American football rules
Game play in American football consists of a series of downs, individual plays of short duration, outside of which the ball is dead or not in play. These can be plays from scrimmage – passes, punts, or field goal attempts – or free kicks such as kickoffs and fair catch kicks. Substitutions can be made between downs, which allows for a great deal of specialization as coaches choose the players best suited for each particular situation. During a play, each team should have no more than 11 players on the field, each of them has specific tasks assigned for that specific play; the objective of this game is to score more points than the other team during the allotted time. The team with the ball has 4 plays to advance at least 10 yards, can score points once they reach the opposite end of the field, home to a scoring zone called the end zone, as well as the goal posts. If the offense succeeds in advancing at least 10 yards, they earn a "first down" and the number of tries allotted is reset and they are again given 4 tries to advance an additional 10 yards, starting from the spot to which they last advanced.
If the offense does not advance at least 10 yards during their 4 downs, the team without the ball regains control of the ball. On offense, points are scored by advancing the ball into the opponent's end zone for a touchdown, or by kicking the ball from the playing field through the raised vertical posts which are most situated on the end line of the end zone for a field goal. After scoring a touchdown, the offense is given an additional opportunity from the 2-yard line to attempt to score. Conversion attempts are used to score 1 or 2 points as follows: The offense may attempt a field goal kick, worth 1 point; the offense may attempt to re-advance the ball into the opponent's end zone for a two-point conversion worth 2 points. While the opposing team has possession, the defense attempts to prevent the offense from advancing the ball and scoring. If an offensive player loses the ball during play or the ball is caught by a defensive player while still in the air, the defense may attempt to run into the offense's end zone for a touchdown.
The defense may score points by tackling the ball carrier in the offense's own end zone, called a safety. Collegiate and professional football games are 60 minutes long, divided into four quarters of 15 minutes each. In high school football, 12 minute quarters are played; the clock is stopped however, with the result that a typical college or professional game can exceed three hours in duration. The referee controls the game clock and stops the clock after any incomplete pass or any play that ends out of bounds. In addition, each team is allowed 3 timeouts in each half; the clock runs during the action of plays, with a few exceptions known as untimed plays. The clock may be stopped for an officials' time-out, after which, if the clock was running, it is restarted. For example: if there is a question whether or not a team has moved the ball far enough for a first down, the officials may use a measuring device to determine the distance. While this measurement is taking place, the officials will signal for a stoppage of the clock.
Once the measurement is finished and the ball is placed at the proper location, the referee will signal for the clock to restart. Additional situations where officials may take a time-out are to administer a penalty or for an injured player to be removed from the field. In addition to the game clock, a separate play clock is used; this counts down the time the offense has to start the next play before it is assessed a penalty for delay of game. This clock is 25 seconds from when the referee marks the ball ready for play; the NFL and NCAA use a 40-second play clock that starts after the previous play ends, though for certain delays, such as penalty enforcement, the offense has 25 seconds from when the ball is marked ready. The purpose of the play clock is to ensure that the game progresses at a consistent pace, preventing unnecessary delays. Overall, clock management is a significant part of the game. Officials call for media time-outs, which allow time for television and radio advertising, they stop the clock after a change of possession of the ball from one team to the other.
Successful PATs, a field goal try, or a kickoff may warrant stopping the clock. If an instant replay challenge is called during the game, the referees signal for a media time out; the referee signals these media time-outs by first using the time out signal extending both arms in a horizontal position. Teams change ends of the field at the end of the first quarter and the end of the third quarter, though otherwise the situation on the field regarding possession, downs remaining and distance-to-goal does not change at these occasions. Separating the first and second halves is halftime. Both halves, any overtime, begin with kick-offs — the kicking team is decided by a coin toss. In the NFL, an automatic timeout is called by the officials when there are two minutes left in both the second and the four
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid. The game is played by millions of people worldwide. Chess is believed to be derived from the Indian game chaturanga some time before the 7th century. Chaturanga is the ancestor of the Eastern strategy games xiangqi and shogi. Chess reached Europe by the 9th century, due to the Umayyad conquest of Hispania; the pieces assumed their current powers in Spain in the late 15th century with the introduction of "Mad Queen Chess". Play does not involve hidden information; each player begins with 16 pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, eight pawns. Each of the six piece types moves differently, with the most powerful being the queen and the least powerful the pawn; the objective is to checkmate the opponent's king by placing it under an inescapable threat of capture. To this end, a player's pieces are used to attack and capture the opponent's pieces, while supporting each other.
