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Russian Revolution

The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire, commencing with the abolition of the monarchy in 1917, concluding in 1923 after the Bolshevik establishment of the Soviet Union, including national states of Ukraine and others, end of the Civil War. It began during the First World War, with the February Revolution, focused in and around Petrograd, the capital of Russia at that time; the revolution erupted in the context of Russia's major military losses during the War, which resulted in much of the Russian Army being ready to mutiny. In the chaos, members of the Duma, Russia's parliament, assumed control of the country, forming the Russian Provisional Government; this was dominated by the interests of the noble aristocracy. The army leadership felt they did not have the means to suppress the revolution, Emperor Nicholas II abdicated his throne. Grassroots community assemblies called'Soviets', which were dominated by soldiers and the urban industrial working class permitted the Provisional Government to rule, but insisted on a prerogative to influence the government and control various militias.

A period of dual power ensued, during which the Provisional Government held state power while the national network of Soviets, led by socialists, had the allegiance of the lower classes and the left-leaning urban middle class. During this chaotic period, there were frequent mutinies and strikes. Many socialist political organizations were engaged in daily struggle and vied for influence within the Duma and the Soviets, central among which were the Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Lenin, he campaigned for an immediate end of Russia's participation in the War, granting land to the peasants, providing bread to the urban workers. When the Provisional Government chose to continue fighting the war with Germany, the Bolsheviks and other socialist factions exploited the universal disdain towards the war effort as justification to advance the revolution further; the Bolsheviks turned workers' militias under their control into the Red Guards, over which they exerted substantial control. The situation climaxed with the October Revolution in 1917, a Bolshevik-led armed insurrection by workers and soldiers in Petrograd that overthrew the Provisional Government, transferring all its authority to the Soviets.

They soon relocated the national capital to Moscow. The Bolsheviks had secured a strong base of support within the Soviets and, as the supreme governing party, established a federal government dedicated to reorganizing the former empire into the world's first socialist state, to practice Soviet democracy on a national and international scale, their promise to end Russia's participation in the First World War was fulfilled when the Bolshevik leaders signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany in March 1918. To further secure the new state, the Bolsheviks established the Cheka, a secret police that functioned as a revolutionary security service to weed out, execute, or punish those considered to be "enemies of the people" in campaigns consciously modeled on those of the French Revolution. Soon after, civil war erupted among the "Reds", the "Whites", the independence movements, other socialist factions opposed to the Bolsheviks, it continued for several years, during which the Bolsheviks defeated both the Whites and all rival socialists.

Victorious, they reconstituted themselves as the Communist Party. They established Soviet power in the newly independent republics of Armenia, Belarus and Ukraine, they brought these jurisdictions into unification under the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1922. While many notable historical events occurred in Moscow and Petrograd, there were major changes in cities throughout the state, among national minorities throughout the empire and in the rural areas, where peasants took over and redistributed land; the Russian Revolution of 1905 was said to be a major factor contributing to the cause of the Revolutions of 1917. The events of Bloody Sunday triggered nationwide protests and soldier mutinies. A council of workers called. While the 1905 Revolution was crushed, the leaders of the St. Petersburg Soviet were arrested, this laid the groundwork for the Petrograd Soviet and other revolutionary movements during the lead up to 1917; the 1905 Revolution led to the creation of a Duma, that would form the Provisional Government following February 1917.

The outbreak of World War I prompted general outcry directed at Tsar Nicholas II and the Romanov family. While the nation was engaged in a wave of nationalism, increasing numbers of defeats and poor conditions soon flipped the nation's opinion; the Tsar attempted to remedy the situation by taking personal control of the army in 1915. This proved to be disadvantageous for the Tsar, as he was now held responsible for Russia's continuing defeats and losses. In addition, Tsarina Alexandra, left to rule in while the Tsar commanded at the front, was German born, leading to suspicion of collusion, only to be exacerbated by rumors relating to her relationship with the controversial mystic Grigori Rasputin. Rasputin's influence led to disastrous ministerial appointments and corruption, resulting in a worsening of conditions within Russia; this led to general dissatisfaction with the Romanov family, was a major factor contributing to the retaliation of the Russian Communists against the royal family. After the entry of the Ottoman Empire on the side of the Central Powers in October 191

