Ružinov is a borough of Bratislava, the capital of Slovakia, located in the Bratislava II district. It is the city's second most populated borough, housing over 70,000 inhabitants and its Nivy neighborhood is the place of the emerging new city center of Bratislava. Ružinov features extensive residential areas, as well as major industrial facilities and transport infrastructure including the Milan Rastislav Štefánik international airport and the D1 motorway; the borough features the Slovnaft refinery, Avion Shopping Park mall, Ružinov hospital, Štrkovec lake, Zlaté Piesky recreational area and numerous schools and churches. Ružinov is bordered by the borough of Old Town to the north-west, Nové Mesto to the north, Rača and Vajnory to the north-east, Podunajské Biskupice to the south and Petržalka to the west across the river Danube connected by the Prístavný most. Ružinov is divided into the following neighborhoods: Vlčie hrdlo Nivy Prievoz Trávniky Štrkovec Pošeň Ostredky TrnávkaRužinov is cadastrially divided into three parts: Ružinov and Trnávka.
In place of today's Ružinov there were meadows, pastures and woodland, interspersed with islands and channels of the Danube. The people living here worked in agriculture and logging. In the 19th century, the agricultural character of the area was disappearing, as many new factories were built in the area; the current name was only coined in the 20th century, is based on the term Ružový ostrov, which translates as the Rose Island. Today, Ružinov is a location for many industrial businesses, shopping centres, financial businesses and banks. Industrial plants such as Slovnaft and Gumon, the cargo Port of Bratislava, are located here. Apart from the chemical industry it is home to construction industries; the Miletičova Open-air Market, Bratislava's largest and most frequented, is located in Ružinov. The Milan Rastislav Štefánik international airport is located here; the largest shopping center in Slovakia Avion Shopping Park is based in Ružinov, with the Ikea store and surrounded by new office buildings and two hotels.
Despite its industrial character, Ružinov is considered to be a green part of Bratislava. In contrast to other city districts, it is rich in streams and lakes, with a total water area of 616,000 m². At the heart of Ružinov there is the Štrkovec Lake area, a major recreational and sporting centre for Bratislava. Other lakes include Zlaté Piesky, a major summer resort, Rohlík. Ružinov local government was established by the elections in November 1990 and in December 1990, it founded the municipal office of the Ružinov borough. Over time, the number of members of the local parliament was reduced from 60 to 25. List of Mayors of Ružinov and political parties that nominated them: 1990 – 1994 – Jozef Olejár 1994 – 1998 – Richard Volek 1998 – 2002 – Pavol Kubovič 2002 – 2006 – Pavol Kubovič 2006 – 2010 – Slavomír Drozd 2010 – 2014 - Dušan Pekár 2014 – 2018 – Dušan Pekár 2018 – present – Martin Chren Ružinovské echo - local monthly magazine, established in 1992 TV Ružinov - local TV station, established in May 1996 as TV RIKBoth media are published and operated by the municipal company TVR a RE, s.r.o.
Ružinov belongs into three Roman Catholic parishes, one Protestant parish and one Orthodox Church parish. The borough features the following churches: Orthodox Church of Saint Rastislav on Tomášikova Street, consecrated in May 2013. Roman Catholic Church of Virgin Mary Help of Christians on Miletičova Street No. 7, consecrated in 1990 Roman Catholic Church of Saint Don Bosco and Salesian Institute at Dornkappl, Okružná Street No. 11, consecrated in 1938 Protestant Lutheran Church in Prievoz, Radničné námestie No. 2, consecrated in 1925 Roman Catholic Church of Saint Vincent de Paul on Tomášikova street, consecrated in 2000 Ružinov is home to several high schools, 9 elementary schools and 11 kindergartens. It houses the Pan-European University on Tomášikova Street and the Faculty of Social and Economic Studies of the Comenius University on Mlynské luhy Street. Elementary schools: ZŠ Borodáčova Street, ZŠ Drieňová Street, ZŠ Kulíškova Street, ZŠ Medzilaborecká Street, ZŠ Mierová Street, ZŠ Nevädzová Street, ZŠ Ostredková Street, ZŠ Ružová dolina Street, ZŠ Vrútocká Street There is the United Church School of Saint Vincent de Paul which combines an elementary school and high school Public kindergartens and their elocated classes: MŠ Bancíkovej Street 2, MŠ Exnárova Street 6, MŠ Miletičova Street 37, MŠ Medzilaborecká Street 4, MŠ Piesočná Street 2, MŠ Západná Street 2), MŠ Prešovská Street 28, MŠ Pivonková Street 9, MŠ Habarka, Stálicova Street 2, MŠ Šťastná Street 26, MŠ Velehradská Street 24 In the school year 2012/2013, 586 children were accepted into the seven Ružino
Karlova Ves is a borough in the city of Bratislava, the capital of Slovakia. It is located in the western part of the city close to the river Danube on the slopes of the Little Carpathians mountains and it is part of the Bratislava IV administrative district. A small, wine-making village for most of its history it was assimilated into Bratislava in the 1940s and in 1957, the construction of a large socialist panelák suburb started. Today, Karlova Ves has 33,000 inhabitants and university dormitories in Mlynská dolina house an additional 15,000 students at the total area of 7874 meters squared. Karlova Ves consists of three distinct parts: Dlhé diely suburb which houses most of the inhabitants, Mlynská dolina area which features some of the city's central institutions including universities, the Bratislava Zoo and Botanical Garden of the Comenius University; the Karlova Ves proper includes the largest island in Bratislava. The city part features the Bratislava Water Museum, the Slávičie údolie cemetery, numerous schools and three Roman-Catholic churches.