During the game, play involves making exchanges of one piece for an opponent's similar piece, but finding and engineering opportunities to trade advantageously, or to get a better position. In addition to checkmate, a player wins the game if the opponent runs out of time. There are several ways that a game can end in a draw; the first recognized World Chess Champion, Wilhelm Steinitz, claimed his title in 1886. Since 1948, the World Championship has been regulated by the Fédération Internationale des Échecs, the game's international governing body. FIDE awards life-time master titles to skilled players, the highest of, grandmaster. Many national chess organizations have a title system of their own. FIDE organizes the Women's World Championship, the World Junior Championship, the World Senior Championship, the Blitz and Rapid World Championships, the Chess Olympiad, a popular competition among international teams. FIDE is a member of the International Olympic Committee, which can be considered as a recognition of chess as a sport.
Several national sporting bodies recognize chess as a sport. Chess was included in 2010 Asian Games. There is a Correspondence Chess World Championship and a World Computer Chess Championship. Online chess has opened professional competition to a wide and varied group of players. Since the second half of the 20th century, chess engines have been programmed to play chess with increasing success, to the point where the strongest personal computers play at a higher level than the best human players. Since the 1990s, computer analysis has contributed to chess theory in the endgame; the IBM computer Deep Blue was the first machine to overcome a reigning World Chess Champion in a match when it defeated Garry Kasparov in 1997. The rise of strong chess engines runnable on hand-held devices has led to increasing concerns about cheating during tournaments. There are many variants of chess that utilize pieces, or boards. One of these, Chess960, incorporates standard rules but employs 960 different possible starting positions, thus negating any advantage in opening preparation.
Chess960 has gained widespread popularity as well as some FIDE recognition. The rules of chess are published by chess's international governing body, in its Handbook. Rules published by national governing bodies, or by unaffiliated chess organizations, commercial publishers, etc. may differ. FIDE's rules were most revised in 2017. Chess is played on a square board of eight columns; the 64 squares are referred to as light and dark squares. The chessboard is placed with a light square at the right-hand end of the rank nearest to each player. By convention, the game pieces are divided into white and black sets, the players are referred to as White and Black, respectively; each player begins the game with 16 pieces of the specified color, consisting of one king, one queen, two rooks, two bishops, two knights, eight pawns. The pieces are set out as shown in the diagram and photo, with each queen on a square of its own color. In competitive games, the colors are allocated by the organizers; the player with the white pieces moves first.
After the first move, players alternate turns. Pieces are moved to either an unoccupied square or one occupied by an opponent's piece, captured and removed from play. With the sole exception of en passant, all pieces capture by moving to the square that the opponent's piece occupies. A player may not make any move that would leave the player's own king under attack. A player cannot "pass" a turn. If the player to move has no legal move, the game is over; each piece has its own way of moving. In the diagrams, the dots mark the squares to which the piece can move if there are no intervening piece of either color; the king moves one square in any direction. The king has
Major League Lacrosse
Major League Lacrosse is a men's field lacrosse league consisting of seven teams in the United States. The league's inaugural season was in 2001. Teams play 16 regular-season games from late May to late September, with a four-team playoff for the championship trophy, the Steinfeld Trophy. MLL averaged 3,619 spectators per game during the 2017 season, down from a peak of 6,417 in 2011; as a semi-professional league, MLL players earn annual salaries in the $10,000–$25,000 range. Players and staff hold other jobs and the league does not provide health insurance coverage; the current champion is the Denver Outlaws, who defeated the Dallas Rattlers 16–12 in 2018. Major League Lacrosse was founded in 1999 by Dave Morrow and Tim Robertson. Steinfeld is the creator of the Body By Jake line of exercise equipment and videos. Morrow is the president of Warrior Sports. Tim Robertson is the former CEO of The Family Channel. MLL began regular season play in June 2001 with six teams in the northeastern U. S. split into two divisions.
