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Russian Armed Forces

The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation known as the Russian Armed Forces, are the military forces of the Russian Federation, established after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. On 7 May 1992, Boris Yeltsin signed a presidential decree establishing the Russian Ministry of Defence and placing all Soviet Armed Forces troops on the territory of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic under Russian control; the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces is the President of Russia. The Russian Armed Forces were formed in 1992, it is one of the world's largest military forces. According to Credit Suisse, Russia has the world's second-most powerful military, it is the world's third largest arms exporter. Under Russian federal law, the RuAF along with the Federal Security Service's Border Troops, the National Guard, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Federal Protective Service, the Foreign Intelligence Service, EMERCOM's civil defence form Russia's military services and are under direct control of the Security Council of Russia.

Armed forces under the Ministry of Defence are divided into: the three "branches of Armed Forces": the Ground Forces, Aerospace Forces, the Navy the two "separate troop branches": the Strategic Missile Forces and the Airborne Troops the Logistical Support, which has a separate status of its ownThere are additionally two further "separate troop branches", the National Guard and the Border Service. These retain the legal status of "Armed Forces", while falling outside of the jurisdiction of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation; the National Guard is formed on the basis of the former Internal Troops of Russia. The new structure has been detached from the Ministry of Internal Affairs into a separate agency, directly subordinated to the President of Russia; the Border Service is a paramilitary organization of the Federal Security Service - the country's main internal intelligence agency. Both organizations have significant wartime tasks in addition to their main peacetime activities and operate their own land and maritime units.

The number of personnel is specified by decree of the President of Russia. On 1 January 2008, a number including military of 1,134,800 units, was set. In 2010 the International Institute for Strategic Studies estimated that the Russian Armed Forces numbered about 1,027,000 active troops and in the region of 2,035,000 reserves; as opposed to personnel specified by decree, actual personnel numbers on the payroll was reported by the Audit Chamber of Russia as 766,000 in October 2013. As of December 2016, the armed forces are at 93 percent of the required manpower, up from 82 percent reported in December 2013. According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, between 2005-2009 and 2010–2014, Russian exports of major weapons increased by 37 percent. According to the Russian Defence Ministry, share of modern weapons in the Armed Forces reached from 26 to 48 percent among different kinds of troops in December 2014; this was raised to 30.5–70.7% as of July 2015. The average was 68.2 per cent over the end of 2019.

The Soviet Union dissolved on 25 December 1991, leaving the Soviet military in limbo. For the next year and a half various attempts to keep its unity and to transform it into the military of the Commonwealth of Independent States failed. Over time, some units stationed in the newly independent republics swore loyalty to their new national governments, while a series of treaties between the newly independent states divided up the military's assets. Apart from assuming control of the bulk of the former Soviet Internal Troops and the KGB Border Troops the only independent defence move the new Russian government made before March 1992 involved announcing the establishment of a National Guard; until 1995, it was planned to form at least 11 brigades numbering 3,000 to 5,000 each, with a total of no more than 100,000. National Guard military units were to be deployed in 10 regions, including in Moscow, a number of other important cities and regions. By the end of September 1991 in Moscow the National Guard was about 15,000 strong consisting of former Soviet Armed Forces servicemen.

In the end, President Yeltsin tabled a decree "On the temporary position of the Russian Guard", but it was not put into practice. After signing the Belavezha Accords on 21 December 1991, the countries of the newly formed CIS signed a protocol on the temporary appointment of Marshal of Aviation Yevgeny Shaposhnikov as Minister of Defence and commander of the armed forces in their territory, including strategic nuclear forces. On 14 February 1992 Shaposhnikov formally became Supreme Commander of the CIS Armed Forces. On 16 March 1992 a decree by Boris Yeltsin created The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation the operational control of Allied High Command and the Ministry of Defence, headed by President. On 7 May 1992, Yeltsin signed a decree establishing the armed forces and Yeltsin assumed the duties of the Supreme Commander. In May 1992, General Colonel Pavel Grachev became the Minister of Defence, was made Russia's first Army General on assuming the post. By August or December 1993 CIS military structures had become CIS military cooperation structures with all real influence lost.

In the next few years, Russian forces withdrew from central and eastern Europe, as well as from some newly-independent post-Soviet republics. While in most places the withdrawal took place

Matheus Rossetto

Matheus Rossetto is a Brazilian professional footballer who plays as an attacking midfielder for Atlanta United in MLS. Born in Santo Amaro da Imperatriz, Santa Catarina, Rossetto joined Atlético Paranaense's youth setup in 2009, aged 12, he made his first team debut on 2 May 2015, coming on as a half-time substitute for goalscorer Nikão in a 5–0 Campeonato Paranaense home routing of Nacional. On 15 December 2015 Rossetto was loaned to Ferroviária, along with other Atlético teammates, he scored his first senior goal on 25 February of the following year, netting his team's first in a 2–3 away loss against Ituano. Returning to Furacão in May 2016, Rossetto made his Série A on 30 July by replacing Juninho in a 0–2 loss at Sport, he scored his first top flight goal on 5 October, netting the last in a 3–1 home win against Chapecoense. On 3 February 2020, Rossetto joined MLS side Atlanta United. Athletico Paranaense Copa do Brasil: 2019 Campeonato Paranaense: 2019 Copa Sudamericana: 2018 J. League Cup / Copa Sudamericana Championship: 2019 Matheus Rossetto at Soccerway

