click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Rush County, Kansas

Rush County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kansas. As of the 2010 census, the county population was 3,307; the largest city and county seat is La Crosse. For many millennia, the Great Plains of North America was inhabited by nomadic Native Americans. From the 16th century to 18th century, the Kingdom of France claimed ownership of large parts of North America. In 1762, after the French and Indian War, France secretly ceded New France to Spain, per the Treaty of Fontainebleau. In 1802, Spain returned most of the land to France. In 1803, most of the land for modern day Kansas was acquired by the United States from France as part of the 828,000 square mile Louisiana Purchase for 2.83 cents per acre. In 1854, the Kansas Territory was organized in 1861 Kansas became the 34th U. S. state. In 1867, Rush County was established. Rush County was organized on December 5, 1874. There was a county seat struggle between La Crosse and Rush Center lasting 10 years until La Crosse became the county seat.

The first county fair was held in 1910 south of Rush Center. In 2015, the "Alexander Wind Farm" was constructed south of Alexander, it generates 48 megawatts of power. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 718 square miles, of which 718 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles is water. It is intersected by Walnut Creek, a tributary of the Arkansas River, watered by other streams. Ellis County Russell County Barton County Pawnee County Ness County As of the census of 2000, there were 3,551 people, 1,548 households, 1,013 families residing in the county; the population density was 5 people per square mile. There were 1,928 housing units at an average density of 3 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.45% White, 0.31% Black or African American, 0.42% Native American, 0.11% Asian, 0.17% from other races, 0.54% from two or more races. 1.04 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 1,548 households out of which 26.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.10% were married couples living together, 5.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.50% were non-families.

31.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.80. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.10% under the age of 18, 5.50% from 18 to 24, 22.90% from 25 to 44, 24.20% from 45 to 64, 25.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females there were 94.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,268, the median income for a family was $38,821. Males had a median income of $25,408 versus $20,307 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,033. About 6.70% of families and 9.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.50% of those under age 18 and 9.90% of those age 65 or over. Rush County is presently overwhelmingly Republican, although as as 1988 Michael Dukakis, aided by a major Great Plains drought, came within twenty-five votes of carrying the county for the Democrats.

Rush County was a prohibition, or "dry", county until the Kansas Constitution was amended in 1986 and voters approved the sale of alcoholic liquor by the individual drink with a 30 percent food sales requirement. LaCrosse USD 395 Otis-Bison USD 403 Hargrave Nekoma Schaffer Rush County is divided into twelve townships. None of the cities within the county are considered governmentally independent, all figures for the townships include those of the cities. In the following table, the population center is the largest city included in that township's population total, if it is of a significant size. West Point, Kansas Plat book of Rush County, Kansas. CountyRush County - Official Website Rush County - Directory of Public OfficialsHistoricalHistory of Cities in Rush CountyMapsRush County Maps: Current, Historic, KDOT Kansas Highway Maps: Current, Historic, KDOT Kansas Railroad Maps: Current, 1996, 1915, KDOT and Kansas Historical Society

History of Spokane, Washington

The history of Spokane, Washington in the northwestern United States developed because Spokane Falls and its surroundings were a gathering place for numerous cultures for thousands of years. The area's indigenous people settled there due to the fertile hunting grounds and abundance of salmon in the Spokane River; the first European to explore the Inland Northwest was Canadian explorer-geographer David Thompson, working as head of the North West Company's Columbia Department. At the nexus of the Little Spokane and the Spokane, Thompson's men built a new fur trading post, the first long-term European settlement in Washington state; the first American settlers, squatters J. J. Downing, with his wife, S. R. Scranton, built a cabin and established a claim at Spokane Falls in 1871. James N. Glover and Jasper Matheney, two Oregonians passing through the region in 1873, recognized the value of the Spokane River and its falls, they realized the development potential and bought the claims of 160 acres and the sawmill from Downing and Scranton for $4,000 total.