The St. Francis Square serves as the center of the city borough. Karlova Ves borders Austria and Petržalka to the south, Devín to the west, Dúbravka to the north and Old Town to the east; the southern boundary is the river Danube. The original village lied on the western slopes of the Bratislava Foothills, the southernmost part of the Devín Carpathians mountain range, in the valley of the Karloveský stream, on both of its sides; the altitude difference is from 134 meters AMSL at the Karloveská bay to 264 m AMSL at the mountain Nad Sitinou, mean altitude in the borough is 165 meters AMSL. In the past, the boundaries of Karlova Ves used to change stabilizing in their current place after 1971; the southern boundary is the Petržalka bank of the Danube, border with Austria and the Karloveské rameno creating island Sihoť. Eastern boundary is the Cesta na Červený most Street, Lamačská cesta Street, Mlynská dolina street until the river Danube, running underneath the Lafranconi bridge; the northern boundary runs around various industrial buildings until reaching Polianky street the gas station at Lamačská cesta Street Zelenohorská Street and the northern side of the Bratislava - Malacky railway tracks.
The western boundary runs west of Dlhé diely, through the western part of Kuklovská Street, Sološnícka Street, Šaštínska Street, Hrubý vrch, Krčace and a forest road at Sitina. Karlova Ves is divided into five local parts: Dlhé diely, Mlynská dolina, Kútiky and island Sihoť. Cadastrially it is divided into 9 sectors: Karlova Ves, Dlhé diely, Líščie údolie, Krčace, Patrónka, Mlynská dolina, Sitina - ZOO, Karloveská zátoka and Sihoť. In the past, it was a quiet vineyard village in the proximity of Bratislava, was incorporated into the city in 1943, it includes recent high-rise apartment blocks in the Dlhé diely area. In the Mlynská dolina quarter is the headquarters of Slovak Television, there is Slávičie údolie cemetery nearby. List of Mayors of Karlova Ves and political parties that nominated them: 1991 – 1994 – Jozef Krištúfek 1994 – 1998 – Bystrík Hollý 1998 – 2002 – Bystrík Hollý 2002 – 2006 – Bystrík Hollý, other sources claim 2006 – 2010 – Iveta Hanulíková 2010 – 2014 – Iveta Hanulíková 2014 – present – Dana Čahojová Karlova Ves features three Roman-Catholic churches: Church of the Nativity of Mary - consecrated in 1995 Church of Saint Michael Archangel - built in the 18th century, consecrated in 1935 Church of Saint Francis of Assisi - consecrated in 2002 Karlova Ves features 5 high-schools, 5 elementary schools and 8 kindergartens.
