth
Edward Hodges Baily
Edward Hodges Baily was an English sculptor, born in Downend in Bristol. Baily's father, a celebrated carver of figureheads for ships, destined him for a commercial life, but at school the boy showed his natural taste and talents by producing numerous wax models and busts of his schoolfellows. At the age of fourteen Baily was placed in a mercantile house, where he worked for the next two years, though he still felt a strong leaning towards his artistic abilities. At the age of sixteen he began executing portraits in wax. Two Homeric studies, executed for a friend, were shown to John Flaxman, who bestowed on them such high commendation that in 1807 Baily came to London and placed himself as a pupil under the great sculptor. In 1809 he entered the Royal Academy Schools. In 1811 he gained the Royal Academy gold medal for a model of Hercules restoring Alcestis to Admetus, soon after exhibited Apollo discharging his Arrows against the Greeks and Hercules casting Lichas into the Sea, he was elected ARA in 1817 and RA in 1821 when he exhibited one of his best pieces, Eve at the Fountain.
He was entrusted with the carving of the bas-reliefs on the south side of the Marble Arch in Hyde Park, executed numerous busts and statues of public figures, including the prominent, well-known statue of Nelson, at the top of Nelson's Column, in Trafalgar Square. In 1857, the year of his retirement from the Royal Academy, he designed a Turner Gold Medal for Landscape Painting. Baily's election as a fellow of the Royal Society came in 1842. Amongst his pupils was William Theed, a leading Victorian sculptor who produced a number of portrait busts and the large group sculpture ‘’Africa’’ for the Albert Memorial in Kensington Gardens. Among Baily's assistants were Musgrave Watson and Joseph Durham ARA. Financial insecurity was a recurring theme in his life, he was first declared bankrupt in 1831, again in 1838. On the first occasion questions were asked in Parliament on his behalf because his financial distress had resulted from delays in receiving payment for sculptures at Buckingham Palace, his appeals to the Royal Academy for financial assistance, were successful in the 1830s, as again in the 1860s, when they provided him with a pension of £200 a year as an honorary retired RA. Baily died at 99 Devonshire Road, Holloway on 22 May 1867 and is buried in London's Highgate Cemetery.
Amongst Baily's many busts and statues of scientific and literary figures are the following: Charles James Fox & Lord Mansfield – St. Stephen's Hall, London Lord Byron – Harrow School. Mary's, Sussex Charles, 2nd Earl Grey – Grey Street, Newcastle upon Tyne George Stephenson, National Railway Museum, York Eve at the Fountain – Art Gallery, Cambridge Eve at the Fountain – Bristol City Museum and Art Gallery Eve listening to Adam – Victoria and Albert Museum, London Governor Richard Bourke – State Library of New South Wales, Sydney Athena – Athenaeum Club, London Sir Thomas Picton – Carmarthen, Wales Chief Justice Tindal – Tindal Square, Essex Sir Charles Metcalfe – Kingston, Jamaica Thomas Fleming, Manchester Cathedral Justice – Old Council House, Bristol A tablet with two marble full-length angels, to Samuel Paynter, of Richmond – Richmond Church, his nephew was the paleontologist. Some of Edward Baily's descendants still live in Bristol, East Grinstead, the Isle of Wight, in Canada today.
Cambridge. Edward Bowring Stephens Jordan, Caroline, ""The spirit of purity and chastity": Eve at the Fountain by Edward Hodges Baily", Sculpture Journal, 15: 19–35, doi:10.3828/sj.15.1.2
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Alexandra of Denmark
Alexandra of Denmark was Queen of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Empress of India as the wife of King Edward VII. Her family had been obscure until 1852, when her father, Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, was chosen with the consent of the major European powers to succeed his distant cousin, Frederick VII, to the Danish throne. At the age of sixteen, she was chosen as the future wife of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, the heir apparent of Queen Victoria, they married eighteen months in 1863, the same year her father became king of Denmark as Christian IX and her brother was appointed to the vacant Greek throne as George I. She was Princess of Wales from 1863 to 1901, the longest anyone has held that title, became popular. Excluded from wielding any political power, she unsuccessfully attempted to sway the opinion of British ministers and her husband's family to favour Greek and Danish interests, her public duties were restricted to uncontroversial involvement in charitable work.
On the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, Albert Edward became king-emperor as Edward VII, with Alexandra as queen-empress. She held the status until Edward's death in 1910, she distrusted her nephew, German Emperor Wilhelm II, supported her son George V during the First World War, in which Britain and its allies fought Germany. Princess Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia, or "Alix", as her immediate family knew her, was born at the Yellow Palace, an 18th-century town house at 18 Amaliegade, right next to the Amalienborg Palace complex in Copenhagen, her father was Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and her mother was Princess Louise of Hesse-Kassel. Although she was of royal blood, her family lived a comparatively normal life, they did not possess great wealth. Hans Christian Andersen was invited to call and tell the children stories before bedtime. In 1848, King Christian VIII of Denmark died and his only son Frederick ascended the throne. Frederick was childless, had been through two unsuccessful marriages, was assumed to be infertile.
A succession crisis arose as Frederick ruled in both Denmark and Schleswig-Holstein, the succession rules of each territory differed. In Holstein, the Salic law prevented inheritance through the female line, whereas no such restrictions applied in Denmark. Holstein, being predominantly German, called in the aid of Prussia. In 1852, the major European powers called a conference in London to discuss the Danish succession. An uneasy peace was agreed, which included the provision that Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg would be Frederick's heir in all his dominions and the prior claims of others were surrendered. Prince Christian was given the title Prince of Denmark and his family moved into a new official residence, Bernstorff Palace. Although the family's status had risen, there was little or no increase in their income and they did not participate in court life at Copenhagen as they refused to meet Frederick's third wife and former mistress, Louise Rasmussen, because she had an illegitimate child by a previous lover.
Alexandra shared a draughty attic bedroom with her sister, made her own clothes and waited at table along with her sisters. Alexandra and Dagmar were given swimming lessons by the Swedish pioneer of women's swimming, Nancy Edberg. At Bernstorff, Alexandra grew into a young woman, she was devout throughout her life, followed High Church practice. Queen Victoria and her husband, Prince Albert, were concerned with finding a bride for their son and heir, Albert Edward, the Prince of Wales, they enlisted the aid of their daughter, Crown Princess Victoria of Prussia, in seeking a suitable candidate. Alexandra was not their first choice, since the Danes were at loggerheads with the Prussians over the Schleswig-Holstein Question and most of the British royal family's relations were German. After rejecting other possibilities, they settled on her as "the only one to be chosen". On 24 September 1861, Crown Princess Victoria introduced her brother Albert Edward to Alexandra at Speyer. A year on 9 September 1862 Albert Edward proposed to Alexandra at the Royal Castle of Laeken, the home of his great-uncle, King Leopold I of Belgium.
A few months Alexandra travelled from Denmark to Britain aboard the royal yacht Victoria and Albert II and arrived in Gravesend, Kent, on 7 March 1863. Sir Arthur Sullivan composed music for her arrival and Poet Laureate Alfred, Lord Tennyson, wrote an ode in Alexandra's honour: Thomas Longley, the Archbishop of Canterbury, married the couple on 10 March 1863 at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle; the choice of venue was criticised widely. As the ceremony took place outside London, the press complained that large public crowds would not be able to view the spectacle. Prospective guests thought it awkward to get to and, as the venue was small, some people who had expected invitations were disappointed; the Danes were dismayed. The British court was still in mourning for Prince Albert, so ladies were restricted to wearing grey, lilac or mauve; as the couple left Windsor for their honeymoon at Osbo
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012