Glover and Matheney knew that the Northern Pacific Railroad Company had received a government charter to build a main line across this northern route. By 1881, the Northern Pacific Railway was completed. With the arrival of the Northern Pacific Railroad and the additions to the city's railroad infrastructure by the arrival of the Union Pacific, Great Northern, Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific railroads, Spokane became the commercial center of the Inland Northwest, it was one of the most important rail centers in the western United States. Spokane hosted the first environmentally themed World's Fair in Expo'74, becoming the then-smallest city to host a World's Fair. With falling silver and farm prices, the city economy began a decline that would last into the 1990s. Spokane is still trying to make the transition to a more service-oriented economy; the opening of the River Park Square Mall in 1999 sparked a downtown rebirth that included the building of the Spokane Arena and expansion of the Spokane Convention Center.

The Spokane Falls and its surroundings were a gathering place and focus for settlement for the area's indigenous people for thousands of years, due to the fertile hunting grounds and abundance of salmon in the Spokane River. The first humans to arrive in the Spokane area arrived between 12,000 and 8,000 years ago and were hunter-gatherer societies who lived off the plentiful game in the area; the settlers hunted predominantly bison and antelope, but after the game migrated out of the region, the native people became dependent on gathering various roots and nuts, harvesting fish. The Spokane tribe, after which the city is named, are believed to be either direct descendants of the original hunter-gatherers who settled in the region, or descendants of tribes that migrated to the area from the Great Plains; when asked about their origins by early white explorers, the tribe said their ancestors came from "Up North". The Spokane Falls were the tribe's center of fishing; the Spokane consisted of three bands.

The Spokane people shared their culture and Salishan language with several other tribes, including the Coeur d' Alenes, Pend Oreilles, Flatheads and Colvilles among others. Early in the 19th century, the Northwest Fur Company sent two white fur trappers west of the Rocky Mountains to search for fur, they were friendly with the native people. The trappers became the first two white men met by the Spokane tribe, who believed them to be Sama, or sacred, they helped. The tribe discovered the men brought no "big magic" to the tribe, as their members had continued to die from smallpox, which had first struck the tribe in an epidemic in 1782; as much as half the tribe had died in that epidemic. The explorer-geographer David Thompson, working as head of the North West Company's Columbia Department, became the first European to explore the Inland Empire. Crossing what is now the U. S.–Canada border from British Columbia, Thompson wanted to expand the North West Company further south in search of furs. After establishing the Kullyspell House and Saleesh House trading posts in what are now Idaho and Montana, Thompson attempted to expand further west.

He sent out two trappers, Jacques Raphael Finlay and Finan McDonald, to construct a fur trading post on the Spokane River in Washington and trade with the local Indians. This post was established in 1810, at the confluence of the Little Spokane and Spokane rivers, becoming the first enduring European settlement of significance in Washington state. Known as the Spokane House, or "Spokane", it was in operation from 1810 to 1826. Operations were run by the British North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company, the post was the headquarters of the fur trade between the Rocky and Cascade mountains for 16 years. After the latter business absorbed the North West Company in 1821, the major operations at the Spokane House were shifted north to Fort Colvile, reducing the post's significance. In 1836, Reverend Samuel Parker visited the area and reported that around 800 Native Americans were living in Spokane Falls. A medical mission was established by Marcus and Narcissa Whitman to cater for Cayuse Indians and hikers of the Oregon Trail at Walla Walla in the south.

After the Whitmans were killed by Indians in 1847, Reverend Cushing Eells established Whitman College in the city of city of Walla Walla, Washington in their memory. Rev. Eells built the first church in Spokane in 1881. Between

Edwin Styles

Edwin Styles was a British stage comedian, pantomime actor, radio and TV performer and film actor. Hell Below - Herbert Standish - Flight Comdr. On the Air - Edwin Styles Road House - Archie Hamble Patricia Gets Her Man - Brian Maxwell The Five Pound Man - Richard Fordyce Adam and Evelyne - Bill Murray The Lady with a Lamp - Mr. Nightingale Derby Day - Sir George Forbes Penny Princess - Chancellor - Cobbler Top Secret - Barworth Superintendent The Accused - Solicitor The Weak and the Wicked - Seymour For Better, for Worse - Anne's Boss Isn't Life Wonderful! - Bamboula The Dam Busters - Observer At Trials Up in the World - Conjuror The Full Treatment - Doctor Roberts Out of the Shadow - Edwin Styles on IMDb Edwin Styles at the Internet Broadway Database