The American Division included teams in Boston, Connecticut, on Long Island. All teams were owned by the league, which assigned three franchise players to each team before the initial draft; the MLL played a 14-game regular season its first two years the schedule was cut to 12 games. After the first year, the league's playoff format had the top teams in each division advancing to the semifinals, with two wild card playoff spots going to the teams with the next-best records regardless of division. In 2003, New Balance became a "founding member" and major sponsor of MLL. New Balance founder and CEO, Jim Davis got involved in the operation of the league, including providing financial support. Davis still owns two franchises, the Dallas Rattlers and Florida Launch, is a minority owner in the two 2012 expansion teams, the Ohio Machine and Charlotte Hounds. Four out of the first five championship games were between the Long Island Lizards and the Baltimore Bayhawks; the Lizards won titles in 2001 and 2003, the Bayhawks in 2002 and 2005.
The relocated Philadelphia Barrage beat the Boston Cannons 13–11 in 2004's final. In 2005, Andrew Goldstein became the first American male team-sport professional athlete to be gay during his playing career. Goldstein played goalie for the Long Island Lizards from 2005 to 2007, although he only appeared in two games in 2006. MLL added four teams for the 2006 season; the expansion markets were Los Angeles, Denver and San Francisco, extending the league across the country and into top media markets. MLL combined the original six teams into the Eastern Conference and put the new teams into the Western Conference; the Los Angeles Riptide were owned by the Anschutz Entertainment Group and played its home games at the Home Depot Center. The Denver Broncos' owner Pat Bowlen brought the Denver Outlaws to Mile High; the other new franchises were the San Francisco Dragons. Despite winning championships in 2006 and 2007, Philadelphia didn't attract more than 2,500 fans to their games. So in 2008, the Barrage tested out new markets by playing all of its "home" matches in five other cities: Cary, North Carolina.
In addition, the Barrage's "home game" against the Cannons was played in Boston. At the end of the 2008 season, four teams – Los Angeles, New Jersey and San Francisco – folded due to financial problems. Several of these teams suffered from poor attendance, San Francisco drew 2,808 per game and only 1,920 in New Jersey; this contraction forced. The Rochester Rattlers won the 2008 Steinfeld Cup but like the Barrage, struggled at the gate. At the start of the 2009 season, a new ownership group in Toronto bought the rights to the Rochester franchise; the Toronto Nationals inherited the staff and players of the team, but the Rattlers' name and team colors were left in Rochester for the possibility of a future team. That same group of players went on to win another championship in 2009 playing for a different team in a different country; the Chicago Machine played the entire 2010 season as a traveling team testing expansion markets for the league, before deciding that the franchise would be moving to Rochester and adopting the Rattlers name in 2011.
In 2010, the Bayhawks and Lizards met for the fifth time in the championship game. The Bayhawks prevailed 13–9 the same score as when they beat Long Island 15–9 five years earlier; the newly renamed Chesapeake Bayhawks went on to win two more championships in the next three years, in 2012 and 2013. Their five Steinfeld Cup trophies are the most in MLL history; the league's attendance peaked at 6,417 per game in the 2011 season. The individual franchises had a wide range of local support. Denver lead the league in attendance, drawing 12,331 fans per game in 2011, while the relocated Hamilton Nationals had 1,214 people per game, one-tenth of Denver's attendance. In late 2009, Kyle Harrison, Scott Hochstadt, Craig Hochstadt, Xander Ritz, Max Ritz formed the LXM Pro Tour; the tour would feature two teams playing games across the country at special events involving the LXM Pro game and youth activities. The tour competed for players with the MLL as the more established league would not let players under contract play in other professional lacrosse events.
The rival leagues were in large part an outgrowth of the competition between lacrosse equipment manufacturers Warrior, owned by an MLL league founder, STX. LXM Pro held 23 e
Super Bowl XLVI
Super Bowl XLVI was an American football game between the National Football Conference champion New York Giants and the American Football Conference champion New England Patriots to decide the National Football League champion for the 2011 season. The Giants defeated the Patriots by the score of 21–17; the game was played on February 5, 2012 at Lucas Oil Stadium in Indianapolis, the first time that the Super Bowl was played in Indiana. In addition to winning their fourth Super Bowl in team history, the Giants set a new record for the lowest regular season record by a Super Bowl champion; the Patriots entered the game with a 13–3 regular season record, were seeking their fourth Super Bowl win. Some considered this game to be a rematch of Super Bowl XLII, which New York won, spoiling New England's run at a perfect 2007 season; the Giants jumped to a 9–0 lead in the first quarter of Super Bowl XLVI before the Patriots scored 17 unanswered points to take a 17–9 lead in the third quarter. But the Giants prevented the Patriots from scoring again, two consecutive New York field goals chipped away New England's lead, 17–15, late in the third quarter.
