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Russian conquest of Siberia

The Russian conquest of Siberia took place in the 16th and 17th centuries, when the Khanate of Sibir had become a loose political structure of vassalages that were being undermined by the activities of Russian explorers. Although outnumbered, the Russians pressured the various family-based tribes into changing their loyalties and establishing distant forts from which they conducted raids. To counter this, Kuchum Khan attempted to centralize his rule by imposing Islam on his subjects and reforming his tax-collecting apparatus; the Russian conquest of Siberia began in July 1580 when some 540 Cossacks under Yermak Timofeyevich invaded the territory of the Voguls, subjects to Küçüm, the Khan of Siberia. They were accompanied by 300 Lithuanian and German slave laborers, whom the Stroganovs had purchased from the tsar. Throughout 1581, this force traversed the territory known as Yugra and subdued Vogul and Ostyak towns. At this time, they captured a tax collector of Küçüm. Following a series of Tatar raids in retaliation against the Russian advance, Yermak's forces prepared for a campaign to take Qashliq, the Siberian capital.

The force embarked in May 1582. After a three-day battle on the banks of the river Irtysh, Yermak was victorious against a combined force of Küçüm Khan and six allied Tatar princes. On 29 June, the Cossack forces again repelled them. Throughout September 1582, the Khan gathered his forces for a defense of Qashliq. A horde of Siberian Tatars and Ostyaks massed at Mount Chyuvash to defend against invading Cossacks. On 1 October, a Cossack attempt to storm the Tatar fort at Mount Chyuvash was held off. On 23 October, the Cossacks attempted to storm the Tatar fort at Mount Chyuvash for a fourth time when the Tatars counterattacked. More than a hundred Cossacks were killed, but their gunfire forced a Tatar retreat and allowed the capture of two Tatar cannons; the forces of the Khan retreated, Yermak entered Qashliq on 26 October. Kuchum Khan over the next few years regrouped his forces, he attacked Yermak on 6 August 1584 in the dead of night and defeated most of his army. The details are disputed with Russian sources claiming Yermak was wounded and tried to escape by swimming across the Wagay River, a tributary of the Irtysh River, but drowned under the weight of his own chainmail.

The remains of Yermak's forces under the command of Mescheryak retreated from Qashliq, destroying the city as they left. In 1586 the Russians returned, after subduing the Khanty and Mansi people through the use of their artillery they established a fortress at Tyumen close to the ruins of Qashliq; the Tatar tribes that were submissive to Küçüm Khan suffered from several attacks by the Russians between 1584–1595. In August 1598 Küçüm Khan was defeated at the Battle of Urmin near the river Ob. In the course of the fight, the Siberian royal family was captured by the Russians. However, Küçüm Khan escaped yet again; the Russians took the family members of Küçüm Khan to Moscow and there they remained as hostages. The descendants of the khan's family became known as the Princes Sibirsky and the family is known to have survived until at least the late 19th century. Despite his personal escape, the capture of his family ended the political and military activities of Küçüm Khan and he retreated to the territories of the Nogay Horde in southern Siberia.

He had been in contact with the tsar and had requested that a small region on the banks of the Irtysh River would be granted as his dominion. This was rejected by the tsar who proposed to Küçüm Khan that he come to Moscow and "comfort himself" in the service of the tsar. However, the old khan did not want to suffer from such contempt and preferred staying in his own lands to "comforting himself" in Moscow. Küçüm Khan went to Bokhara and as an old man became blind, dying in exile with distant relatives sometime around 1605. In order to subjugate the natives and collect yasak, a series of winter outposts and forts were built at the confluences of major rivers and streams and important portages; the first among these were Tyumen and Tobolsk — the former built in 1586 by Vasilii Sukin and Ivan Miasnoi, the latter the following year by Danilo Chulkov. Tobolsk would become the nerve center of the conquest. To the north Beryozovo and Mangazeya were built to bring the Nenets under tribute, while to the east Surgut and Tara were established to protect Tobolsk and subdue the ruler of the Narym Ostiaks.

