Mercedes-Benz is a German global automobile marque and a division of Daimler AG. The brand is known for luxury vehicles, buses and trucks; the headquarters is in Baden-Württemberg. The name first appeared in 1926 under Daimler-Benz. In 2018, Mercedes-Benz was the biggest selling premium vehicle brand in the world, having sold 2.31 million passenger cars. Mercedes-Benz traces its origins to Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft's 1901 Mercedes and Karl Benz's 1886 Benz Patent-Motorwagen, regarded as the first gasoline-powered automobile; the slogan for the brand is "the best or nothing". Mercedes-Benz traces its origins to Karl Benz's creation of the first petrol-powered car, the Benz Patent Motorwagen, financed by Bertha Benz and patented in January 1886, Gottlieb Daimler and engineer Wilhelm Maybach's conversion of a stagecoach by the addition of a petrol engine that year; the Mercedes automobile was first marketed in 1901 by Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft. Emil Jellinek, an Austrian automobile entrepreneur who worked with DMG, created the trademark in 1902, naming the 1901 Mercedes 35 hp after his daughter Mercedes Jellinek.
Jellinek was a businessman and marketing strategist who promoted "horseless" Daimler automobiles among the highest circles of society in his adopted home, which, at that time, was a meeting place for the "Haute Volée" of France and Europe in winter. His customers included other well-known personalities, but Jellinek's plans went further: as early as 1901, he was selling Mercedes cars in the New World as well, including US billionaires Rockefeller, Astor and Taylor. At a race in Nice in 1899, Jellinek drove under the pseudonym "Monsieur Mercédès", a way of concealing the competitor's real name as was normal and regularly done in those days; the race ranks as the hour of birth of the Mercedes-Benz brand. In 1901, the name "Mercedes" was registered by Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft worldwide as a protected trademark; the first Mercedes-Benz brand name vehicles were produced in 1926, following the merger of Karl Benz's and Gottlieb Daimler's companies into the Daimler-Benz company on 28 June of the same year.
Gottlieb Daimler was born on 17 March 1834 in Schorndorf. After training as a gunsmith and working in France, he attended the Polytechnic School in Stuttgart from 1857 to 1859. After completing various technical activities in France and England, he started working as a draftsman in Geislingen in 1862. At the end of 1863, he was appointed workshop inspector in a machine tool factory in Reutlingen, where he met Wilhelm Maybach in 1865. Throughout the 1930s, Mercedes-Benz produced the 770 model, a car, popular during Germany's Nazi period. Adolf Hitler was known to have driven these cars during his time in power, with bulletproof windshields. Most of the surviving models have been sold at auctions to private buyers. One of them is on display at the War Museum in Ottawa, Ontario; the pontiff's Popemobile has been sourced from Mercedes-Benz. In 1944, 46,000 forced laborers were used in Daimler-Benz's factories to bolster Nazi war efforts; the company paid $12 million in reparations to the laborers' families.
Mercedes-Benz has introduced many technological and safety innovations that became common in other vehicles. Mercedes-Benz is one of the best-known and established automotive brands in the world. For information relating to the famous three-pointed star, see under the title Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft, including the merger into Daimler-Benz; as part of the Daimler AG company, the Mercedes-Benz Cars division includes Mercedes-Benz and Smart car production. Mercedes-AMG became a majority owned division of Mercedes-Benz in 1999; the company was integrated into DaimlerChrysler in 1999, became Mercedes-Benz AMG beginning on 1 January 1999. Daimler's ultra-luxury brand Maybach was under Mercedes-Benz cars division until 2013, when the production stopped due to poor sales volumes, it now exists under the Mercedes-Maybach name, with the models being ultra-luxury versions of Mercedes cars, such as the 2016 Mercedes-Maybach S600. Daimler cooperates with BYD Auto to sell a battery-electric car called Denza in China.
