Running is a method of terrestrial locomotion allowing humans and other animals to move on foot. Running is a type of gait characterized by an aerial phase; this is in contrast to walking, where one foot is always in contact with the ground, the legs are kept straight and the center of gravity vaults over the stance leg or legs in an inverted pendulum fashion. A feature of a running body from the viewpoint of spring-mass mechanics is that changes in kinetic and potential energy within a stride occur with energy storage accomplished by springy tendons and passive muscle elasticity; the term running can refer to any of a variety of speeds ranging from jogging to sprinting. Running in humans is associated with improved health and life expectancy, it is assumed that the ancestors of humankind developed the ability to run for long distances about 2.6 million years ago in order to hunt animals. Competitive running grew out of religious festivals in various areas. Records of competitive racing date back to the Tailteann Games in Ireland between 632 BCE and 1171 BCE, while the first recorded Olympic Games took place in 776 BCE.

Running has been described as the world's most accessible sport. It is thought that human running evolved at least four and a half million years ago out of the ability of the ape-like Australopithecus, an early ancestor of humans, to walk upright on two legs. Early humans most developed into endurance runners from the practice of persistence hunting of animals, the activity of following and chasing until a prey is too exhausted to flee, succumbing to "chase myopathy", that human features such as the nuchal ligament, abundant sweat glands, the Achilles tendons, big knee joints and muscular glutei maximi, were changes caused by this type of activity; the theory as first proposed used comparative physiological evidence and the natural habits of animals when running, indicating the likelihood of this activity as a successful hunting method. Further evidence from observation of modern-day hunting practice indicated this likelihood. According to Sears scientific investigation of the Nariokotome Skeleton provided further evidence for the Carrier theory.

Competitive running grew out of religious festivals in various areas such as Greece, Egypt and the East African Rift in Africa. The Tailteann Games, an Irish sporting festival in honor of the goddess Tailtiu, dates back to 1829 BCE, is one of the earliest records of competitive running; the origins of the Olympics and Marathon running are shrouded by myth and legend, though the first recorded games took place in 776 BCE. Running in Ancient Greece can be traced back to these games of 776 BCE.... I suspect that the sun, earth and heaven, which are still the gods of many barbarians, were the only gods known to the aboriginal Hellenes. Seeing that they were always moving and running, from their running nature they were called gods or runners... Running gait can be divided into two phases in regard to the lower extremity: stance and swing; these can be further divided into absorption, initial swing and terminal swing. Due to the continuous nature of running gait, no certain point is assumed to be the beginning.

However, for simplicity, it will be assumed that absorption and footstrike mark the beginning of the running cycle in a body in motion. Footstrike occurs. Common footstrike types include forefoot and heel strike types; these are characterized by initial contact of the ball of the foot and heel of the foot and heel of the foot respectively. During this time the hip joint is undergoing extension from being in maximal flexion from the previous swing phase. For proper force absorption, the knee joint should be flexed upon footstrike and the ankle should be in front of the body. Footstrike begins the absorption phase as forces from initial contact are attenuated throughout the lower extremity. Absorption of forces continues as the body moves from footstrike to midstance due to vertical propulsion from the toe-off during a previous gait cycle. Midstance is defined as the time at which the lower extremity limb of focus is in knee flexion directly underneath the trunk and hips, it is at this point that propulsion begins to occur as the hips undergo hip extension, the knee joint undergoes extension and the ankle undergoes plantar flexion.

Propulsion continues until the leg is extended behind the body and toe off occurs. This involves maximal hip extension, knee extension and plantar flexion for the subject, resulting in the body being pushed forward from this motion and the ankle/foot leaves the ground as initial swing begins. Most recent research regarding the footstrike debate, has focused on the absorption phases for injury identification and prevention purposes; the propulsion phase of running involves the movement beginning at midstance until toe off. From a full stride length model however, components of the terminal swing and footstrike can aid in propulsion. Set up for propulsion begins at the end of terminal swing as the hip joint flexes, creating the maximal range of motion for the hip extensors to accelerate through and produce force; as the hip extensors change from reciporatory inhibitors to primary muscle movers, the lower extremity is brought back toward the ground, although aided by the stretch reflex and gravity.