The Giants capped off an 88-yard drive with running back Ahmad Bradshaw's 6-yard game-winning touchdown with 57 seconds left in the game. Eli Manning, who completed 30 of 40 passes for 296 yards, one touchdown, no interceptions, was named Super Bowl MVP for the second time in his career, he became the third consecutive quarterback to win the award after Aaron Rodgers in Super Bowl XLV and Drew Brees in Super Bowl XLIV. The broadcast of the game on NBC broke the record for the most-watched program in American television history set during the previous year's Super Bowl. Super Bowl XLVI was watched by an estimated average audience of 111.3 million US viewers and an estimated total audience of 166.8 million, according to Nielsen, meaning that over half of the American population watched at least some of the initial broadcast. The game set the record for most tweets per second during a sporting event, with 13.7 million tweets from 3 p.m. to 8 p.m.. Per convention as an even-numbered Super Bowl, the Patriots as the AFC representatives had the home team designation.
Super Bowl XLVI was the sixth Super Bowl in which the two teams had competed in a previous Super Bowl matchup, as the Giants and Patriots had met in Super Bowl XLII. Both head coaches and both starting quarterbacks returned from Super Bowl XLII. Three cities presented bids for the game: On January 31, 2008, the Greater Houston Convention and Visitors Bureau announced their plans to host the game at Reliant Stadium, holding events at the surrounding Reliant Park, hoping that their city would host the championship game for the second time since Reliant Stadium opened. On February 19, 2008, the City of Indianapolis, led by Colts owner Jim Irsay and Indianapolis mayor Greg Ballard announced details about their intentions to bid for Super Bowl XLVI. Part of the agreement included a proposal to build a practice facility on the campus of Arsenal Technical High School that would be utilized by the school after the Super Bowl. On March 6, 2008, one month after hosting Super Bowl XLII at the University of Phoenix Stadium in Glendale, the second Super Bowl held in the Phoenix metropolitan area, the Arizona Super Bowl Host Committee led by Committee chair Mike Kennedy formally announced their intentions to bid for another one.
Glendale would win its bid for Super Bowl XLIX in February 2015. NFL franchise owners selected the Indianapolis bid at their meeting on May 2008 in Atlanta. A labor dispute had threatened the postponement or cancellation of the game during the spring and summer of 2011. Since the dispute was resolved well before the start of the regular season, no postponements were implemented, the game remained as scheduled; this was the first Super Bowl to be played in Indianapolis, only the fourth time that the Super Bowl has been played in a cold-weather city, after Detroit and Minneapolis. Downtown Indianapolis, the home of Lucas Oil Stadium, featured an outdoor Super Bowl Village and other programs at the Indiana Convention Center. Working around a series of injuries, the Giants ended with a 9–7 record during the regular season and returned to the playoffs for the first time since 2008, winning the NFC East and finishing the season as the NFC's No. 4 seed. Back to full strength, the Giants entered their week 17 matchup with the Dallas Cowboys with both teams tied for the division lead with 8–7 records.