Billy Lane Lauffer

Billy Lane Lauffer was a United States Army soldier and a recipient of the United States military's highest decoration—the Medal of Honor—for his actions in the Vietnam War. In honor of him, Billy Lane Lauffer Middle School was built in 2005 in Arizona. Lauffer joined the Army from Phoenix, Arizona in 1962, by September 21, 1966 was serving as a private first class in Company C, 2nd Battalion, 5th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Air Cavalry Division. During a firefight on that day, near Bon Son in Binh Dinh Province, Republic of Vietnam, he single-handedly charged an enemy emplacement, creating a diversion so his comrades could move their wounded to safety. Mortally wounded in the charge, Lauffer was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions. Lauffer, aged 20 at his death, was buried at Murray Memorial Gardens in his birth city of Murray, Kentucky. Private Lauffer's official Medal of Honor citation reads: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty.

Pfc. Lauffer's squad, a part of Company C, was struck at close range by an intense machine gun crossfire from 2 concealed bunkers astride the squad's route. Pfc. Lauffer, the second man in the column, saw the lead man fall and noted that the remainder of the squad was unable to move. Two comrades wounded and being carried on litters, were lying helpless in the beaten zone of the enemy fire. Reacting instinctively, Pfc. Lauffer engaged both bunkers with fire from his rifle, but when the other squad members attempted to maneuver under his covering fire, the enemy fusillade increased in volume and thwarted every attempt to move. Seeing this and his wounded comrades helpless in the open, Pfc. Lauffer rose to his feet and charged the enemy machine gun positions, firing his weapon and drawing the enemy's attention. Keeping the enemy confused and off balance, his 1-man assault provided the crucial moments for the wounded point man to crawl to a covered position, the squad to move the exposed litter patients to safety, his comrades to gain more advantageous positions.

Pfc. Lauffer was fatally wounded during his selfless act of courage and devotion to his fellow soldiers, his gallantry at the cost of his life served as an inspiration to his comrades and saved the lives of an untold number of his companions. His actions are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, the U. S. Army. List of Medal of Honor recipients for the Vietnam War "Billy Lane Lauffer". Claim to Fame: Medal of Honor recipients. Find a Grave. Retrieved 2007-07-11. "Vietnam War Medal of Honor recipients". Medal of Honor citations. United States Army Center of Military History. February 27, 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-11

Institute of Lutheran Theology

The Institute of Lutheran Theology is a seminary located in Brookings, South Dakota. It provides distance education online and holds intensive courses at its campus in Brookings, South Dakota; the Institute of Lutheran Theology was started in 2009 by conservatives in the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America affiliated with the WordAlone Network in order to train Lutheran clergy and other churchworkers. The Institute of Lutheran Theology is not supported by a single synod or religious association, but several. Instead, it hires and serves people from eight different Lutheran church bodies in the United States, some which formed after separating from the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America and lack seminaries of their own; the library has 30,000 physical volumes and more through ebrary as well as access to several other academic databases. Robert Benne Dennis Bielfeldt John Eidsmoe Paul Hinlicky Jack Kilcrease George Tsakiridis Lucas V. Woodford The school is accredited by the Association for Biblical Higher Education and is recognized by the Council for Higher Education Accreditation and is a member of the American Council on Education.