Of these, Mangazeya was the most prominent. Advancing up the Ob and its tributaries, the ostrogs of Ketsk and Tomsk were built. Ketsk sluzhilye liudi reached the Yenisei in 1605. By 1610 men from Turukhansk had reached the mouth of the Yenisei and ascended it as far as the Sym, where they met rival tribute collectors from Ketsk. To ensure subjugation of the natives, the ostrogs of Yeniseysk and Krasnoyarsk were established. Following the khan's death and the dissolution of any organised Siberian resistance, the Russians advanced first towards Lake Baikal and the Sea of Okhotsk and the Amur River. However, when they first reached the Chinese border they encountered people that were equipped with artillery pieces and here they halted; the Russians reached the Pacific Ocean in 1639. After the conquest of the Siberian Khanate the whole of northern Asia – an area much larger than the old khanate – became known as Siberia and by 1640 the eastern borders of Russia had exp

The Keane Brothers

The Keane Brothers was an American pop music duo from 1976 to 1982, composed of pre-teens Tom Keane on piano and John Keane on drums. The duo released four albums and hosted a television variety show on CBS; the brothers subsequently went on to solo careers as songwriters and music producers. Tom and John Keane of Los Angeles, were the sons of Bob Keane, the founder of Del-Fi Records. After the elder Keane closed his record label, he promoted the boys as a bubblegum pop band; the Keane Brothers’ first single, “Sherry” was released in 1976, followed by a self-titled debut album in 1977. During the summer of 1977, John, 12 years and Tom, 13 years became the youngest people to host a prime-time variety television program; the Keane Brothers Show aired on CBS for four weeks in 1977 as a summer replacement for the Wonder Woman show. Between the years of 1977 and 1982, the brothers released four albums; the second album, Taking Off, was released in 1978 with a disco sound and produced by songwriter Lamont Dozier.

In 1981, the group added Mark Moulin on guitars and Mike Millwood on bass and shortened its name to Keane. The third album was titled Keane. In 1982, the group released the album Today, Tomorrow And Tonight with Moulin and Jason Scheff on bass; the brothers disbanded the duo, instead pursued solo careers. John composes music for television, including The Sentinel, CSI: Crime Scene Investigation and The Amazing Race. For the CSI series, Keane was nominated for the 2007 Emmy as well as 12 ASCAP awards, he became a session drummer in Los Angeles, recording music with various musicians including Chicago, Michael Bolton, David Foster and Cher. He released two solo albums: Any Other World in 1996 and Straight Away in 1999. In 2010, John M. Keane released a solo album on Laycut Records titled Everything Changed. Tom has collaborated as writer and musician with many producers and artists, such as: David Foster, Burt Bacharach, Peter Allen, George Benson, Kenny Rogers, Patti LaBelle, Chicago, Al Jarreau, Patti Austin, Jermaine Jackson, Chaka Khan, Barbra Streisand, Celine Dion.

Tom Keane has been awarded a Grammy nomination for Chaka Khan's hit “Through the Fire”, which he co-wrote with David Foster and Cynthia Weil and a Golden Globe nomination for the soundtrack to the 1987 film, The Secret of My Success. The song “Will You Still Love Me?”, recorded by Chicago, who had added Tom’s former Keane bandmate, Jason Scheff, to the lineup, was co-written by Tom, David Foster and Richard Baskin. Scheff performed lead vocals on the track. Tom issued a pair of solo albums in the early 2000s. In 2000, he released I Love a Gershwin Tune, which features covers of several classic works by George Gershwin. A second album featuring his own versions of songs he had written and Juicy Covers followed in 2001. Tracks on this latter album include “Will You Still Love Me?” as well as the Chaka Khan classic, “Through the Fire”. In 2007, Tom opened. 2011 saw the release of “Hoodwinked Too!” A Weinstein Company animated feature release, the sequel to the 2005 release, Hoodwinked. Tom produced the two pop songs in the film sung by Hayden Panettiere of Heroes fame.

FilmZapped! Two of a Kind Kidd Video St. Elmo’s Fire White Nights The Secret of My Succe$s Win Win Hoodwinked Too! Hood vs. Evil Spotlight AnimeOne Pound Gospel After War Gundam X Chōja Reideen The Dog of Flanders Silent Möbius Tom Keane on IMDb The Keane Brothers at Anime News Network's encyclopedia TV Commercials for The Keane Brothers

Financial Industry Regulatory Authority

In the United States, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. is a private corporation that acts as a self-regulatory organization. FINRA is the successor to the National Association of Securities Dealers, Inc. and the member regulation and arbitration operations of the New York Stock Exchange. It is a non-governmental organization; the government agency which acts as the ultimate regulator of the securities industry, including FINRA, is the Securities and Exchange Commission. The Financial Industry Regulatory Authority is the largest independent regulator for all securities firms doing business in the United States. FINRA's mission is to protect investors by making sure the United States securities industry operates and honestly. FINRA oversees about 4,250 brokerage firms, about 162,155 branch offices and 629,525 registered securities representatives. FINRA has 3,400 employees and operates from Washington, D. C. and New York, NY, with 20 regional offices around the country. FINRA offers regulatory oversight over all securities firms that do business with the public, plus those offering professional training and licensing of registered persons and mediation, market regulation by contract for the New York Stock Exchange, the NASDAQ Stock Market, Inc. the American Stock Exchange LLC, the International Securities Exchange, LLC.