The Giants took a 21–0 first half lead and while the Cowboys closed the gap to make the score 21–14 early in the 4th quarter, the Giants held on to defeat the Cowboys 31–14, clinching the divisional title and a playoff berth. New York's offense was led by Super Bowl XLII winning quarterback Eli Manning, in his seventh season as the team's starter. Manning set new career highs in nearly every statistical category in 2011, throwing for a franchise record 4,933 yards and 29 touchdowns, with 16 interceptions, giving him a 92.9 passer rating. His top target was receiver Victor Cruz, who caught 82 passes for a franchise record 1,536 yards and 9 touchdowns, but he had plenty of other targets, including Hakeem Nicks, Mario Manningham and tight end Jake Ballard. Although not on the field for four games due to injury, running back Ahmad Bradshaw was the team's
Modern history of American football
The modern history of American football can be considered to have begun after the 1932 NFL Playoff game, the first American football game to feature hash marks, the legalization of the forward pass anywhere behind the line of scrimmage, the movement of the goal posts back to the goal line. Other innovations to occur in the years after 1932 were the introduction of the AP Poll in 1934, the tapering of the ends of the football in 1934, the awarding of the first Heisman Trophy in 1935, the first NFL draft in 1936 and the first televised game in 1939. Another important event was the American football game at the 1932 Summer Olympics, which combined with a similar demonstration game at the 1933 World's Fair, led to the first College All-Star Game in 1934, which in turn was an important factor in the growth of professional football in the United States. American football's explosion in popularity during the second half of the 20th century can be traced to the 1958 NFL Championship Game, a contest, dubbed the "Greatest Game Ever Played".
A rival league to the NFL, the American Football League, began play in 1960. In 1966, the NFL initiated the AFL–NFL merger between the two leagues; the merger lead to the creation of the Super Bowl, which has become the most watched television event in the United States on an annual basis. In the early 1930s, the college game continued to grow in the South, bolstered by fierce rivalries such as the "South's Oldest Rivalry", between Virginia and North Carolina and the "Deep South's Oldest Rivalry", between Georgia and Auburn. Although before the mid-1920s most national powers came from the Northeast or the Midwest, the trend changed when several teams from the South and the West Coast achieved national success. Wallace William Wade's 1925 Alabama team won the 1926 Rose Bowl after receiving its first national title and William Alexander's 1928 Georgia Tech team defeated California in the 1929 Rose Bowl. College football became the most popular spectator sport in the South. Several major modern college football conferences rose to prominence during this time period.
The Southwest Athletic Conference had been founded in 1915. Consisting of schools from Texas, the conference saw back-to-back national champions with Texas Christian University in 1938 and Texas A&M in 1939; the Pacific Coast Conference, a precursor to the contemporary Pac-12 Conference, had its own back-to-back champion in the University of Southern California, awarded the title in 1931 and 1932. The Southeastern Conference formed in 1932 and consisted of schools in the Deep South; as in previous decades, the Big Ten continued to dominate in the 1930s and 1940s, with Minnesota winning 5 titles between 1934 and 1941, Michigan and Ohio State winning titles. As it grew beyond its regional affiliations in the 1930s, college football garnered increased national attention. Four new bowl games were created: the Orange Bowl, Sugar Bowl, the Sun Bowl in 1935, the Cotton Bowl in 1937. In lieu of an actual national championship, these bowl games, along with the earlier Rose Bowl, provided a way to match up teams from distant regions of the country that did not otherwise play.
In 1936, the Associated Press began its weekly poll of prominent sports writers, ranking all of the nation's college football teams. Since there was no national championship game, the final version of the AP poll was used to determine, crowned the National Champion of college football; the 1930s saw growth in the passing game. Though some coaches, such as General Robert Neyland at Tennessee, continued to eschew its use, several rules changes to the game had a profound effect on teams' ability to throw the ball. In 1934, the rules committee removed two major penalties—a loss of five yards for a second incomplete pass in any series of downs and a loss of possession for an incomplete pass in the end zone—and shrunk the circumference of the ball, making it easier to grip and throw. Players who became famous for taking advantage of the easier passing game included Alabama end Don Hutson and TCU passer "Slingin" Sammy Baugh. In 1935, New York City's Downtown Athletic Club awarded the first Heisman Trophy to University of Chicago halfback Jay Berwanger, the first NFL Draft pick in 1936.
The trophy was designed by sculptor Frank Eliscu and modeled after New York University player Ed Smith. The trophy recognizes the nation's "most outstanding" college football player and has become one of the most coveted awards in all of American sports. NBC broadcast the first televised college football game, between Waynesburg and Fordham on September 30, 1939, on station W2XBS with one camera and Bill Stern was the sole announcer. Estimates are that the broadcast reached 1,000 television sets. College football on television continued with the second televised college game just one month on October 28, when the Kansas State Wildcats hosted the Nebraska Cornhuskers for their homecoming contest. Prior to 1941 all football players saw action on "both sides of the ball", playing in both offensive and defensive roles. From 1941 to 1952, the National Collegiate Athletic Association allowed unlimited substitution; this change was made because of the difficulty in fielding skilled players during the years of the Second World War, in which many able-bodied college-age men volunteered for or were drafted into military service.