In 2016, Daimler announced plans to sell. Beside its native Germany, Mercedes-Benz vehicles are manufactured or assembled in: Since its inception, Mercedes-Benz has maintained a reputation for its quality and durability. Objective measures looking at passenger vehicles, such as J. D. Power surveys, demonstrated a downturn in reputation in these criteria in the late 1990s and early 2000s. By mid-2005, Mercedes temporarily returned to the industry average for initial quality, a measure of problems after the first 90 days of ownership, according to J. D. Power. In J. D. Power's Initial Quality Study for the first quarter of 2007, Mercedes showed dramatic improvement by climbing from 25th to 5th place and earning several awards for its models. For 2008, Mercedes-Benz's initial quality rating improved to fourth place. On top of this accolade, it received the Platinum Plant Quality Award for its Mercedes’ Sindelfingen, Germany assembly plant. J. D. Power's 2011 US Initial Quality and Vehicle Dependability Studies both ranked Mercedes-Benz vehicles above average in build quality and reliability.
In the 2011 UK J. D. Power Survey, Mercedes cars were rated above average. A 2014 iSeeCars.com study for Reuters found Mercedes to have the lowest vehicle recall rate. Mercedes-Benz offers a full range of light commercial and heavy commercial equipment. Vehicles are manufactured in multiple countries worldwide; the Smart marque of city cars are produced by Daimler AG
Riga is the capital and largest city of Latvia. With 637,827 inhabitants, it is the largest city in the three Baltic states, home to one third of Latvia's population and one tenth of the three Baltic states' combined population; the city lies at the mouth of the Daugava river. Riga's territory lies 1 -- 10 m above sea level, on a flat and sandy plain. Riga is a former Hanseatic League member. Riga's historical centre is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, noted for its Art Nouveau/Jugendstil architecture and 19th century wooden architecture. Riga was the European Capital of Culture along with Umeå in Sweden. Riga hosted the 2006 NATO Summit, the Eurovision Song Contest 2003, the 2006 IIHF Men's World Ice Hockey Championships and the 2013 World Women's Curling Championship, it is home to the European Union's office of European Regulators for Electronic Communications. In 2016, Riga received over 1.4 million visitors. It is served by the largest and busiest airport in the Baltic states. Riga is a member of Eurocities, the Union of the Baltic Cities and Union of Capitals of the European Union.
One theory about the origin of the name Riga is that it is a corrupted borrowing from the Liv ringa meaning loop, referring to the ancient natural harbour formed by the tributary loop of the Daugava River. The other is that Riga owes its name to this already-established role in commerce between East and West, as a borrowing of the Latvian rija, for threshing barn, the "j" becoming a "g" in German — notably, Riga is called Rie by English geographer Richard Hakluyt, German historian Dionysius Fabricius confirms the origin of Riga from rija. Another theory could be that Riga was named after Riege, the German name for the River Rīdzene, a tributary of the Daugava. Another theory is that Riga's name is introduced by the bishop Albert, initiator of christening and conquest of Livonian and Baltic people, he introduced an explanation of city name as derived from Latin rigata that symbolizes an "irrigation of dry pagan souls by Christianity". The river Daugava has been a trade route since antiquity, part of the Vikings' Dvina-Dnieper navigation route to Byzantium.
A sheltered natural harbour 15 km upriver from the mouth of the Daugava — the site of today's Riga — has been recorded, as Duna Urbs, as early as the 2nd century. It was settled by an ancient Finnic tribe. Riga began to develop as a centre of Viking trade during the early Middle Ages. Riga's inhabitants occupied themselves with fishing, animal husbandry, trading developing crafts; the Livonian Chronicle of Henry testifies to Riga having long been a trading centre by the 12th century, referring to it as portus antiquus, describes dwellings and warehouses used to store flax, hides. German traders began visiting Riga, establishing a nearby outpost in 1158. Along with German traders the monk Meinhard of Segeberg arrived to convert the Livonian pagans to Christianity. Catholic and Orthodox Christianity had arrived in Latvia more than a century earlier, many Latvians baptised. Meinhard settled among the Livs, building a castle and church at Ikšķile, upstream from Riga, established his bishopric there.