FINRA was formed by a consolidation of the member regulation and arbitration operations of the New York Stock Exchange, NYSE Regulation, Inc. and NASD. The merger was approved by the United States Securities and Exchange Commission on July 26, 2007; the NASD was founded in 1939 and was registered with the SEC in response to the 1938 Maloney Act amendments to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, which allowed it to supervise the conduct of its members subject to the oversight of the SEC. In 1971, NASD launched a new computerized stock trading system called the National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations stock market; the NYSE and AMEX stock exchanges merged in 1998. Two years the NASDAQ underwent a major recapitalization and became an independent entity from NASD. In July 2007, the SEC approved the formation of a new SRO to be a successor to NASD; the NASD and the member regulation and arbitration functions of the New York Stock Exchange were consolidated into the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority.

The FINRA By-Laws provide that the FINRA Board must consist of the chief executive officer of FINRA, the chief executive officer of NYSE Regulation, eleven public governors, ten industry governors, including a floor member governor, an independent dealer/insurance affiliate governor, an investment company affiliate governor, three small firm governors, one mid-size firm governor, three large-firm governors. The small firm governors, mid-size firm governor, large-firm governors are elected by members of FINRA according to their classification as a small firm, mid-size firm, or large firm. FINRA regulates trading in equities, corporate bonds, securities futures, options. All firms dealing in securities that are not regulated by another SRO, such as by the Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board, are required to be member firms of the FINRA; as part of its regulatory authority FINRA periodically conducts regulatory exams of its regulated institutions. FINRA released its tenth annual Regulatory and Examinations Priorities Letter for 2015, which impacts broker-dealers as well as their affiliated insurance companies and banks.

In its Regulatory and Examinations Priorities Letter for 2015 FINRA has identified variable annuities as a significant area of focus for exams in 2015, has pointed out particular elements of sales practices that will be reviewed. FINRA licenses individuals and admits firms to the industry, writes rules to govern their behavior, examines them for regulatory compliance, is sanctioned by the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission to discipline registered representatives and member firms that fail to comply with federal securities laws and FINRA's rules and regulations, it provides qualification examinations to industry professionals. It sells outsourced regulatory products and services to a number of stock markets and exchanges. NASD, the predecessor of FINRA, founded the NASDAQ stock market in 1971. In 2006, NASD demutualized from NASDAQ by selling its ownership interest; the NASD, now FINRA, publishes much educational information for the public and has been publishing and disclosing the education and exam requirements for USA based credentials, charters and certifications that are offered by SROs for about a decade.

On behalf of state securities regulators, FINRA maintains the Central Registration Depository, the central database containing records for all firms and individuals involved in the securities industry in the United States. FINRA had total revenues of US$878.6 million in 2012. FINRA is funded by assessments of member firms' registered representatives and applicants, annual fees paid by members, by fines that it levies; the annual fee that each member pays includes a basic membership fee, an assessment based on gross income, a fee for each principal and registered representative, charge for each branch office. According to a study by Deborah G. Heilizer and Brian L. Rubin, partners at the Washington, D. C. law firm Sutherland Asbill & Brennan LLP, regulat

Historic City of Ahmadabad

The Historic City of Ahmadabad or Old Ahmedabad, the walled city of Ahmedabad in India, was founded by Ahmad Shah I of Gujarat Sultanate in 1411. It remained the capital of the Gujarat Sultanate and important political and commercial centre of Gujarat. Today, despite having become crowded and dilapidated, it still serves as the symbolic heart of metropolitan Ahmedabad, it was inscribed as the World Heritage City by UNESCO in July 2017. The earliest settlements were situated in south of current old city and on the bank of Sabarmati river, it was known as Ashapalli. Asha Bhil Was king of Ashaval. In the eleventh century, Karna of Chaulukya dynasty ruling from Anhilwad Patan made the town his capital and named it Karnavati or Shrinagar and Rajnagar. Ahmed Shah I laid the foundation of Bhadra Fort starting from Manek Burj, the first bastion of the city in 1411, completed in 1413, he established the first square of the city, Manek Chowk, both associated with the legend of Hindu saint Maneknath. His Gujarat Sultanate ruled from the city until 1484.