USS Hodges (DE-231)

USS Hodges was a Rudderow-class destroyer escort in the United States Navy during World War II. Hodges was launched 9 December 1943 by the Charleston Navy Yard. Victor B. Staadecker in command. After shakedown off Bermuda, Hodges returned to Charleston before steaming to the British West Indies for antisubmarine patrol. After more operations along the East Coast, she sailed 14 October 1944 from New York, reaching New Guinea 20 November via the Panama Canal Zone. After operations off New Guinea, Hodges sailed 20 December for the Philippines where she took up antisubmarine patrol and escort duty. In early January 1945, Hodges sailed with Vice Admiral Daniel E. Barbey's San Fabian Attack Force for the landings at Lingayen Gulf, 9 January. Shortly after 0700, 9 January, as Hodges was on her screening station a kamikaze started a dive on her. Misjudging the target angle, the plane knocked down her foremast and radio antennas and splashed without inflicting a single casualty. Hodges made emergency repairs and continued providing air coverage—thus playing a key role in landing the 6th Infantry Division and General Wing's 43rd Division.

After repairs at Manus Hodges arrived Humboldt Bay, New Guinea, 15 February to escort a convoy to Leyte. Through the last of March she was assigned patrol and escort duty for convoys bringing in supplies to the Philippines. On 11 April, Hodges conducted shore bombardment on Japanese gun emplacements in the vicinity of Legaspi, Luzon for the remainder of April and May operated out of Manila Bay training with submarines. After more patrol and escort duty out of Subic Bay, Hodges sailed for Ulithi 26 June. From 1 July until 18 December she was assigned patrol and plane guard duty between Ulithi and Okinawa. Hodges departed Samar 18 December, arriving San Francisco 9 January 1946 via Eniwetok and Pearl Harbor. Hodges joined the Reserve Fleet. Hodges received one battle star for World War II service. List of destroyer escorts of the United States Navy This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships; the entry can be found here. Photo gallery at

Final Fantasy IX

Final Fantasy IX is a 2000 role-playing video game developed and published by Squaresoft for the PlayStation video game console. It is the ninth game in the main Final Fantasy series; the plot centers on the consequences of a war between nations in a medieval fantasy world called Gaia. Players follow bandit Zidane Tribal, who kidnaps Alexandrian princess Garnet Til Alexandros XVII as part of a gambit by the neighboring nation of Lindblum, he joins Garnet and a growing cast of characters on a quest to take down her mother, Queen Brahne of Alexandria, who started the war. The plot shifts when the player learns that Brahne is a pawn of a more menacing threat, who shares a mysterious history with Zidane spanning two worlds; the game was developed alongside Final Fantasy VIII. Envisioned by developers as a retrospective for the series, it departed from the futuristic settings of Final Fantasy VI, Final Fantasy VII, Final Fantasy VIII by returning to the medieval style of the earlier installments, it was influenced by the original Final Fantasy, features allusions to the rest of the games.

Despite this approach, the game did introduce new features to the series, such as "Active Time Event" cutscenes, "Mognet", skill systems. Final Fantasy IX was released to critical acclaim, it is cited by critics as one of the best Final Fantasy games, holds the highest Metacritic score of the series. Final Fantasy IX was commercially successful, selling more than 5.5 million copies on PlayStation by March 2016. It was re-released in 2010 as a PS1 Classic on the PlayStation Store. Ports featuring minor gameplay and graphical enhancements were released for various other platforms in the late 2010s. In Final Fantasy IX, the player navigates a character throughout the game world, exploring areas and interacting with non-player characters. Most of the game occurs on "field screens" consisting of pre-rendered backgrounds representing towns and dungeons. To aid exploration on the field screen, Final Fantasy IX introduces the "field icon", an exclamation mark appearing over their lead character's head, signalling an item or sign is nearby.

Players speak with moogles to record their progress, restore life energy with a tent and purchase items—a deviation from previous installments, which used a save point to perform these functions. Moogles can be contacted from the world map. Moogles may request the playable character deliver letters to other Moogles via Mognet, playable characters might receive letters from non-playable characters. Players journey between field screen locations on the world map, a three dimensional, downsized representation of Final Fantasy IX's world presented from a top-down perspective. Players can navigate around the world map screen unless restricted by terrain like bodies of water or mountain ranges. To overcome geographical limitations, players can ride sail on a boat or pilot airships. Like previous Final Fantasy installments, travel across the world map screen and hostile field screen locations is interrupted by random enemy encounters. Final Fantasy IX offers a new approach to town exploration with the introduction of Active Time Events.

