Rural flight is the migratory pattern of peoples from rural areas into urban areas. It is urbanization seen from the rural perspective. In modern times, it occurs in a region following the industrialization of agriculture—when fewer people are needed to bring the same amount of agricultural output to market—and related agricultural services and industries are consolidated. Rural flight is exacerbated when the population decline leads to the loss of rural services, which leads to greater loss of population as people leave to seek those features. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, rural flight occurred in localized regions. Pre-industrial societies did not experience large rural-urban migration flows due to the inability of cities to support large populations. Lack of large employment industries, high urban mortality, low food supplies all served as checks keeping pre-industrial cities much smaller than their modern counterparts. Ancient Athens and Rome, scholars estimate, had peak populations of 80,000 and 500,000.
The onset of the Industrial Revolution in Europe in the late 19th century removed many of these checks. As food supplies increased and stabilized and industrialized centers arose, cities began to support larger populations, sparking the start of rural flight on a massive scale; the United Kingdom went from having 20% of the population living in urban areas in 1800 to more than 70% by 1925. While the late 19th century and early 20th century saw much of rural flight focused in Western Europe and the United States, as industrialization spread throughout the world during the 20th century, rural flight and urbanization followed behind. Today, rural flight is an distinctive phenomenon in some of the newer urbanized areas including China and more sub-Saharan Africa; the shift from mixed subsistence farming to commodity crops and livestock began in the late 19th century. New capital market systems and the railroad network began the trend towards larger farms that employed fewer people per acre; these larger farms used more efficient technologies such as steel plows, mechanical reapers, higher-yield seed stock, which reduced human input per unit of production.
The other issue on the Great Plains was that people were using inappropriate farming techniques for the soil and weather conditions. Most homesteaders had family farms considered too small to survive, European-American subsistence farming could not continue as it was practiced. During the Dust Bowl and the Great Depression of the 1930s, large numbers of people fled rural areas of the Great Plains and the Midwest due to depressed commodity prices and high debt loads exacerbated by several years of drought and large dust storms. Rural flight from the Great Plains has been depicted in literature, such as John Steinbeck's novel The Grapes of Wrath, in which a family from the Great Plains migrates to California during the Dust Bowl period of the 1930s. "Women leave in greater numbers than men. There is a glass ceiling for women everywhere, but in rural areas it tends to be made of thick steel." Hiroya Masuda, author of Japanese report on rural depopulation. Post-World War II rural flight has been caused by the spread of industrialized agriculture.
Small, labor-intensive family farms have grown into, or have been replaced by mechanized and specialized industrial farms. While a small family farm produced a wide range of crop and animal products—all requiring substantial labor—large industrial farms specialize in just a few crop or livestock varieties, using large machinery and high-density livestock containment systems that require a fraction of the labor per unit produced. For example, Iowa State University reports the number of hog farmers in Iowa dropped from 65,000 in 1980 to 10,000 in 2002, while the number of hogs per farm increased from 200 to 1,400; the consolidation of the feed, processed grain, livestock industries has meant that there are fewer small businesses in rural areas. This decrease in turn exacerbated the decreased demand for labor. Rural areas that used to be able to provide employment for all young adults willing to work in challenging conditions provide fewer opportunities for young adults; the situation is made worse by the decrease in services such as schools and cultural opportunities that accompany the decline in population, the increasing age of the remaining population further stresses the social service system of rural areas.
The rise of corporate agricultural structures directly affects small rural communities, resulting in decreased populations, decreased incomes for some segments, increased income inequality, decreased community participation, fewer retail outlets and less retail trade, increased environmental pollution. Human dehabitation of rural settlements is a megatrend in aging societies across the globe partially reversing a historic boom in land use for settlements that coincided with population growth that began in earnest alongside the spread of the industrial revolution and curative medicine. China has used school mergers to centralized village, town, or county schools in rural areas to address some of these problems since the 1990s. Chernobyl is one example of how human abandonment of land can lead to the return of abundant animal life. There are several determinants and pull, that contribute to rural flight: lower levels of economic opportunity in rural communities versus urban ones, lower levels of government investment in rural communities, greater education opportunities in cities, increased social acceptance in urban areas, higher levels of rural fertility.