The Livs, continued to practice paganism and Meinhard died in Ikšķile in 1196, having failed in his mission. In 1198, the Bishop Berthold arrived with a contingent of crusaders and commenced a campaign of forced Christianization. Berthold died soon afterwards and his forces defeated; the Church mobilised to avenge the issuance of a bull by Pope Innocent III declaring a crusade against the Livonians. Bishop Albert was proclaimed Bishop of Livonia by his uncle Hartwig of Uthlede, Prince-Archbishop of Bremen and Hamburg in 1199. Albert landed in Riga in 1200 with 500 Westphalian crusaders. In 1201, he transferred the seat of the Livonian bishopric from Ikšķile to Riga, extorting agreement to do this from the elders of Riga by force; the year 1201 marked the first arrival of German merchants in Novgorod, via the Dvina. To defend territory and trade, Albert established the Order of Livonian Brothers of the Sword in 1202, open to nobles and merchants; the Christianization of the Livs continued. In 1207, Albert started to fortify the town.
Emperor Philip invested Albert with Livonia as a principality of the Holy Roman Empire. To promote a permanent military presence, territorial ownership was divided between the Church and the Order, with the Church taking Riga and two-thirds of all lands conquered and granting the Order a third; until it had been customary for crusaders to serve for a year and return home. Albert had ensured Riga's commercial future by obtaining papal bulls which decreed that all German merchants had to carry on their Baltic trade through Riga. In 1211, Riga minted its first coinage, Albert laid the cornerstone for the Riga Dom. Riga was not yet secure. In 1212, Albert led a campaign to compel Polotsk to grant German merchants free river passage. Polotsk conceded Kukenois and Jersika to Albert ending the Livs' tribute to Polotsk. Riga's merchant citizenry sought greater autonomy from the Church. In 1221, they acquired the right to independently self-administer Riga and adopted a city constitution; that same year Albert was compelled to recognise Danish rule over lands they had conquered in Estonia and Livonia.
Albert had sought the aid of King Valdemar of Denmark to protect Riga and Livonian lands against Liv insurrection when reinforcements could not
Cologne-Deutz just Deutz is an inner city part of Cologne, Germany and a independent town. Lufthansa's headquarters are in Deutz. Deutz was established under Roman Emperor Constantine I in 310 AD, when he established Castrum Divitia, a military camp, built in on the opposite river bank of Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium. Camp and city were linked via a bridge from the same time. During the Middle Ages, Deutz was an important centre of learning in medieval Germany. Up into the early Middle Ages it was known by the Latin name Divitia, from the 10th century as Tuitium, it was located opposite Cologne, which grew up on the left bank. In 1002, the old castle in Deutz was made a Benedictine monastery by Heribert, archbishop of Cologne, the important abbey was home to many influential theologians, such as Rupert of Deutz. Permission to fortify the town was in 1230 granted to the citizens by the archbishop of Cologne, between whom and the counts of Berg it was divided in 1240, it was burnt in 1376, 1445 and 1583.
In 1869, Nikolaus August Otto and Eugen Langen moved their company NA Otto and Cie to Deutz, where the company was renamed to Gasmotoren-Fabrik Deutz. Arguably, this is the birthplace of the modern Otto-engine, precursor for all modern internal combustion engines. Deutz was formally incorporated into Cologne in 1888. Modern Deutz is the part of the Cologne city centre on the right bank of the river; the location of Deutz on the river embankment opposite the old town of Cologne, the district serves as an important business centre and transportation hub: next to the Rheinpark, the Cologne trade fair grounds, the Lanxess Arena and Köln Messe/Deutz station, there are a number of municipal and regional government offices based in Deutz. Politically Deutz is part of the administrative district Innenstadt; the painter August Lemmer was born in Deutz
Sikorsky Ilya Muromets
The Sikorsky Ilya Muromets were a class of Russian pre-World War I large four-engine commercial airliners and military heavy bombers used during World War I by the Russian Empire. The aircraft series was named after a hero from Slavic mythology; the series was based on the Russky Vityaz or Le Grand, the world's first four-engined aircraft, designed by Igor Sikorsky. The Ilya Muromets aircraft as it appeared in 1913 was a revolutionary design, intended for commercial service with its spacious fuselage incorporating a passenger saloon and washroom on board. During World War I, it became the first four-engine bomber to equip a dedicated strategic bombing unit; this heavy bomber was unrivaled in the early stages of the war, as the Central Powers had no aircraft capable enough to rival it until much later. The Ilya Muromets was designed and constructed by Igor Sikorsky at the Russo-Baltic Carriage Factory in Saint Petersburg in 1913, it was based on his earlier S-21 Russky Vityaz, which started out as the twin-engined Le Grand as the twin tandem-engined Bolshoi Baltisky before placing all four of the Baltisky's engines in a tractor configuration along the lower wing's leading edge to create the Russky Vityaz — which had played an important role in the development of Russian aviation and the multi-engine aircraft industries of the world.