These allow the player to view events unfolding at different locations, providing character development, special items and prompts for key story-altering decisions. ATE are used to control two teams when the party is divided to solve puzzles and navigate mazes. Whenever the playable character encounters an enemy, the map changes to the "battle screen". On the battle screen, the enemy appears on the opposite side of the characters; the character's command list is presented in a window opposite the ATB gauge list. For example, the thief Zidane can steal items from the enemy and Garnet can summon "eidolons" to aid the party and Vivi can use black magic to damage the opposition; these character-specific commands change when the player goes into "Trance mode", activated for a short duration when an uncontrollable gauge fills as character sustains damage in a style similar to the Limit Breaks used in Final Fantasy VII. When the gauge is full, the character's strength is amplified, the player can select special attack commands.

Zidane's "Skill" command list, for example, changes to "Dyne", allowing him to execute powerful attacks. Through the Configuration screen, the player can change the Battle Style from Normal to Custom, which allows two players to control any combination of characters during battle. However, two controllers must be plugged into the PlayStation. A character's performance in battle is determined by numerical values for categories like speed and magical power. Character statistics are driven by experience; when characters "level up", the statistics for their attributes permanently increase, which may be amplified by the types of equipment the character is wearing. Winning battles awards the player money, Tetra Master playing cards and ability points. Final Fantasy IX deviates from the style of customisable characters featured in the last two games by reviving the character class concept, which designates a character to a certain role in battle. For example, V

Battle of Sark

The Battle of Sark, alternatively called the Battle of Lochmaben Stone, was fought between England and Scotland in October 1448. A large battle, it was the first significant Scottish victory over the English in over half a century, following the Battle of Otterburn of 1388, it placed the Scots in a position of strength against the English for over a decade, until Edward IV ascended the English throne, it brought the powerful Douglas family to greater prominence in Scotland. After the 14th century Wars of Scottish Independence and Scotland continued to battle periodically along their borders. In 1448, hostilities escalated. Henry Percy, son of the Earl of Northumberland, destroyed Dunbar in May, in June the Earl of Salisbury, Lord Warden of the March destroyed Dumfries. In reaction, William Douglas, 8th Earl of Douglas mustered a force with the support of the earls of Ormonde and Orkney, destroying Warkworth and Alnwick; when the Scots advanced further into Cumberland and Northumberland, Henry VI authorized the Percies to retaliate.

The stage for the battle was set when, in October, the Earl of Northumberland led a troop of 6,000 men into Scotland, where they made camp near the Lochmaben Stone. Their location proved poorly chosen, as they settled in a tidal waterway between the River Sark and Kirtle Water. Among the Scots, Hugh Douglas, Earl of Ormonde, mustered a force of 4,000 from Annandale and Nithsdale, marching against Northumberland on 23 October 1448. Northumberland organized his troops in three divisions. Magnus Reidman, a celebrated veteran of the Hundred Years' War in France commanded one wing. Sir John Pennington, with a large group of Welshmen, formed the other wing; the bulk of the forces were in the center, commanded by Northumberland himself. Ormonde mirrored this arrangement. Ormonde had Sir William Wallace of Cragie oppose Magnus, against Sir John Pennington sent the knight of Carlaverock, called Lord Maxwell, Johnston of Laird of Johnston, with many inland gentlemen. Ormonde and his retinue opposed Northumberland at the centre.

Forces on both sides contained a large contingent of plate armored men at arms, some mounted. At the beginning of the engagement, the English opened fire, pelting the Scottish ranks with the arrows of the English longbow. After enduring some volleys, the Scots, in avoidance of a repeat of Homildon Hill, made a daring advance, it is said that Wallace cried out with a loud voice, so as he was heard by his followers, "why should we stand still thus to be wounded afar off? Follow me, says he, let us join in hand-strokes, where true valour is to be seen!" The Scots charged, at arm's length the English, being sorely pressed by axe and halberd, were routed, with Magnus being slain in the melee. When their ranks broke, they were caught by the rising tide. A great number of prisoners were taken, amongst whom were Sir John Pennington, Sir Robert Harrington, the Lord Percy son to the Earl of Northumberland, taken while he helped his father to his horse, who thereby escaped capture. Different sources report the number of Scots who lost their lives in the engagement variously: from as few as 26 to as many as 600 The History of Scotland.