Some migrants choose to leave
Ian Oliver, is a former police officer, author and international consultant for the United Nations. He served as Chief Constable of Scotland's Grampian Police. Since leaving the police force, he has worked as a consultant and speaker on the issues of drugs and trafficking, he is a published author, a board member of the International Scientific & Medical Advisory Forum on Drug Abuse, an appointed life member of the International Association of Chiefs of Police and an elected Member of the Institute of Global Drug Policy. Oliver is the father of the final special adviser to David Cameron's government. After training as a company secretary, Oliver served as an officer with the Royal Air Force between 1959 and 1961. After leaving the Air Force he joined London's Metropolitan Police Service as a constable, working his way up to the rank of Superintendent, he moved to Northumbria Police as a Chief Superintendent in 1977 later became the force's Assistant Chief Constable. In 1979 he was appointed as Chief Constable of Central Scotland Police, a job he held for eleven years until moving to the neighbouring Grampian force.
Part of his remit at Central covered the Grangemouth Oil Refinery. He was Chief Constable of Grampian Police from 1990 to 1998. During his time in Scotland he was twice elected as President of the Association of Chief Police Officers in Scotland, as well as International Vice President of the International Association of Chiefs of Police, he was awarded the Queen's Police Medal for Distinguished Police Service. In 1998 he took early retirement after a tabloid newspaper published details of his private life, a report by the Grampian Police Board criticised the force's handling of the investigation into the 1997 murder of Scott Simpson, a nine-year-old boy, murdered by a convicted child sex offender near his Aberdeen home. Since leaving the police Oliver has worked as an international consultant for the United Nations and Europe from 1998, a visiting lecturer at the University of Teesside, a drug training consultant to Aberdeen College of Further Education since 2005 and as consultant for Decision Strategies plc from 2003 to 2005.
In 2009 he was appointed as the head of justice and security in Afghanistan's Helmand Province, where he worked with the Afghan National Police in a bid to reform the police and justice system of the area. His son, Craig Oliver, is a former BBC News executive, appointed as David Cameron's special adviser in February 2011, following the resignation of Andy Coulson; the Metropolitan Police Approach to the Prosecution of Juvenile Offenders: Peel Press Police and Accountability: Macmillan Weekly column for the Press and Journal
Indigo Tunnel is an abandoned railroad tunnel in Allegany County, located about 1 mile east of Little Orleans. Built by the Western Maryland Railway in 1904, Indigo was the company's longest tunnel, it was part of a major WM project to extend its rail system from Hagerstown west to Cumberland. This difficult route followed the Potomac River valley and involved construction of four additional tunnels and 23 bridges; the new rail line opened for traffic in 1906. Trains ran through the tunnel until the rail line was abandoned by the newly formed Chessie System in 1975, in favor of the parallel Baltimore and Ohio railroad line on the opposite side of the Potomac River; the tunnel was acquired by the National Park Service in 1980 and became part of Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park. The Park Service has identified bat colonies living in the tunnel and has closed the tunnel to the public in order to protect the colonies. Allegheny Highlands Trail of Maryland Kessler Tunnel Stickpile Tunnel Western Maryland Railroad Right-of-Way, Milepost 126 to Milepost 160 Indigo Tunnel photos - WMWestSub.com
The 2018 Eastern Illinois Panthers football team represented Eastern Illinois University in the 2018 NCAA Division I FCS football season. They were led by fifth-year head coach Kim Dameron and played their home games at O'Brien Field in Charleston, Illinois as members of the Ohio Valley Conference, they finished the season 3 -- 5 in OVC play to finish in a tie for sixth place. On November 18, head coach Kim Dameron was fired, he finished at Eastern Illinois with a five-year record of 27–30. The Panthers finished the 2017 season 5 -- 3 in OVC play to finish in third place. On July 20, 2018, the media covering the OVC released their preseason poll with the Panthers predicted to finish in fifth place. On July 23, the OVC released their coaches poll with the Panthers predicted to finish in fourth place; the Panthers had three players selected to the preseason all-OVC team. Source
CBF-FM is a French-language Canadian radio station licensed to Montreal, Quebec. Owned and operated by the government-owned Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, it transmits on 95.1 MHz from the Mount Royal candelabra tower with an effective radiated power of 100,000 watts using an omnidirectional antenna. Its studios and master control are located at Maison Radio-Canada in Montreal; the station has a non-commercial news/talk format and is the flagship of the Ici Radio-Canada Première network which operates across Canada. Like all Première stations, but unlike most FM stations, it broadcasts in mono. In the summer of 2018, the Montreal 95.1 station started to broadcast in FM multiplex. CBF went on the air on December 11, 1937, as the CBC launched its French-language network, known as Radio-Canada. CBF operated on 910 using 50,000 watts full-time with an omnidirectional antenna as a clear channel Class I-A station; the transmitter was located in Contrecoeur. The station moved to 690 on March 29, 1941, as a result of the North American Regional Broadcasting Agreement.