Mlynská dolina, part of Karlova Ves, features numerous universities and university dormitories. High-school equivalent: Gymnázium Ladislava Sáru 1, Škola úžitkového výtvarníctva Josefa Vydru Dúbravská cesta 11,Spojená škola s organizačnými zložkami: ZŠ a gymnázium Tilgnerova 14, Spojená škola sv. Františka z Assisi s organizačnými zložkami: ZŠ sv. Františka z Assisi a gymnázium sv. Františka z Assisi, Súkromné gymnázium ESPRIT Majerníkova 62, Elementary schools: ZŠ Karloveská 61, Spojená škola s organizačnými zloţkami: ZŠ a gymnázium Tilgnerova 14, Spojená škola sv. Františka z Assisi s organizačnými zložkami: ZŠ sv. Františka z Assisi a gymnázium sv. Františka z Assisi, ZŠ Alexandra Dubčeka Majerníkova 62, ZŠ Veternicova 20 Kindergartens: MŠ Adámiho 11, MŠ Borská 4, MŠ Kolískova 14, MŠ Ladislava Sáru 3, MŠ Ľudovíta Fullu 12, MŠ Majerníkova 11, MŠ Pod Rovnicami 1, MŠ Suchohradská 3 The main sporting club in Karlova Ves is Karloveský športový klub. There are three multi-functional playgrounds available for free to the public: inside the area of School Alexandra Dubčeka, School Karloveská 32 and School Veternicová 20.
Libor Ebringer, Professor of microbiology and Doctor of Sciences Boroughs and localities of Bratislava Geography of Bratislava Karlova Ves website
Dunajské luhy Protected Landscape Area
Dunajské luhy Protected Landscape Area is one of the youngest of the 14 protected landscape areas in Slovakia. The Landscape Area consists of five separate parts in the Danube Lowland, stretching from Bratislava in the north west, following the Danube and the borders between Slovakia and Hungary to a river island called Veľkolélsky ostrov in Komárno District; the biggest part is the largest river island in Europe. The area is situated in three regions – Bratislava and Nitra. Altogether, it protects 122.84 km² of floodplains and numerous water bodies, such as lakes, oxbow lakes and streams. Dunajské luhy PLA contains diverse flora and fauna, including endemic species, living in riparian zones; the first part starts south of the Slovnaft oil refinery in south east Bratislava on the left side of the Danube, it extends to the reservoir at the Čunovo waterworks. The second part is situated south west of the first one, on the right side of the Danube, near the boroughs of Rusovce and Čunovo; the third, largest part protects the island situated between the border with Hungary.
This area is protected entirely, except for the built up areas, the villages of Dobrohošť, Vojka nad Dunajom and Bodíky and the levee alongside the Danube. The fourth area, located on the right side of the Danube, starts at the village of Sap, borders the villages of Medveďov and Číčov and ends at the village of Klížska Nemá; the last fifth part is located on the Veľkolélsky ostrov island, which ends in the east near the village of Zlatná na Ostrove. The whole area of the Dunajské luhy PLA is listed as the site number 605 in the Ramsar Convention, an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands. Aquatic plants are represented by many rare and protected species, such as the European white waterlily, yellow water-lily, Salvinia natans, water chestnut, Nymphoides peltata and others. Meadows are home to orchids, for example, Orchis coriophora, Military orchid, green-winged orchid, Epipactis helleborine, lesser butterfly-orchid, others; the floodplains are covered with willows, oaks, elms, European hornbeams, dogwoods.
Fauna is influenced by a wide variety of biotopes in the Landscape Area. For instance, it contains 109 species of molluscs, of which 22 are protected, hundreds of true bugs, for example the endemic species Thinobius korbeli from the rove beetles family; the tundra vole is one of the most notable little mammals living in this area. Dunajské luhy PLA is an important area for incubation of many water birds. Many rare species, such as the white-tailed eagle, little egret and purple heron, nest there; the whole Slovak-Hungarian part of the Danube is listed as an Important Bird Area. The Danube and surrounding bodies of water contain the highest number of species of fish in Slovakia. Rare and protected species include the wild form of the Common carp, Umbra krameri from the Esociformes order, Pelecus cultratus from the Cyprinidae family, Proterorhinus marmoratus from the Goby family. Recreational activities include swimming, fishing and biking; the Danube Bike Trail situated on or at the Danube levee allows bicyclists to tour along the whole Landscape Area.