The number of English deaths in the same sources varies from 2,000 to 3,000 killed and drowned (The History of Scotland. In the light of the nature of the battle 26 casualties for the Scots seems far too low, given the barrage of arrows and the death of Wallace of Cragie and Reidman, both Scottish and English commanding officers respectively; this wouldn't happen unless there was a heavy engagement. A larger number of scholarly sources seem to prefer numbers given by Pitscottie. Brenan, Gerald A History of the House of Percy, from the Earliest Times Down to the Present Century, Volume 1 1902. Pg.101 | Griffiths, R. A; the Reign of Henry VI, 1981. Hodgkin, T; the Warden of the Northern Marches, 1908. Neilson, G; the Battle of Sark, in Transactions of the Dumfriesshire and Galloway Antiquarian and Natural History Society, vol. 13 1898. Paterson, Raymond Campbell, My Wound is Deep: History of the Anglo-Scottish Wars, 1380-1560, 1997. Historic Environment Scotland. "Battle of Sark"

Red River Broadcasting

Red River Broadcasting is a television broadcasting company based in Fargo, North Dakota. It operates Fox affiliates in the Fargo, North Dakota and Duluth, Minnesota–Superior, Wisconsin television markets. Curtis Squire, Inc. a holding company in Eden Prairie, owns 100% of Red River Broadcasting. The company, which owned Regis Corporation, is owned by Anita, David and James Kunin. Kathy Lau is the COO. In addition to television stations, Red River Broadcasting once operated radio stations through a sister company named Red Rock Radio. At its height, Red Rock Radio owned a total of 25 stations in Wisconsin. However, following the death of Myron Kunin in 2013, his surviving family members decided to liquidate his broadcasting assets and sold the stations to various buyers. KQDS, Duluth KQDS-FM, Duluth KAOD, Babbitt KBAJ, Deer River WXXZ, Grand Marais WWAX, Hermantown KZIO, Two Harbors KGHS, International Falls KSDM, International Falls KGPZ, Coleraine KRBT, Eveleth WEVE-FM, Eveleth KFGI, Crosby KLKS, Breezy Point WWWI, Baxter WWWI-FM, Pillager KKIN, Aitkin KKIN-FM, Aitkin WCMP, Pine City WCMP-FM, Pine City WLMX-FM, Balsam Lake WXCX, Siren WHSM, Hayward WHSM-FM, Hayward WXCE, Amery

Thorvald Madsen

Thorvald John Marius Madsen was a Danish physician and bacteriologist. Madsen was the director of Statens Serum Institut from 1910 to 1940, he was the son of General V. H. O. Madsen. During World War I, Thorvald Madsen in his capacity as director of Statens Serum Institut was involved in humanitarian work for prisoners of war. From 1916 onwards Madsen did several inspection visits to detention centers in Russia, where conditions were questionable. During these travels brought Thorvald Madsen, among other things excess serum against various diseases. In addition, Madsen helped more Danish-Schleswigers, in German military service and ended up a prisoner of war. Thorvald Madsen was involved in the work of selecting sick prisoners of war who were sent to Denmark as part of the conditions of prisoner exchanges between, on the one hand, Austria-Hungary and Germany on the other hand, Russia. In the years 1921-1937 was Thorvald Madsen, president of the League of Nations Health Committee; the current WHO relies on the Health Commission's work.

Madsen was Knight of the Dannebrog in 1902, Dannebrogsmand 1918, the Commander of the 2nd degree in 1920, of 1 degree in 1927 and received the Grand Cross 1937. He is buried in Garrison Cemetery. Iris Borowy & Anne Hardy, Of medicine and men: biographies and ideas in European social medicine between the World Wars, P. Lang, 2008. Article "Thorvald Madsen" pp. 179–185 in Dansk Biografisk Leksikon, 2nd ed. vol. 15, 1938