In 1978 the CBC consolidated its two Montréal AM broadcast transmitters and the station moved to a new transmitter site shared with CBM in Brossard. CBF started to broadcast from Maison Radio-Canada in November 1971. Commercial advertising on the station was eliminated in 1974 except for Montreal Canadiens hockey games. CBF applied to move to FM and was authorized to do so by the CRTC on July 4, 1997; the AM signal covered much of the western half of Quebec, was strong enough to be heard in Ottawa and the National Capital Region, as well as parts of New York State and Vermont. Indeed, until CBOF signed on in 1964, CBF doubled as the Radio-Canada outlet for Ottawa as well, its nighttime signal covered most of the eastern half of North America, including much of Eastern Canada. However, radio frequency interference rendered it unlistenable in parts of Montreal during the day, which prompted the decision to move the station to the FM dial; the FM transmitter was put on the air ahead of schedule on January 22, 1998, had special programming targeting people affected by the 1998 Ice Storm.
The AM signal was shut down on January 21, 1999. CBF became CBF-FM; the existing station with the CBF-FM callsign at 100.7 MHz was renamed CBFX-FM. The station's old home at 690 was taken over by CKVL, which moved from 850 under the new callsign CINF; that station closed down in 2010, the frequency remained dark until 2012, when English-language sports station CKGM moved there. To improve reception, CBF was authorized to increase its power from 17,030 watts to 100,000 watts on June 2, 2000; the power increase was implemented in mid-2001. In recent years the popularity of the station has increased significantly; the station is now one of the top five stations in Bureau of Broadcast Measurement ratings, after decades of being an also-ran. On September 27, 2018, CBF-FM began broadcasting in HD Radio for compatible receivers, with its second digital radio subchannel offering ICI Musique Classique, a digital-only music feed. On October 17, 1986 the CRTC approved the CBC's application to change CBF-3's frequency from 1400 to 650 kHz..
CBF-FM-10 in Sherbrooke and CBF-FM-8 in Trois-Rivières were once full satellites of CBF, but began airing some local programming in 1998. They have both been licensed as full-fledged stations since 2000, despite still having rebroadcaster-like call signs. Both stations have their own local programs and news bulletins. On July 5, 2010, the CBC applied to decrease the effective radiated power of CBF-20, on the same date, the CBC applied to broadcast, on the rebroadcasting transmitters CBF-16, CBF-17 and CBF-18, the programming of CBF-8 instead of the programming of CBF. All technical parameters of the rebroadcasters would remain unchanged. On July 29, 2010, the CRTC approved the application to transfer transmitters CBF-1, CBF-3 and CBF-4 from CBF to CHLM-FM Rouyn-Noranda. On October 30, 2012, the CBC received approval to change the source of programming from CBF to CBFG-FM Chisasibi on the following repeaters: CBFA-1 Manawan, CBFA-2 Obedjiwan, CBFW Wemindji, CBFM Mistissini, CBFA-3 Wemotaci, CBFH Waskaganish and CBFV Waswanipi.
As of 2015, the entirety of CBF's schedule is broadcast live throughout North America via Sirius XM Canada on channel 170. In effect, CBF is one of four terrestrial stations in North America to be broadcast on Sirius XM, the only one broadcast using the same feed as the local station. Official website CBF-FM history – Canadian Communications Foundation Query the REC Canadian station database for CBF-FM
Sylvère Maes was a Belgian cyclist, most famous for winning the Tour de France in 1936 and 1939. In 1937, Maes left the 1937 Tour de France together with his Belgian team while he was leading the general classification, in response to actions from French spectators and decisions from the jury. Born in 1909 as the youngest in a family of ten children, Maes rode his first cycling race in 1928, was one of the best young riders. At the end of the 1932 season, Maes became a professional cyclist, in a short time managed to win two races for professionals. Maes was a cyclo-cross talent, which he showed by winning the 1933 Critérium International de Cyclo-cross, considered the unofficial cyclo-cross world championship. In 1933 Maes recorded his first major victory by winning Paris–Roubaix. In the rest of his career, he would focus on the Tour de France. In 1934, Maes made his debut in the Tour de France as an individual, but had more success than the Belgians in the national team, was the only Belgian to win a stage.