His grandson Mahmud Begada transferred capital from Ahmedabad to Muhammadabad from 1484 to 1535 but carried out second fortification of the city. Ahmedabad again became capital of sultanate until it fell to Mughals in 1573. During Mughal rule, Bhadra Fort served as the seat of Governor of Gujarat; the city flourished with addition of several settlements around the city. Of the population of the city no estimate has been traced. There is some estimate of the size of city in works of the time: Ferishta, the Ain-i-Akbari, the Mirat-i-Ahmadi. According to the Ain-i-Akbari, there were 360 puras, of which only eighty-four were flourishing. German traveller Mandelslo mentioned the suburbs and dependent villages are nearly seven leagues round. During Mughal and Maratha struggle to control the city, the city was harmed and several suburbs were depopulated; the city walls damaged in battles and the trade was affected. The city revenue was divided between Maratha rulers. During Maratha rule, the city revenue was divided between Peshwa and Gaekwad.

These affected economy of the city due to more extraction of taxes. In 1817, Ahmedabad fell under British Company rule which stabilized the city politically and improved the trade; the population rose from 80,000 in 1817 to about 88,000 in 1824. During the eight following years a special cess was levied on ghee and other products and at a cost of £25,000 the city walls were repaired. About the same time a cantonment was established on a site to the north of the city; the population rose to about 95,000. The public funds available after the walls were finished were made use of for municipal purposes; the old city continued to the centre of political activities during Indian independence movement under Mahatma Gandhi. Square in form, enclosing an area of about forty-three acres, the Bhadra fort had eight gates, three large, two in the east and one in the south-west corner; the construction of Jama Masjid, Ahmedabad completed in 1423. As the city expanded, the city wall was expanded. So the second fortification was carried out by Mahmud Begada in 1486, the grandson of Ahmed Shah, with an outer wall 10 km in circumference and consisting of 12 gates, 189 bastions and over 6,000 battlements as described in Mirat-i-Ahmadi.

The city walls of second fortification, running on the west for about a mile and three quarters along the bank of the Sabarmati, stretching east in semi-circular form, include an area of two square miles in past. Most people believe that Ahmedabad had 12 gates but some historian suggested to have 16; some Indologist found that Ahmedabad had 21 gates. Bhadra fort had two in the east and one in the south-west corner. In the city walls of second fort, there were three small. Of the fifteen, one was closed, two were added later; these gates were, beginning from the north-west corner, three in the north-wall, the Shahpur in the north-west, the Delhi in the north, the Dariyapur in the north-east. Two new gates, Prem Darwaja and Panchkuva Gate added by British after opening of railways in 1864. A Pol is a typical housing cluster of the old city. There are as many as 356 pols described in historical works; the form of housing cluster was established during the divided Mughal-Maratha rule due to religious tension between Hindu and Muslims.

Afterwards, when the city walls ceased to shelter from robbers, the pol gate and watch became necessary protection. Chabutro is a unique pole like structure for feedi


KUPL is a commercial FM radio station in Portland, Oregon. The station is owned by Alpha Media and airs a country music radio format, known as "98.7 The Bull." KUPL's studios and offices are located in Downtown Portland on SW 5th Avenue. The transmitter is on SW Barnes Road; the effective radiated power is 24,000 watts. On June 6, 1948, the station signed on as KPOJ-FM at 98.7 MHz. It was operated by The Oregon Journal, it was powered at 44,000 watts and simulcast co-owned AM 1330 KPOJ, a network affiliate of the Mutual Broadcasting System and the Don Lee Network. It moved one spot lower on the FM dial, to 98.5 MHz, on March 27, 1964. On August 15, 1968, KPOJ-FM changed its call sign to KPOK-FM, it played oldies and called itself "The Golden Sound." On June 18, 1973, KPOK-FM changed its format from oldies to beautiful music as "98-FM." On July 11, 1973, the call letters switched to KUPL-FM while AM 1330 aired country music using the KUPL call sign. The beautiful music on 98.5 lasted more than a decade.

In 1982, KUPL-AM-FM were acquired by the Scripps Howard Broadcasting. On March 16, 1984, after 10 years as an easy listening station, KUPL-FM dropped the format and joined its AM counterpart as a country music station; the moniker was "K98, Continuous Hit Country." The station would be known as "Couple 98" by pronouncing the call letters KUPL. In 1996, the stations changed hands again. On September 4, 1997, KUPL-FM moved back from 98.5 MHz to its original frequency. Over the course of the next decade the station would rebrand various times including "98.7 KUPL" and "New Country 98-7 KUPL". In 1995, the AM station was sold for $2 million to Crawford Broadcasting, which switched it to a Christian radio format as KKPZ. In 1998, KUPL-FM was acquired by CBS Radio. In August 2009, CBS sold its Portland cluster to newly formed Alpha Media. Radio vet Scott Mahalick was hired to program KUPL-FM. On September 16, 2010, the "-FM" suffix was removed from the station's callsign. In March 2011, the station began using the slogan "98-7 KUPL, #1 For The Most New Country."