During World War II, college football players enlisted in the armed forces, some playing in Europe during the war. As most of these players had eligibility left on their college careers, some of them returned to college at West Point, bringing Army back-to-back national
Hack-a-Shaq is a basketball defensive strategy used in the National Basketball Association, where Dallas Mavericks coach Don Nelson adapted the strategy of committing intentional fouls to the purpose of lowering opponents' scoring. He directed players to commit personal fouls throughout the game against selected opponents who shot free throws poorly. Nelson used the strategy against Dennis Rodman, the power forward of the Chicago Bulls. However, the strategy acquired its name for Nelson's subsequent use of it against Shaquille O'Neal, the center of the Orlando Magic. Hack-a-Shaq is an oronym for "Hacky sack", a trademark for a footbag toy, itself suggesting the city of Hackensack, New Jersey; the use of an article is inappropriate for a proper name the indefinite article, but it assists the sound-alike. The term was coined when O'Neal played during his NBA tenure with the Orlando Magic. At that time, the term referred to physical defense against O'Neal. Teams sometimes defended him by bumping, striking or pushing him after he received the ball to deny him an easy layup or slam dunk.
Because of O'Neal's poor free throw shooting, teams did not fear the consequences of committing personal fouls. However, once Nelson's off-the-ball fouling strategy became prevalent, the term Hack-a-Shaq was applied to this new tactic, the original usage was forgotten; the name is sometimes altered to reflect the player being fouled, for example Hack-a-Howard when used against Dwight Howard, or Hack-a-DJ for DeAndre Jordan. Committing repeated intentional personal fouls is a longstanding defensive strategy used by teams that are trailing near the end of the game. Basketball, unique among major world sports, permits intentional fouling to gain a strategic advantage. Once the fouling team enters the penalty situation, the fouled team is awarded free throws; the typical NBA player makes a high enough percentage of his free throws that, over time, opponents' possessions that end with free throws will yield more points than possessions in which the opponents try to score a field goal. The highest-scoring NBA teams average only about 1.1 points per possession.
Giving such a team two free throws on each possession, the poorest free throw shooting teams make around 70% of their free throws and would score 1.4 points per possession. So intentionally fouling tends not to reduce the opponent's score. However, fouls stop the game clock. If a team is trailing with time running out, intentional fouling may be the only hope. In normal game play, the opponents will stall and run out the clock at the expense of failing to score; the trailing team fouls intentionally to end the opponents' possession as soon as possible. It may hope that fatigue and pressure affect the ability of the free-throw shooter; when this strategy was employed in the NBA, the trailing team made a point of fouling the opposition player, the poorest free throw shooter in the game at that time if that player did not possess the ball. However, fouling "off the ball" became a problem for the league when Wilt Chamberlain—a player of superstar caliber but an atrocious free throw shooter—entered the NBA.
Wilt Chamberlain was such a dominant player that he was sure to be on the floor near the end of any close game. However, he was such a poor free throw shooter as to be the natural target of a strategy of intentional fouling; the opposition was eager to send Chamberlain to the free throw line, Chamberlain wished to avoid doing so. This led to a game of tag developing away from the basketball, players chasing Chamberlain as he tried to avoid being fouled; the NBA enacted a new rule on off-the-ball fouls—personal fouls against an offensive player who neither has the ball nor is trying to obtain it. On such fouls within the last two minutes of the game or in overtime, the offensive team is awarded the usual number of free throws and possession of the ball; the new rule removed the benefit of fouling to gain possession of the ball and limited late-game intentional fouls to the ball handler. The current version of the rule contains an additional disincentive to off-the-ball fouls: The free throws need not be attempted by the player, fouled.