In the general classification, he finished in eighth place. Maes started the 1935 Tour de France again as an individual; when Joseph Moerenhout left the race in the second stage, the rules allowed an individual to take his place, Maes was added to the national team. Maes won a mountain stage in the Pyrenées, finished in fourth place in the general classification. In 1936, Maes started the Tour de France as a member of the Belgian national team. Maes rode well in the first stages, when Maurice Archambaud lost time in the seventh stage, Maes became the leader of the race, his closest opponent was Antonin Magne, they tested each other in the ninth stage. Magne rode away on the Allos, the last climb of the day, gained three minutes on Maes. Magne fell because a spectator tried to help him, Maes was able to come back. Maes gained some time in the next stages. In the 16th stage, Maes escaped early in the stage. Only Yvan Marie and Felicien Vervaecke were able to follow him. Marie lost contact, Vervaecke had mechanical problems during the climb of the Tourmalet, so Maes continued on his own, gained 15 minutes on Magne.
In the rest of the race, his lead was never contested anymore, so Maes won the Tour. Maes was the leader of the Belgian team in the 1937 Tour de France. In the ninth stage, Maes took over the lead from Gino Bartali, weakened in a fall; when Bartali left the race, it was clear that the battle would be between Maes and Frenchman Roger Lapébie. The Tour organisation decided to reduce the number of team time trials, which harmed Maes's chances, as the Belgians were considered to have the better team; the Belgian team accused Lapébie of being pulled by a car on the Alps. On the rest day before the Pyrenées, Maes was approached by a person offering him 100.000 Belgian Francs to let Lapébie win the race, which Maes refused. In the fifteenth stage, where mountains in the Pyrenées were climbed, Maes created a large margin on Lapébie; when Maes punctured, Lapébie was able to reach him, at the end of the stage only Julián Berrendero was in front of them, Lapébie won the sprint for the second place. This rewarded Lapébie with 45 seconds bonification time.
When the tour directors gave him 90 seconds penalty time for having been pushed, the margin with Maes grew to more than three minutes, but Lapébie had sensed weakness in the Belgian team, planned to attack in the next stage. The Belgian team complained that the penalty was far too little, because Lapébie's advantage had been much greater; the French team threatened to abandon the race if the penalty was increased, the Tour directors did not change it. In the sixteenth stage, Lapébie finished ahead of Maes, cutting the Belgian's lead to only 25 seconds. During that sixteenth stage, Maes had punctured, had been helped by two Belgian cyclists, Gustaaf Deloor and Adolf Braeckeveldt, who rode as individuals and were not part of the Belgian team; the Tour jury fined Maes with 15 seconds penalty time in the general classification. During the race, a train crossing had been closed just after Lapébie had passed, just before Maes was about to pass. Maes was offended by all this, quit the race, together with the rest of the Belgian team.
In Belgium, the supporters protested against the Tour organisation. Within 24 hours, 20.000 protest letters were sent to a sports magazine, in ten days more than 100.000 Belgian Francs were sent to the national cycling organisation to support the Tour cyclists. Maes was again the team leader in the 1938 Tour de France. Maes was however in bad form, could not live up to expectations, Felicien Vervaecke took over the team captain role. Maes finished in 14th place in that tour. Outside the Tour de France, his cycling year was more successful: he finished in second place in both La Flèche Wallonne and the Tour of Flanders, his best finishings in a one-day classic race outside his 1933 Paris–Roubaix victory. In 1939, Maes was again the leader of the Belgian team in the Tour de France, with the Italian team not starting, he was the major favourite. Another protected renner in the Belgian team was Edward Vissers, but when Vissers escaped in the ninth stage, Maes started to chase his own teammate, French cyclist René Vietto, leading the general classification, did not have to do much work to defend his lead.
In the Alps, Maes was able to beat Vietto. In the time trial in stage 16B, Maes was able to catch him, his lead was more than 30 minutes, Vietto could not win anymore. His victory was complete because Maes won the mountains classifica