The region features in Algernon Blackwood's novella "The Willows". Protected areas of Slovakia Tourism in Slovakia Dunajské luhy Protected Landscape Area at The Slovak Nature Conservancy Dunajské luhy Protected Landscape Area at Slovakia.travel
Paris Peace Treaties, 1947
The Paris Peace Treaties were signed on 10 February 1947, as the outcome of the Paris Peace Conference, held from 29 July to 15 October 1946. The victorious wartime Allied powers negotiated the details of peace treaties with Italy, the minor Axis powers, Finland, following the end of World War II in 1945; the treaties allowed Italy, Hungary and Finland to resume their responsibilities as sovereign states in international affairs and to qualify for membership in the United Nations. The settlement elaborated in the peace treaties included payment of war reparations, commitment to minority rights and territorial adjustments including the end of the Italian Colonial Empire in Africa and Albania, as well as changes to the Italian–Yugoslav, Hungarian–Czechoslovak, Soviet–Romanian, Hungarian-Romanian, French–Italian, Soviet–Finnish borders; the political clauses stipulated that the signatory should "take all measures necessary to secure to all persons under jurisdiction, without distinction as to race, language or religion, the enjoyment of human rights and of the fundamental freedoms, including freedom of expression, of press and publication, of religious worship, of political opinion and of public meeting."
No penalties were to be visited on nationals because of wartime partisanship for the Allies. Each government undertook measures to prevent the resurgence of fascist organizations or any others "whether political, military or semi-military, whose purpose it is to deprive the people of their democratic rights". Italy lost Italian East Africa; the latter consisted of Italian Ethiopia, Italian Eritrea, Italian Somaliland. In the peace treaty, Italy recognized the independence of Albania. Italy lost its concession in Tianjin, turned over to China; the Dodecanese Islands were ceded to Greece. Italy had to cede all islands in the eastern Adriatic and most of Istria, including the provinces of Fiume and most of Gorizia and Pola to Yugoslavia; the rest of the province of Pola, as well as the province of Trieste, became a new sovereign State under a provisional regime of Government for which the United Nations Security Council was responsible. Trieste returned to Italy with the Treaty of Osimo in 1975; the border with France was only modified in favor of France in uninhabited Alpine areas thus de facto remaining the same of 1860.
Italian diplomats were able to maintain Aosta Valley despite the territorial demands of France and Alto Adige despite the territorial demands of Austria. Italy avoided the occupation of the country, a fate that Germany and Japan shared, but its territorial losses included areas, part of the country before the advent of the Fascist regime in 1922. Finland was restored to the borders of 1 January 1941, except for the former province of Petsamo, ceded to the Soviet Union. In Finland, the reparations and the dictated border adjustment were perceived as a major injustice and a betrayal by the Western powers, after the sympathy Finland had received from the West during the Soviet-initiated Winter War of 1939–1940. However, this sympathy had been eroded by Finland's pragmatist collaboration with Nazi Germany between 1941 and 1944. During this time, Finland not only recaptured territory it had lost in 1940, but continued its offensive deeper into Soviet lands, occupying a broad strip of Soviet territory.
This prompted the United Kingdom to declare war on Finland in December 1941, further weakening political support in the West for the country. The Soviet Union's accessions of Finnish territory was based on the Moscow Armistice signed in Moscow on 19 September 1944 and resulted in an extension of the accessions in the Moscow Peace Treaty that ended the Winter War. Hungary was restored to its borders before 1938; this meant restoring the southern border with Yugoslavia, as well as declaring the First and Second Vienna Awards null and void, cancelling Hungary's gains from Czechoslovakia and Romania. Furthermore, three villages situated south of Bratislava were transferred to Czechoslovakia. Romania was restored to the borders of 1 January 1941, with the exception of the border with Hungary giving Northern Transylvania back to Romania; this confirmed the 1940 loss of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union and the Treaty of Craiova, which returned Southern Dobruja to Bulgaria. Bulgaria was restored to the borders of 1 January 1941, returning Vardar Macedonia to Yugoslavia and Eastern Macedonia and Western Thrace to Greece, but keeping Southern Dobruja per the Treaty of Craiova, leaving Bulgaria as the only former Axis power to keep territory, gained during the Second World War.
The war reparation problem proved to be one of the most difficult arising from post-war conditions. The Soviet Union, the country most ravaged by the war, felt entitled to the maximum amounts possible, with the exception of Bulgaria, perceived as being the most sympathetic of the former enemy states.. In the cases of Romania and Hungary, the reparation terms as set f
Old Town, Bratislava
The Old Town of Bratislava is the historic center and one of the boroughs of Bratislava, in the Bratislava Region of Slovakia. It is coextensive with the smallest Slovak administrative district by area, Bratislava I, it contains the small, but preserved medieval city center, Bratislava Castle and other important landmarks. Bratislava's Old Town is known for its many churches, the Bratislava Riverfront and cultural institutions, it is the location of most of the foreign states embassies and important Slovak institutions including the National Council of the Slovak Republic; the Old Town is bordered by the river Danube to the west, Karlova Ves to the north, the New Town to the north and east, Ružinov to the east and south. The Old Town is divided into several local parts: the historical center, Zukermandel, Blumentál, others; some of the local parts were demolished by the Communist government after World War II, including Vydrica and Zukermandel. As its name suggests, the district houses many historic monuments and Bratislava's central institutions.