Footstrike and absorption phases occur next with two types of outcomes. This phase can be only a continuation of momentum from the stretch reflex reaction to hip flexio


Palairos is an ancient city and a modern town in Aetolia-Acarnania, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform Palairos is part of the municipality Aktio-Vonitsa, of which it is a municipal unit; the municipal unit has an area of 205.843 km2. The municipal unit was formed as the independent municipality Kekropia in 1994 from the former communities Palairos and Pogonia, was expanded with the former communities Vatos and Peratia as a part of the 1997 Kapodistrias reform; the name was changed to Palairos in 2004. Palairos was a city of ancient Greece, situated in the southern part of the region of Epirus; the city, ruinous for centuries, is thought to have existed during the Mycenean period, since parts of the city walls appear to date back to 2000 B. C; the construction of the walls interchanges between the square-shaped and the polygonal system and the parts belong to different periods. It lies high in the mountains overlooking Lake Vourkaria; the city is thought to have had a population of over 10,000 people.

During antiquity it was part of Acarnania, according to the Theodorokoi, situated on the west coast, on the Ionian Sea, placed by Strabo between Leucas and Alyzia. In the first year of the Peloponnesian War Palairos was in alliance with the Athenians. At nearby Actium, Mark Antony and Cleopatra were defeated in a sea battle by Octavius. According to tradition, the salt lake was the saviour of Cleopatra; the citadel on the eastern part of the yard is separated by a partition and is considered to be the most ancient part of the wall from the Mycenean period. The ruins are close to the present-day town of Palairos; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "Palaerus". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray. List of cities in ancient Epirus

Vasishteswarar Temple, Thittai

Vasishteswarar Temple is located in the village of Thittai, 11 kilometres from the town of Thanjavur is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Vasishteswarar. The temple was built by the Cholas. Vasishteswarar temple is situated in the village "Thittai" near Thanjavur; as the village is situated south of the Cauvery river, it is called "Thenkudi Thittai". The presiding deity is the Goddess, Ulaganayaki; as the main deity is a Swayambu Lingam he got the name "Swayambootheswarar". The main deity is called as Vasishteswarar as he was worshipped here by Saint Vasishtar, it is one of the shrines of the 275 Paadal Petra Sthalams - Shiva Sthalams glorified in the early medieval Tevaram poems by Tamil Saivite Nayanars Tirugnanasambandar and Thirunavukkarasar The unique feature of this temple is that a drop of water falls on the Shiva linga every 24 minutes from the ceiling. This is because of a special stone called Chandrakanth kept on the roof; this stone converts into a drop of water. This temple attracts huge crowds because of the above stone as well the presence of the temple for Raja Dakshinamoorthy.

"Thittai" - the name of the village means "Thittu" in a Mound. When the whole world was surrounded by water because of "Pralayam", Brahma & Vishnu worshipped the Lord Maheshwara for protection. After wandering much for a safe place, they found this only mound, which did not drown in the Pralaya waters, where there was a Shiva Lingam, they performed Pooja to the Lingam and worshipped Lord Shiva, who appeared before them and deligated their duties of Creation and Protection. It is believed that this is the only place, not destroyed during Pralayam. Unlike many other temples, here the complete temple is built using the stone. Not only for the main deities, but all other Sannidhi's are constructed using stones, right from floors, pillars and roof. A unique feature of this temple is a drop of water falls on the Lingam every twenty four minutes from the roof, but for a small hole, there is no source of anything, on the Vimana of the main deity. Two stones "Suryagaanthakkal" and "Chandragaanthakkal" which are placed at strategic points above the Vimana are the reasons for the droplets of water which falls on the deity.

These 2 stones absorb moisture from the atmosphere, convert into 1 water droplet, performing a natural Abhishegam to the deity, every 24 minutes, be it the day or night. A small piece of yellow cloth which covers the Lingam is always wet because of this. If one can wait patiently, they can view this amazing act; that shows the architectural brilliance of our ancestors who have made this temple. The temple tank situated opposite the temple is called "Chakra Tirtham", believed that it was created by the Chakra from the hands of Mahavishnu; the temple is glorified by Tevaram hymns Another special here is that the "Guru Bhagavan" has a separate Sannidhi with a separate Vimana inside the temple complex, located between Vasishteswarar and Loganayaki Sannidhis. In the Gurusthalam Aalangudi, one can see that Dhakshinamurthy facing South in the Praakaaram is worshipped as Guru; this is the only place where you can see Guru Bhagavan, the Raja Guru, in standing posture with 4 hands holding his weapons and a book.

Chitra Pournami and Guru Peyarchi are most important festivals here. The temple is situated on Thanjavur - Melattur Road on the way to Thirukkarugavur, at the 10th Km from Thanjavur. Kumbakonam, Tanjur is the nearest railway stations. We have bus facility from kumbakonam and thanjur railway stations