Russia had a chance to become the birthplace of multi-engine airliner. The Ilya Muromets was first built as a luxurious aircraft. For the first time in aviation history, it had an insulated passenger saloon, comfortable wicker chairs, a bedroom, a lounge and the first airborne toilet; the aircraft had heating and electrical lighting. The S-22 cockpit had sufficient space allowing several persons to observe the pilot. Openings on both sides of the fuselage permitted mechanics to climb out onto the lower wings to service the engines during flight. A hatch on the left side provided an entry behind the cockpit; the main cabin featured two large windows on each side. Further back was a private cabin which included a cabinet. Lighting was provided by a wind-driven generator and heating was supplied by two long engine exhaust pipes which passed through the corners of the cabin. Despite many advancements, the flight instruments on the Ilya Muromets were primitive, they included four tachometers, one per engine, a compass, a crude altimeter and airspeed indicator, two glass V-shaped tubes and a ball for bank indication, a series of horizontal bars situated vertically on the nose of the fuselage for measuring climbs and descents.
In the bomber variants, a drift indicator and elementary bombsight was added to aid bombing. In January 1914 the Ilya Muromets No. 107 flew for the first time, on 11 February 1914, the second prototype took off for its first demonstration flight with 16 passengers aboard, marking a record for number of passengers carried. From 30 June to 12 July 1914, it set a world record by making a trip from Saint Petersburg to Kiev, a distance of some 1200 km, back; the first leg took 14 hours and 38 minutes, with one landing for fuel at Orsha, the return one, with a fuel stop at Novosokolniki, took less time, about 13 hours. The acclaim received by Sikorsky included Tsar Nicholas II presenting him with the Order of St. Vladimir, Fourth Degree, arranging for an exemption from the wartime draft to allow him to continue his design work, a promise of a grant worth 100,000 rubles from the State Duma. During an Imperial military review at Krasnoye Selo in July, Nicholas II decorated and christened the Ilya Muromets Type B Military Prototype, No.
128, the "Kievsky."During testing, the Ilya Muromets were fitted with both skis and pontoons in anticipation of new variants being produced. If it had not been for World War I, the Ilya Muromets would have started passenger flights that same year. With the beginning of World War I, Sikorsky was encouraged by the results of the proving flights to redesign the aircraft to become the "Military Ilia Mourometz, Type V, the world's first purpose-designed bomber; the new heavy bomber was smaller and lighter than the Type A. Internal racks carried up to 800 kg of bombs, positions for up to nine machine guns were added for self-defense in various locations, including the extreme tail; the Muromets was the first aircraft in history to incorporate a tail gunner position. The engines were protected with 5 mm-thick armor; the military version was designed expressly for long-range flying in both bombing and reconnaissance roles. When WWI broke out, only two Ilya Muromets bombers were completed out of an initial production run of ten aircraft.
