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Bianco da Siena

Bianco di Santi alias Bianco da Siena or Bianco da Lanciolina was an Italian mystic poet and an imitator of Jacopone da Todi. He wrote several religiously-inspired poems. First a wool carder, he became a member of the poor Jesuates, founded by Giovanni Colombini. According to Feo Belcari, Bianco da Siena was native of Lanciolina di Valdarno, but he worked as a wool carder at Siena, his date of birth is uncertain, but took place around 1350, since Belcari defines him as young in 1367, when he entered the Jesuates. This company was founded towards 1360 by Colombini and his friend Francesco Vincenti: they proposed a life of poverty and penitence. In May 1367, Bianco da Siena entered the company and left Siena with them to ask the approval of Pope Urban V; the Jesuates were received with benevolence at Viterbo, where the pontiff stayed with the project to bring the Holy See to Rome. In the meantime, they were suspected of heresy: Colombini assuaged these suspicions, several members left the company.

During the return to Siena, Colombini fell ill and died at Acquapendente 31 July 1367. Because of the intervention of the Roman Curia, the Jesuates became a religious order: the members had to give up their roaming life and settled in Tuscany and in Umbria. Bianco da Siena stayed some time in Siena went to Città di Castello, which he left before 1383. Afterwards, he travelled with a colleague in Umbria and in Tuscany and he stopped in Pistoia, he settled in Venice, where he died in 1399. Bianco da Siena wrote several religiously-inspired poems; these were read in the Middle Ages and they are in many manuscripts. One hundred and twenty-two poems were published. Richard Frederick Littledale translated multiple poems into English that have come into common use in the Church. Discendi amor santo - Come down, O Love Divine Gesù Christo amoroso - O Jesus Christ, the loving Vergine Santa, Sposa dell'Agnello - O Virgin spouse of Christ, the Lamb Ama Jesu, el tuo sposo diletto - Love Jesu, who hath sought thee so: Il Bianco da Siena, critical edition by Silvia Serventi.

Rome, Antonianum, 2013. Telesforo Bini, Laudi spirituali del Bianco da Siena, povero gesuato del secolo XIV, Lucca, G. Giusti, 1851. Franca Ageno, Il Bianco da Siena. Notizie e testi inediti, Genova-Roma-Napoli, Società Anonima Editrice Dante Alighieri, 1939. Bianco da Siena, Serventesi inediti, edited by Emanuele Arioli, Pisa, ETS, 2012. Giorgio Petrocchi, La letteratura religiosa, in Storia della letteratura italiana, dir. Emilio Cecchi, Natalino Sapegno, II, Il Trecento, Garzanti, 1965, p. 511-545. Guido Baldassarri, Letteratura devota, edificante e morale, in Storia della letteratura italiana, diretta da Enrico Malato, II, Il Trecento, Salerno, 1995, p. 211-326. Christopher Kleinhenz, Medieval Italy: an encyclopedia, Routledge, 2004, t. I, p. 119-120. Costanzo Cargnoni, Antonio Gentili, Mauro Regazzoni, Pietro Zovatto, Storia della spiritualità italiana, Città Nuova Editrice, 2002. Ottavio Gigli, Prose di Feo Belcari edite ed inedite, Salviucci, 1843, I, p. 105-107, II, p. 23-32. Feo Belcari, Vita del beato Giovanni Colombini da Siena, fondatore de' poveri Gesuati con parte della vita d'alcuni primi suoi compagni, edited by Antonio Cesari, Tipografia erede Merlo, 1817.

Vittoria Deudi, I Gesuati e il loro poeta Bianco da Siena, in Bullettino senese di storia patria, 1911, XVIII, p. 396-412. Francesco Zambrini, Le opere volgari a stampa dei secoli XIII e XIV ed altre a' medesimi riferibili o falsamente assegnate, Bologna, G. Romagnoli, 1861, p. 31 Isabella Gagliardi, Li trofei della croce: l'esperienza gesuata e la società lucchese tra Medioevo ed età moderna, Roma, Ed. di Storia e Letteratura, 2005. Pietro Zovatto, Storia della spiritualità italiana, Città Nuova, 2002. Georg Dufner, Geschichte der Jesuaten, Roma, Ed. di storia e letteratura, 1975. Josiah Miller and songs of the Church, sketches of the hymn-writers, Longmans, Co, 1869, p. 37 John Julian, A dictionary of Hymnology, New York, Dover Publication, 1957, p. 141. Erik Routley, An English Speaking Hymnal Guide, Chicago, GIA Publications, 2005, p. 37. Martin Manser, The Wordsworth Book of Hymns, Wordsworth Editions, 2006, p. 95-96 LindaJo H. McKim, The Presbyterian Hymnal Companion, Westminster/John Knox Press, 1993, p. 223.

Gordon Kerry, New Classical Music: Composing Australia, University of New South Wales, 2009, p. 110. Jeffery B. Loomis, Dayspring in darkness: sacrament in Hopkins, London, Associated University Presses, 1988, p. 206

German submarine U-561

German submarine U-561 was a Type VIIC U-boat built for Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine for service during World War II. She was laid down on 28 February 1940 by Blohm & Voss in Hamburg as yard number 537, launched on 23 January 1941 and commissioned on 13 March 1941 under Kapitänleutnant Robert Bartels. German Type VIIC submarines were preceded by the shorter Type VIIB submarines. U-561 had a displacement of 769 tonnes when at the 871 tonnes while submerged, she had a total length of 67.10 m, a pressure hull length of 50.50 m, a beam of 6.20 m, a height of 9.60 m, a draught of 4.74 m. The submarine was powered by two Germaniawerft F46 four-stroke, six-cylinder supercharged diesel engines producing a total of 2,800 to 3,200 metric horsepower for use while surfaced, two BBC GG UB 720/8 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 750 metric horsepower for use while submerged, she had two 1.23 m propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres; the submarine had a maximum submerged speed of 7.6 knots.

When submerged, the boat could operate for 80 nautical miles at 4 knots. U-561 was fitted with five 53.3 cm torpedo tubes, fourteen torpedoes, one 8.8 cm SK C/35 naval gun, 220 rounds, a 2 cm C/30 anti-aircraft gun. The boat had a complement of between sixty; the boat's service began on 13 March 1941 with training as part of the 1st U-boat Flotilla. She was transferred to the 23rd flotilla on 1 February 1942. In 15 patrols she sank five ships for a total of 17,146 gross register tons, plus one ship damaged and a second a total loss. During late July 1941, U-561, along with 9 other German and Italian submarines, attacked convoy OG 69 en route from Liverpool to Gibraltar. U-561 sank the 1,884 GRT British freighter Wrotham, she was sunk by torpedoes fired from Royal Navy MTB-81 on 12 July 1943 at position 38°16′N 15°39′E in the Straits of Messina. She took part in two wolfpacks, Bosemüller Seewolf Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type VIIC boat U-561". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 28 December 2014.

Hofmann, Markus. "U 561". Deutsche U-Boote 1935-1945 - u-boot-archiv.de. Retrieved 28 December 2014