On January 10, 2013 at midnight, the station dropped the "98-7 KUPL" branding for "98-7 The Bull." It only uses the actual callsign during legal station identifications. List of radio stations in Oregon Official KUPL website Query the FCC's FM station database for KUPL Radio-Locator information on KUPL Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for KUPL

Homer City Generating Station

Homer City Generating Station is a 2-GW coal-burning power station near Homer City, in Indiana County, Pennsylvania, USA. It is operated by NRG Energy. Units 1 and 2, rated at 660 MWe, began operation in 1969. Unit 3, rated at 692 MWe nameplate capacity, was launched in 1977, it employs about 260 people, generates enough electricity to supply two million households. The station is located in Center Township, Indiana County, occupying 2,400 acres; the site includes the 1,800-acre Two Lick Reservoir, a water conservation facility, operated by the station. As of 2005, bituminous coal was delivered to the Homer City Generating Station by truck. Units 1 and 2 burned Western Pennsylvania Pittsburgh seam coal, but now with diminishing local coal and mines to support it, the train track that runs through Indiana University of Pennsylvania has reopened and now supplies are brought in by train. A flue-gas desulfurization unit was added to Unit 3; until its construction in the 1960s by the Pennsylvania Electric Co. and others, much of the property was owned by the George family.

In 1969, Units #1 and #2 began operation, while Unit #3 began operating in 1977. In 2001, affiliates of General Electric bought the plant from Edison, subsequently leased it back to them. In 2011, Edison International failed to secure financing to add pollution-control devices and announced plans to transfer full control to General Electric. On February 29, 2012, Edison took a $1 billion impairment charge related to the Homer City plant and several other coal-fired power plants. At the end of 2012 full control of the plant was transferred back to General Electric, which hired an NRG affiliate to operate it. In early 2017, the plant filed for bankruptcy protection. Boiler water make up, condenser cooling water, potable water is taken from Two Lick Creek, processed through various pretreatment facilities and discharged through various environmental treatment facilities, returned to Two Lick Creek and Blacklick Creek. From there, the Black Lick enters the Conemaugh River, which goes on to meet the Loyalhanna River, creating the Kiskiminetas River, before entering the Allegheny River.

A scrubber was added in 1998. In 2012, General Electric, through contractors, began construction of anti-pollution control equipment known as "scrubbers" to further reduce the plant's emissions. In 1995, Homer City discharged 127,383 pounds of SO2. In 2003, Homer City discharged 151,262 pounds of SO2 and was ranked SO2 the fourth-largest SO2 polluter in the nation; the scrubbers that the plant is installing will make Homer City one of the nation's cleanest coal-fired power plants. In 2005, the facility was rankedTemplate:By Who? as the nation's sixth-highest SO2 polluter as it discharged only 119,771 pounds of SO2 that year. In 2007, the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection fined the owners of the Homer City electricity generating station, EME Homer City Generation LP, $200,000 for violating the Pennsylvania Clean Streams Law; the station exceeded its permitted effluent standards for selenium, total suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand in its wastewater discharges, allowed discharges of stormwater associated with its flue-gas desulfurization scrubbers.

Homer City's three coal boilers installed Selective Catalytic Reduction to reduce ozone-forming NOx emissions in 2000 and 2001. This technology produced up to an 83% reduction in NOx emissions in subsequent years. Since the optimum years of 2005-06, emissions have begun to creep back up towards what they were before the installation of this technology. During the summer of 2012 plant emissions of NOx doubled over the 2005-06 period from 2,300 tons to 4,500 tons as electrical generation fell by 30%. Through this same period, the price of natural gas, which competes with coal as a fuel for electrical generation, fell by some 60%. Through the 2013 summer ozone season, this trend in rising emission rates continued resulting in over 6,300 tons of NOx emissions in excess of what could have been achieved had the plant operated at its demonstrated optimum rates seen in 2005-06; the plant's Unit 3 has a 371 m tall chimney, built in 1977. This chimney is the third-tallest chimney in the world, the second-tallest in North America, the tallest in the United States.

On clear days, it is possible to spot the chimney from as far south as Greensburg, as far east as Ebensburg, Pennsylvania. The chimney is no longer in use, as the gas flow from Unit 3 has been bypassed through a newer flue gas treatment system installed in 2002. List of largest power stations in the United States List of power stations in Pennsylvania 2005 toxic output numbers Post Gazette article Pennsylvania plant rankings