Rurik, according to the 12th-century Primary Chronicle, was a Varangian chieftain of the Rus' who in the year 862 gained control of Ladoga, built the Novgorod in the same year. This legendary figure was considered by rulers to be the founder of the Rurik dynasty, which ruled the Kievan Rus' and its successor states, including the Kingdom of Ruthenia, the Principality of Tver, Grand Duchy of Vladimir, the Grand Duchy of Moscow, the Novgorod Republic and the Tsardom of Russia, until the 17th century; the only information about Rurik is contained in the 12th-century Primary Chronicle written by one Nestor, which states that Chuds, Eastern Slavs, Merias and Krivichs "...drove the Varangians back beyond the sea, refused to pay them tribute, set out to govern themselves". Afterwards the tribes started fighting each other and decided to invite the Varangians, led by Rurik, to reestablish order. Rurik came in 860-862 along with his brothers a large retinue. According to the Primary Chronicle, Rurik was one of the Rus', a Varangian tribe likened by the chronicler to Danes, Swedes and Gotlanders.

Sineus established himself at Beloozero, on the shores of lake Beloye, Truvor at Izborsk. Truvor and Sineus died shortly after the establishment of their territories, Rurik consolidated these lands into his own territory. According to the entries in the Radzivil and Hypatian Chronicles under the years 862–864, Rurik’s first residence was in Ladoga, he moved his seat of power to Novgorod, a fort built not far from the source of the Volkhov River. The meaning of this place name in medieval Russian is'new fortification', while the current meaning developed later. Rurik remained in power until his death in 879. On his deathbed, Rurik bequeathed his realm to Oleg, who belonged to his kin, entrusted to Oleg's hands his son Igor, for he was young, his successors moved the capital to Kiev and founded the state of Kievan Rus', which persisted until the Mongol invasion in 1240. A number of extant princely families are patrilineally descended from Rurik, although the last Rurikid to rule Russia, Vasily IV, died in 1612.

In the 20th century, archaeologists corroborated the chronicle's version of events. It was discovered that the settlement of Ladoga, whose foundation has been ascribed to Rurik, was established in the mid-9th century, although doubt is now cast on this by the dendrochronological evidence that Ladoga existed by the mid-8th century. Earthenware, household utensils, types of buildings from the period of Rurik's purported foundation correspond to patterns prevalent in Jutland, but the excavations denied most of the chronicle's data about Rurik's arrival when it was apparent that the old settlement stretched to the mid-8th century and the excavated objects were of Finno-Ugric and Slavic origin, dated to the mid-8th century, which showed the settlement was not Scandinavian from the beginning. The name Rurik is accepted to be a form of the Old Norse name Hrærekr; this has been taken as evidence. The only named figure described in the Carolingian Annales Fuldenses and Annales Bertiniani was Rorik of Dorestad, a Germanic king from the royal Scylding house of Haithabu in the Jutland Peninsula.

Since the 19th century, there have been attempts to identify him with the Rurik of Russian chronicles. Rorik of Dorestad was a member of one of two competing families reported in the Frankish chroniclers as having ruled the nascent Danish kingdom at Hedeby, was nephew of king Harold Klak, he is mentioned as receiving lands in Friesland from Emperor Louis I. This was not enough for him, he started to plunder neighbouring lands: he took Dorestad in 850, attacked Hedeby in 857, looted Bremen in 859, yet his own lands were ravaged in his absence; the Emperor was enraged and stripped him of all his possessions in 860. After that, Rorik disappears from the Western sources for a considerable period of time, while only two years in 862, the Russian chronicle's Rurik arrives in the eastern Baltic, builds the fortress of Ladoga, moves to Novgorod. Rorik of Dorestad reappeared in Frankish chronicles in 870, when his Friesland demesne was returned to him by Charles the Bald; the Russian chronicle places the death of Rurik of Novgorod at 879, a three year gap prior than the Frankish chronicles.

According to Western sources, the ruler of Friesland was converted to Christianity by the Franks. This may have parallels with the Christianization of the Rus', as reported by Patriarch Photius in 867; the idea of identifying the Rurik of Nestor's chronicle with Rorik of Dorestad of the Carolingian chronicles was revived by the anti-Normanists Boris Rybakov and Anatoly H. Kirpichnikov in the mid-20th century, while modern scholars like Alexander Nazarenko object to it; the hypothesis of their identity lacks support among scholars, though support for a "Normannic" origin of the Rus' has increased. In Estonian folklore there is a tale of three brothers, who were born as sons of a peasant, but through great bravery and courageousness became all rulers in foreign countries; the brothers were called Rahurikkuja and Truuvaar, names given to them by their childhood friend, a blue snake. The Rurik dynasty went on to rule the Kievan Rus', the Tsardom of Russia, until

Cartesian theater

"Cartesian theater" is a derisive term coined by philosopher and cognitive scientist Daniel Dennett to refer pointedly to a defining aspect of what he calls Cartesian materialism, which he considers to be the unacknowledged remnants of Cartesian dualism in modern materialist theories of the mind. Descartes claimed that consciousness requires an immaterial soul, which interacts with the body via the pineal gland of the brain. Dennett says that, when the dualism is removed, what remains of Descartes' original model amounts to imagining a tiny theater in the brain where a homunculus, now physical, performs the task of observing all the sensory data projected on a screen at a particular instant, making the decisions and sending out commands; the term "Cartesian theater" was brought up in the context of the multiple drafts model that Dennett posits in Consciousness Explained: Cartesian materialism is the view that there is a crucial finish line or boundary somewhere in the brain, marking a place where the order of arrival equals the order of "presentation" in experience because what happens there is what you are conscious of....

Many theorists would insist that they have explicitly rejected such an bad idea. But... the persuasive imagery of the Cartesian Theater keeps coming back to haunt us—laypeople and scientists alike—even after its ghostly dualism has been denounced and exorcized. Circular reasoning Homunculus argument Inside Out Münchhausen trilemma The Numskulls Turtles all the way down Richard Chappell on "The Cartesian Theater" Qualia! Now showing at a Theater near you by Eric Lormand

Delhi–Barmer Link Express

The Delhi - Barmer Link Express is an express train belonging to Northern Railway zone that runs between Old Delhi and Barmer in India. It is being operated with 14661/14662 train numbers on daily basis; the 14661/Delhi - Barmer Link Express has averages speed of 51 km/hr and covers 828 km in 16h 10m. The 14662/Barmer - Delhi Link Express has averages speed of 48 km/hr and covers 828 km in 17h 15m; the important halts of the train are: Old Delhi Junction Delhi Sarai Rohilla Delhi Cantonment Palam Gurgaon Garhi Harsaru Junction Rewari Junction Alwar Junction Dausa Junction Gandhinagar Jaipur Jaipur Junction Phulera Junction Merta Road Junction Jodhpur Junction Luni Junction Samdari Junction Balotra Baytu Barmer The train has standard ICF rakes with max speed of 110 kmph. The train consist of 18 coaches: 1 First AC and Second AC 1 AC II Tier 1 AC III Tier 8 Sleeper Coaches 5 General 2 Seating cum Luggage Rake Both trains are hauled by an Abu Road Loco Shed based WDM 3A diesel locomotive from Old Delhi to Jodhpur.

From Jodhpur trains are hauled by an Abu Road Loco Shed based WDM 3A diesel locomotive uptil Barmer and vice versa. The train share its rake with 14659/14660 Malani Express. Old Delhi railway station Barmer railway station Malani Express Delhi Barmer Link Express Barmer Delhi Link Express