Semiconductor memory

Semiconductor memory is a digital electronic semiconductor device used for digital data storage, such as computer memory. It refers to MOS memory, where data is stored within metal–oxide–semiconductor memory cells on a silicon integrated circuit memory chip. There are numerous different types using different semiconductor technologies; the two main types of random-access memory are static RAM, which uses several transistors per memory cell, dynamic RAM, which uses a single transistor and MOS capacitor per cell. Non-volatile memory uses floating-gate memory cells. Most types of semiconductor memory have the property of random access, which means that it takes the same amount of time to access any memory location, so data can be efficiently accessed in any random order; this contrasts with data storage media such as hard disks and CDs which read and write data consecutively and therefore the data can only be accessed in the same sequence it was written. Semiconductor memory has much faster access times than other types of data storage.

For these reasons it is used for main computer memory, to hold data the computer is working on, among other uses. As of 2017, semiconductor memory chips sell $124 billion annually, accounting for 30% of the semiconductor industry. Shift registers, processor registers, data buffers and other small digital registers that have no memory address decoding mechanism are not referred to as "memory" although they store digital data. In a semiconductor memory chip, each bit of binary data is stored in a tiny circuit called a memory cell consisting of one to several transistors; the memory cells are laid out in rectangular arrays on the surface of the chip. The 1-bit memory cells are grouped in small units called words which are accessed together as a single memory address. Memory is manufactured in word length, a power of two N=1, 2, 4 or 8 bits. Data is accessed by means of a binary number called a memory address applied to the chip's address pins, which specifies which word in the chip is to be accessed.

If the memory address consists of M bits, the number of addresses on the chip is 2M, each containing an N bit word. The amount of data stored in each chip is N2M bits; the memory storage capacity for M number of address lines is given by 2M, in power of two: 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256 and 512 and measured in kibibits, gibibits or tebibits, etc. As of 2014 the largest semiconductor memory chips hold a few gibibits of data, but higher capacity memory is being developed. By combining several integrated circuits, memory can be arranged into a larger word length and/or address space than what is offered by each chip but not a power of two; the two basic operations performed by a memory chip are "read", in which the data contents of a memory word is read out, "write" in which data is stored in a memory word, replacing any data, stored there. To increase data rate, in some of the latest types of memory chips such as DDR SDRAM multiple words are accessed with each read or write operation. In addition to standalone memory chips, blocks of semiconductor memory are integral parts of many computer and data processing integrated circuits.

For example, the microprocessor chips that run computers contain cache memory to store instructions awaiting execution. Volatile memory loses its stored data; however it can be less expensive than non-volatile memory. This type is used for the main memory in most computers, since data is stored on the hard disk while the computer is off. Major types are:RAM – This has become a generic term for any semiconductor memory that can be written to, as well as read from, in contrast to ROM, which can only be read. All semiconductor memory, not just RAM, has the property of random access. DRAM – This uses metal–oxide–semiconductor memory cells consisting of one MOSFET and one MOS capacitor to store each bit; this type of RAM is the cheapest and highest in density, so it is used for the main memory in computers. However, the electric charge that stores the data in the memory cells leaks out, so the memory cells must be periodically refreshed which requires additional circuitry; the refresh process is transparent to its user.

FPM DRAM – An older type of asynchronous DRAM that improved on previous types by allowing repeated accesses to a single "page" of memory to occur at a faster rate. Used in the mid-1990s. EDO DRAM – An older type of asynchronous DRAM which had faster access time than earlier types by being able to initiate a new memory access while data from the previous access was still being transferred. Used in the part of the 1990s. VRAM – An older type of dual-ported memory once used for the frame buffers of video adapters. SDRAM – This added circuitry to the DRAM chip which synchronizes all operations with a clock signal added to the computer's memory bus; this allowed the chip to process multiple memory requests using pipelining, to increase the speed. The data on the chip is divided into banks which can each work on a memory operation simultaneously; this b


The Industrielleneingabe was a petition signed by twenty representatives of industry and agriculture on November 19, 1932, requesting that the President of Germany Paul von Hindenburg make Adolf Hitler the Chancellor of Germany. There had been two similar attempts to assist the Nazi party in gaining control of the government, namely a petition by the Wirtschaftspolitischen Vereinigung Frankfurt on July 27, 1931, a declaration by 51 professors in July 1932 in Völkischer Beobachter; the idea for the Industrielleneingabe had emerged at the end of October 1932 in the Keppler-Kreis and was supported by Heinrich Himmler, who worked as a liaison to Brown House. The drafting of the letter was aided by Hjalmar Schacht, the only member of the Keppler-Kreis with any significant political experience; the Industrielleneingabe was first published in 1956 in the Zeitschrift für Geschichtswissenschaft and is used as evidence to support the idea that big business played a central role in the rise of the Nazi Party.