The reason they have that rule is that fouling someone off-the-ball looks foolish... Some of the funniest things I saw were players that used to chase like it was hide-and-seek. Wilt would run away from people, the league changed the rule based on how silly that looked. —Pat Riley There are several late-game situations where committing an isolated intentional foul makes sense. For a team trailing, late in the game, stopping the clock is a higher priority than keeping the opponents from scoring. In other situations, intentional fouling does not make sense because it lets the opponents score more points. Intentional fouling every time the opponents get the ball was an innovation of Don Nelson in the late 1990s as coach of the Dallas Mavericks, he theorized that, if the opponents played an bad free throw shooter, intentionally fouling him might hold down his team's points per possession, compared to a conventional defense against them. Nelson used the strategy throughout the game, when the late-game penalties for off-the-ball fouls did not apply, such as the ball being given back to the fouled team.
Nelson did not invent the strategy. Nelson first used the strategy against Dennis Rodman of
Sport includes all forms of competitive physical activity or games which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants, in some cases, entertainment for spectators. Hundreds of sports exist, from those between single contestants, through to those with hundreds of simultaneous participants, either in teams or competing as individuals. In certain sports such as racing, many contestants may compete or consecutively, with one winner; some sports allow a "tie" or "draw". A number of contests may be arranged in a tournament producing a champion. Many sports leagues make an annual champion by arranging games in a regular sports season, followed in some cases by playoffs. Sport is recognised as system of activities which are based in physical athleticism or physical dexterity, with the largest major competitions such as the Olympic Games admitting only sports meeting this definition, other organisations such as the Council of Europe using definitions precluding activities without a physical element from classification as sports.
However, a number of competitive, but non-physical, activities claim recognition as mind sports. The International Olympic Committee recognises both chess and bridge as bona fide sports, SportAccord, the international sports federation association, recognises five non-physical sports: bridge, draughts, Go and xiangqi, limits the number of mind games which can be admitted as sports. Sport is governed by a set of rules or customs, which serve to ensure fair competition, allow consistent adjudication of the winner. Winning can be crossing a line first, it can be determined by judges who are scoring elements of the sporting performance, including objective or subjective measures such as technical performance or artistic impression. Records of performance are kept, for popular sports, this information may be announced or reported in sport news. Sport is a major source of entertainment for non-participants, with spectator sport drawing large crowds to sport venues, reaching wider audiences through broadcasting.
Sport betting is in some cases regulated, in some cases is central to the sport. According to A. T. Kearney, a consultancy, the global sporting industry is worth up to $620 billion as of 2013; the world's most accessible and practised sport is running, while association football is its most popular spectator sport. The word "sport" comes from the Old French desport meaning "leisure", with the oldest definition in English from around 1300 being "anything humans find amusing or entertaining". Other meanings include. Roget's defines the noun sport as an "activity engaged in for relaxation and amusement" with synonyms including diversion and recreation; the singular term "sport" is used in most English dialects to describe the overall concept, with "sports" used to describe multiple activities. American English uses "sports" for both terms; the precise definition of what separates a sport from other leisure activities varies between sources. The closest to an international agreement on a definition is provided by SportAccord, the association for all the largest international sports federations, is therefore the de facto representative of international sport.
SportAccord uses the following criteria, determining that a sport should: have an element of competition be in no way harmful to any living creature not rely on equipment provided by a single supplier not rely on any "luck" element designed into the sport. They recognise that sport can be physical mind, predominantly motorised co-ordination, or animal-supported; the inclusion of mind sports within sport definitions has not been universally accepted, leading to legal challenges from governing bodies in regards to being denied funding available to sports. Whilst SportAccord recognises a small number of mind sports, it is not open to admitting any further mind sports. There has been an increase in the application of the term "sport" to a wider set of non-physical challenges such as video games called esports due to the large scale of participation and organised competition, but these are not recognised by mainstream sports organisations. According to Council of Europe, European Sports Charter, article 2.i, "'Sport' means all forms of physical activity which, through casual or organised participation, aim at expressing or improving physical fitness and mental well-being, forming social relationships or obtaining results in competition at all levels."
There are opposing views on the necessity of competition as a defining element of a sport, with all professional sport involving competition, governing bodies requiring competition as a prerequisite of recognition by the International Olympic Committee or SportAccord. Other bodies advocate widening the definition of sport to include all physical activity. For instance, the Council of Eu