In August 1914, the Ilya Muromets was introduced to the Imperial Russian Air Service and on 10 December 1914, the Russians formed their first ten-bomber squadron increasing the number to 20 by mid-1916. Operations with the heavy bombers began on 12 February 1915 with a raid on German frontline positions. During World War I, the Germans were reluctant to attack Ilya Muromets in the air due to their defensive firepower including a unique tail gun position, the difficulty in bringing down such a large aircraft. Once engaged, small fighters found that they were buffeted by propeller wash. On 12 September 1916, the Russians lost their first Ilya Muromets in a fight with four German Albatros, three of which it managed to shoot down; this was the only loss to enemy action during the war. The Russians built 83 Ilya Muromets bombers between 1913 and 19
The Sikorsky S-16, or RBVZ S-XVI, was a Russian equi-span single-bay two-seat biplane designed by Igor Sikorsky in 1914-15. Conceived in response to demand for an escort fighter for the Ilya Muromets bombers, it was noteworthy in that it was one of the first aircraft to possess synchronisation gear for its 7.7 mm machine gun. The first S-XVI was completed on 6 February 1915 with an 80 hp engine instead of the intended 100 hp because of supply problems. On 17 December 1915, the Russian government placed an order for 18 aircraft, these being delivered in early 1916. Although maneuverable, the S-XVI possessed a comparatively poor performance due to insufficient power. A further small batch were completed in 1917, with the aircraft being used during the Russian Revolution and staying in service until 1923. At least one aircraft have been used by the Ukrainian People's Republic after 1917. Russian EmpireImperial Russian Air Force Russian SFSRSoviet Air Force Ukrainian People's RepublicUkrainian Air Force General characteristics Crew: One Length: 6.20m Wingspan: 8.40m Height: 2.78m Wing area: 25.36m² Empty weight: 407 kg Loaded weight: 676 kg Powerplant: 1 × 100 hp Le Rhone/80 hp Gnome air-cooled rotary engine, 75 kW Performance Maximum speed: 120 km/h Rate of climb: 8 minutes to 1,000 metres Armament Guns: 1 x 7.7 mm Lavrov or 1 х Vickers, 500 rounds machine gun William Green and Gordon Swanborough.
The Complete Book of Fighters. Colour Library Direct, Godalming, UK: 1994. ISBN 1-85833-777-1. Media related to Sikorsky S-16 at Wikimedia Commons
Adolphe Kégresse was a French military engineer, inventor of the half-track and dual clutch transmission. Born at Héricourt, educated in Montbéliard, he moved in 1905 to Saint Petersburg, Russia to work for the Russian Tsar Nicholas II. To improve the mobility of the imperial car park, he invented the Kégresse track to modify normal motor vehicles into half-tracks, he was a personal chauffeur of Tsar Nicholas II and the Head of the Mechanical Department of the Russian Imperial Garage at Tsarskoye Selo. The Aide-de-camp to Tsar Nicholas II, Prince Orlov wrote in a letter to the Tsar on May 15.1914: "... I consider Kegress an irreplaceable worker and I am afraid his leaving will be a great loss for the garage. Your Highness knows, of course, how much His Majesty appreciates Kegress." In 1908, the architect Lipsky VA designed a second two-storeyed Art Nouveau building for the Russian Imperial garage at Tsaskoye Selo / Pushkin, Saint Petersburg it had a total area of 367.6 sq. M, it housed the garage-residence Adolphe Kegresse.
The building is noteworthy and identifiable for inclusion of a grand staircase with an external bas-relief image of one of the first car races that were held in Tsarskoe Selo before the First World War. After World War I Kégresse was forced to return to his home country, where he was from 1919 employed by the Citroën company during the 1920s and 1930s to design half-track vehicles, together with engineer Jacques Hinstin. After leaving the Citroën company he developed in 1935 the AutoServe gearbox-transmission system. In 1939 he pioneered the development of modern small guided tracked bombs. Kégresse died in 1943 at Croissy-sur-Seine. Kégresse track AMC Schneider P 16 SOMUA MCG Informationen über Leben und Werk von Adolphe Kégresse Information concerning the Tsar Nicholas II garage at Pushkin and A. Kegresse as Head of the Mechanical Department