The sixteen initial signatories were:1. Hjalmar Schacht, former president of the Reichsbank, member of the Keppler circle 2. Friedrich Reinhart, board spokesman of the Commerzbank, board member of the AEG, president of the Berlin Chamber of Industry and Commerce, member of the Keppler circle 3. August Rosterg, CEO of Wintershall AG, member of the Keppler circle 4. Kurt Baron von Schröder, private banker from Cologne, member of the Keppler circle and the Deutscher Herrenklub. Several weeks in his house, the decisive negotiations took place before Hitler's appointment as German Chancellor. 5. Fritz Beindorff, owner of the Pelikan AG, in the supervisory board of Deutsche Bank 6. Emil Helfferich, member in the board of the German-American Petroleum Company, Chairman of the Supervisory Board of HAPAG, member of the Keppler circle 7. Franz Heinrich Witthoefft, Chairman in the Board of Commerzbank and Privat-Bank, president of the Hamburg Chamber of Commerce, member of the Keppler circle 8. Ewald Hecker, president of the Hanover Chamber of Commerce and Industry, member of the Keppler circle 9.

Kurt Woermann, shipowner from Hamburg and member of the NSDAP 10. Carl Vincent Krogmann, co-owner of the Hamburger Bank, shipping company and trading house Wachsmuth and Krogmann, board member of the Hamburg National Club, mayor of Hamburg from 1933 to 1945, member of the Hamburg Chamber of Commerce and a member of the Keppler circle 11. Kurt von Eichborn, co-owner of a private bank in Breslau 12. Eberhard Graf von Kalckreuth, president of the Reichslandbund, member of the Deutscher Herrenklub 13. Erich Lübbert, senior executive of Dywidag, chairman of the AG für Verkehrswesen, member of the Economic Council in Stahlhelm 14. Erwin Merck, supervisor of H. J. Merck & Co. a Hamburg commercial bank 15. Joachim von Oppen, president of the Brandenburg Chamber of agriculture 16. Rudolf Ventzki, general director of Maschinenfabrik EsslingenSignatures of the following personalities have been submitted afterwards: 17. Fritz Thyssen, chairman of the Supervisory Board of Vereinigte Stahlwerke 18. Robert Graf von Keyserlingk-Cammerau, member of the board of the German agricultural employers' associations, member of the German men club 19.

Kurt Gustav Ernst von Rohr-Manze, landowner. Whether Engelbert Beckmann, the president of the Westphalian Land Association signed in any form is controversial. Secret Meeting of 20 February 1933 Keppler circle

Volvo Duett

The Duett is an automobile from Volvo, in production from 1953 to 1969. The name Duett was intended to signify a car that could be used as a delivery vehicle during the week and as a comfortable sedan away from work; the Duett was produced in three body styles: an estate car, a panel van, and, in small numbers, a bare chassis with no body from the windshield rearward. The design is based on the Volvo PV sedan and shares its engine and front suspension with that model. However, unlike the PV, which had a unibody design and a coil spring rear suspension, the Duett used a ladder frame with leaf springs supporting the rear. While the Duett has been criticized as a regressive design by those who point out that the ladder-frame car was based on Volvo's first unibodied car; the availability of the bare chassis allowed Swedish coach builders such as Grip and Nordbergs to build Duett-based pickup trucks and specialized commercial vehicles. The versatility of the ladder-frame design made the Duett a popular choice as a base for customized vehicles such as hot rods and EPA tractors.

The Duett was the only automobile marketed by Volvo in the United States. All other models were of unibody construction; the PV445's bodywork was based on the PV444 saloon car and shared its two-piece flat paned windshield. The P210 replaced the P445 in the fall of 1960, it is most distinguishable from the PV445 by its use of a single-piece curved windshield, which it shares with the PV544. The final P210 rolled off the line in 1969, four years after the end of production of the PV544 on which it was based; the Duett was replaced by the Volvo 145 Express

Heather Hurst

Heather Hurst is an American archaeologist and archaeological illustrator. She graduated from Skidmore College in 1997, from Yale University with a Ph. D. in anthropology. She teaches at Skidmore College, she has been an archaeological illustrator at sites in Honduras and Mexico. Her illustrations appeared in National Geographic and Arqueología Mexicana, have been exhibited at the Peabody Museum of Natural History and the National Gallery of Art, as well as the Science Museum of Minnesota's 2013 exhibit on the Maya, she gave a talk: "Tres Pintores Magníficos y Un Viajero: La Identificación de Artistas por los Pasos de Producción en Pintura Mural" at the 2010 Maya Meetings, Casa Herrera. In 2013 she gave a talk on discovered Maya murals. 2004 MacArthur Fellows Program Heather Hurst exploring the ruins of Temple XXVI