It contains many Slovak governmental offices and institutions, such as the Ministry of Interior, the Ministry of Culture, the Ministry of Justice. The western part of the district is a hilly area featuring Bratislava Castle, the Slavín monument, Horský park, many detached houses, most of the foreign embassies in Slovakia; the hilly area ends in the south at the Danube with the Chatam Sofer Memorial and the Bratislava Castle hill, in the west at the D2 Motorway. This part of Bratislava is more quiet than the other parts of the city's Old Town and, apart from the castle, it is visited by tourists; the eastern section is the administrative center. Notable buildings and spaces include the Grassalkovich Palace, Trinity Church, Bratislava's Town Hall, St. Martin's Cathedral, Michael's Gate, the Primate's Palace, Comenius University, the main railway station, the Slovak National Theatre, SNP Square, the Main Square, Hviezdoslav Square, Kamenné námestie, Obchodná ulica, Pharmacy Salvator, Zochova Street from the 14th century and many other old churches and palaces.
There are still some remnants of the medieval Bratislava city walls, although not open to the public for the time being. 1990–1994 – Miloslava Zemková 1994–1998 – Andrej Ďurkovský 1998–2002 – Andrej Ďurkovský 2002–2006 – Peter Čiernik 2006–2010 – Andrej Petrek 2010–2014 – Tatiana Rosová 2014–present – Radoslav Števčík Obrenovac, Serbia Personalities Ignác LamárTourism Eurovea River Park Public restrooms in Bratislava List of fountains in BratislavaOther Old Town, Košice - An analogous borough in Slovakia's second largest city, Košice. Official website
Rajka is a village in Győr-Moson-Sopron County, Hungary. The village has a large Slovak minority; the name comes from the Slavic personal name Rajka. 1297 Royka. Rajka is located in the Little Hungarian Plain 17 kilometres north-west of Mosonmagyaróvár, near the point where the borders of Hungary and Slovakia join. M15 motorway, Highway 150, the Budapest–Hegyeshalom–Rajka railway line all cross the village; the Hungarian-Slovak border crossing between Rajka and Čunovo was lifted on 21 December 2007, when Hungary and Slovakia acceded to the Schengen Area. Rajka was established before the 13th century. According to the Hungarian Royal Treasury it was an ethnic German settlement in Hungary, called Rackendorf in 1495. In the 18th century it was a market town in Moson County; the Jewish community was forcibly deported in 1944. After the Soviet occupation of Hungary in 1946, 859 German civilians were expelled from Rajka, they were replaced by ethnic Hungarians expelled from Czechoslovakia. Mayor Vince Kiss spoke in 2012 of 1,000 Slovak citizens living in Rajka and making up one-third of the population.
Most of these are ethnic Slovaks, but a significant proportion are ethnic Hungarian citizens of Slovakia or conversant with the Hungarian language. These Slovak citizens form a fragmented, dormitory community of people working or studying in Bratislava, the Slovak capital, commuting there every day. According to the 2011 census, the population of Rajka was 2,758, of whom 1,938 declared themselves Hungarians, 535 Slovaks and 284 Germans by ethnicity. There is not yet any public school education in Rajka taught in the Slovak language. Street map
Vajnory is a small borough in the northeast of Bratislava, Slovakia. Milan Rastislav Štefánik international airport is located near Vajnory. Another airport - Vajnory Airport, the first airport in Slovakia - closed in 2006; the first written mention of Vajnory dates to 1237, when it was a village with the original Slovak Slovak name Prača / Pračany. In 1307, Heiligenkreuz Abbey in Austria purchased it and renamed it Weinern, referring to the main occupation of the villagers, working on vineyards and making wine. A relic of this name remains today in the Slovak variant, Vajnory, it was purchased again by Bratislava in the 16th century. It was a borough only until 1851, shortly after the abolition of serfdom, Vajnory became an independent village again, it was made an official borough of Bratislava in 1946. Official website Unofficial description