ILT operates as a school which grants certificates and degrees to students who complete their studies with the school. It does not ordain graduates. Confessing Movement Lutheran CORE ReconcilingWorks WordAlone Augsburg Lutheran Churches Official website

Isiah C. Smith

Isiah C. Smith was Palm Beach County, Florida's third black lawyer, he and William Holland, Palm Beach County's first black attorney, fought to integrate the county's schools, golf courses, department stores, airport taxi service, the Florida Turnpike's restaurants and bathrooms through lawsuits and negotiations in the mid-1950s. While working with Holland at their practice, Smith served part-time as Delray Beach City Prosecutor from 1970 to 1977. In 1986, he was appointed by Governor Bob Graham to become a circuit judge for Palm Beach County, he stepped down in 1992, having reached the age of 70, the mandatory retirement age in Florida for jurists. Born Isiah Courtney Smith on September 15, 1922 in a log cabin near Lake Helen, Florida, a small town near Sanford, known to most who knew him as I. C. Smith walked eight miles to elementary school because "The city had a school bus for the whites, all our friends, we had to walk." His father bought land and moved the family next to the black school.

In 1940, he graduated from Euclid High School in Deland and enrolled at Florida A&M College. While there he met William Holland, who would become Palm Beach County's first black attorney and a pioneer in Florida's Civil Rights movement. Smith and Holland promised each other that they would open a law practice in Florida to serve "the people of our community." However, before he could graduate, the United States entered World War II and Mr. Smith volunteered and was sent to the intake facility near Raiford. Mr. Smith had not been sworn in, he marched through the segregated camp to the white officers and un-volunteered. A year he was drafted, rejected at the same camp, he suspected. During the war he worked building locomotives in Chester, Pennsylvania that were sent to Russia, he returned to Florida A&M College after the war and soon met Henrietta Mays, a librarian at the college, who he was to marry. "He was studious," she said. "He was the only student I knew who carried a dictionary in his back pocket all the time."

After graduating with a history degree in 1947, Smith followed his wife-to-be to New York City, they married on January 1, 1949. He enrolled at Brooklyn Law School, where he attended classes at night after working days in a factory making plastic horses. After he earned his law degree in 1954, his college friend Holland invited him back to Florida to join his practice in West Palm Beach. Smith became the county's third black lawyer. In 1955, the pair sued the West Palm Beach Commission to integrate the West Palm Beach municipal golf course. After losing their suit in the Palm Beach County courts, they won their case on appeal with the District Court of Appeals six months later. In 1956 Holland and Smith sued the West Palm Beach School Board when Holland's six-year-old son was denied entrance to all-white Northboro Elementary, less than two miles from the Holland's home. After the county denied William Jr. entrance to the segregated school for two years and Smith filed a class-action suit. They fought their case in the courts for several years.

To comply with one ruling, in 1961 Palm Beach County offered a plan that resulted in four black students transferring to white high schools. By 1965, of the county's 15,000 minority students, 137 attended predominantly white schools; the county's public schools were integrated by 1973. In 1956 the law firm of Holland and Smith fought to eliminate separate eating and bathroom facilities on the newly opened Florida Turnpike. By the late 1950s, they had integrated the county's department stores and the airport's taxi service. Mr. Smith practiced law with Holland for 32 years, including the years that he was a Delray city prosecutor, he served in that position from 1970 until 1977. He applied for judgeships twice, to no avail, but did so once more; this time he was appointed by Gov. Bob Graham to be a circuit judge for Palm Beach County in July 1986. Two months he was challenged by a Wellington, Florida lawyer for the four-year term. Smith won and was unopposed in 1990. Judge Smith left his position at the bench in September 1992.

Florida law requires judges to retire after their 70th birthday. Judge Smith served as a church administrator at Trinity Methodist Church, West Palm Beach, he sang in the Gospel Choir and the Male Choir, he was a member of Phi Beta Sigma fraternity. Judge Smith and Dr. Henrietta M. Smith had two children. I. C. Smith and his partner William W. Holland were honored as Civil Rights pioneers in Coleman Park where Negro League legends played ball. Judge Isiah Courtney Smith died on February 29, 2012 in Delray Beach, Florida at the age of 89. 258 F. 2d 730 - Holland v. Board of Public Instruction of Palm Beach County Florida