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Russo-Persian Wars

The Russo-Persian Wars or Russo-Iranian Wars were a series of wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Persian Empire between the 17th and 19th centuries. As Russia grew in power, it started to contest the hegemony of Ottoman Turkey and Safavid Iran in the Black Sea region, Caspian Sea region, most the Caucasus. All the Russo-Persian Wars therefore concerned the Caucasus region. Throughout its history and large parts of Dagestan were incorporated into the Iranian world. During the course of the 19th century, the Russian Empire conquered the territory from Qajar Iran; the most important of the Russo-Persian Wars were: Caucasian War Russo-Turkish Wars Russian conquest of the Caucasus History of the Caucasus North Caucasus Iran–Russia relations Russian Invasion of Tabriz, 1911 Persian Campaign Persian Socialist Soviet Republic Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran Iran crisis of 1946

Vulturine parrot

The vulturine parrot, not to be confused with Pesquet's parrot, is a Neotropical parrot, endemic to humid forest and adjacent habitats in the eastern Amazon of Brazil. Until it was placed in the genus Pionopsitta, which now is restricted to the type species, P. pileata. Furthermore, individuals believed to be immature vulturine parrots were described as a new species, the bald parrot, in 2002; the vulturine parrot has a total length of c. 24 centimetres. It has a rather short, squarish tail, a green plumage, tinged blue below; the chest is olive-brown. The underwing coverts are bright red, when perched this can be hinted as an orange-red shoulder-patch; the under-tail is yellowish with a bluish tip. The outer webs and tips of the remiges are bluish-black, making the outer sections of the upperwing appear quite uniformly dark in flight; the arguably most conspicuous feature, however, is its un-feathered blackish and orange-pinkish head, bordered by a broad yellow collar of feathers, followed by a second blackish collar.

This bare, vaguely vulture-like head is the reason behind its common name. Juveniles have a feathered greenish head. Little is known about its behavior, but it is suspected the bare head is an adaptation to avoid feather-matting from sticky fruits, it has been recorded feeding on seeds and berries. Collar, N. J.. Vulturine Parrot. Pp. 457 in: del Hoyo, J. Elliott, A. & Sargatal, J. eds. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 4. Sandgrouse to Cuckoos. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. ISBN 84-87334-22-9. Gaban-Lima, R. M. Raposo, E. Höfling. Description of a New Species of Pionopsitta Endemic to Brazil. Auk 119: 815–819. Juniper, T. and M. Parr. A Guide to the Parrots of the World. Pica Press, East Sussex. ISBN 1-873403-40-2. Ribas, C. R. Gaban-Lima, C. Miyaki, J. Cracraft. Historical biogeography and diversification within the Neotropical parrot genus Pionopsitta. Journal Biogeography 32:1409-1427

Fighting (2009 film)

Fighting is a 2009 sports action drama film directed by Dito Montiel, with a screenplay by Robert Munic and Montiel, starring Channing Tatum, Terrence Howard and Luis Guzmán. It was released on April 2009 in the United States by Rogue Pictures. Present day New York City: Shawn MacArthur is a street hustler. One day while selling counterfeit goods at the corner of Radio City Music Hall, a group of young men attempt to force Shawn to relocate with his merchandise; these boys work for a ticket scalper who controls the corner. Shawn does not retain his money or products. Shawn sees Harvey and the guys who stole his money in a cafe and confronts them. Harvey offers him a chance to a ` winner takes all' fight for money. Harvey sets up a meeting with Martinez. Shawn's first fight is at a Brooklyn church against a Russian, he wins. Harvey takes Shawn to a club where he meets a waitress named Zulay, a single mother to whom Shawn had earlier tried to sell a fake Chinese Harry Potter book. In the VIP area to the club, Shawn meets Evan Hailey, a professional fighter who used to be on the same college team as Shawn, was coached by Shawn's father.

Shawn and Harvey leave after Shawn nearly get into a fight. Shawn's second fight is against a much larger opponent; the fight descends into chaos after interference from some of Harvey's crew when the opponent nearly chokes Shawn, the woman who owns the store pulls out a gun because one of the guys spills her drink. Harvey and the rest of Harvey's crew flee the scene and neither fighter gets paid. For his third fight and the crew go to an Asian owned penthouse. Shawn wins the third fight. Between fights, Shawn meets Zulay a few times, before they consummate their relationship by having sex. Shawn and Zulay are visited by Harvey and Shawn is furious, suspecting Zulay and Harvey of having sexual relations. Harvey explains. Shawn and Harvey are offered a fight against Evan, Shawn accepts, but Harvey wants him to throw the fight so that Martinez and his associates can make money. Shawn agrees to throw the fight. Zulay places the bets, a total of $500,000. Shawn and Evan fight, with Zulay and the rest of the crew watching.

Evan has Shawn in a choke hold and it appears that Shawn is about to throw the fight. Shawn beats Martinez threatens Harvey. At Harvey's apartment, Shawn reveals Zulay reversed the bets and they have one million dollars. Zulay picks up Shawn and Harvey and they leave New York with Zulay's daughter and grandmother. Channing Tatum as Shawn MacArthur Terrence Howard as Harvey Boarden Luis Guzmán as Martinez Brian White as Evan Hailey Flaco Navaja as Javon Wilkinson / Ray Ray Cung Le as Dragon Lee Zulay Henao as Zulay Velez Roger Guenveur Smith as Jack Dancing Anthony DeSando as Christopher Anthony Danny Mastrogiorgio as Trader Jim Peter Tambakis as Z Michael Rivera as Ajax Dante Nero as Kimo Shooting locationsDeKalb Avenue/Washington Park, Fort Greene in Brooklyn, New York City. Nassau Street in Manhattan, New York City. Ramon Aponte Park, W. 47th Street, New York City. The film opened at #3 at the North American box office making $11 million USD in its opening weekend, it scored a mixed "40%" rating according to Rotten Tomatoes.

It has earned itself an average 4.9/10, based on 129 reviews. Fighting was released on Blu-ray on August 25, 2009 in North America; the film has shifted over 600,000 copies. The DVD and Blu-ray includes the unrated extended cut. Special features include deleted previews. Official website Fighting on IMDb Fighting at AllMovie Fighting at Box Office Mojo Fighting at Rotten Tomatoes

Caitlin Deschanel

Caitlin Deschanel is a fictional character in the US soap opera Sunset Beach portrayed by two different actresses. The first actress, Vanessa Dorman, portrayed the role from January 9, 1997 to June 18, 1998, when she hit contract problems and was to let go; as of June 24, 1998, she was replaced by Kam Heskin, who portrayed the role until the end of the show, December 31, 1999. Caitlin was presented to us as the daughter of a rich lawyer Gregory Olivia Richards, she fell in love with Cole Deschanel, a mysterious jewel thief, their love was threatened by her over-protective and sinister father. At the same time, Cole slept with Caitlin's mother Olivia, but he didn't know that Olivia was his girlfriend's mother. Various times, Gregory tried to get rid of Cole by hiring a hit man to kill him, but he didn't succeed. Thing got more complicated. At the same time, both Caitlin and Olivia got pregnant. After a car accident, Caitlin lost her baby, but she decided to keep pretending to be pregnant, so she wouldn't lose Cole.

Meanwhile, Olivia found happiness again with Gregory. Caitlin sought help from Annie Douglas to find a baby. At the same time, Annie plotted to win over Gregory, so she decided to make a huge turn-over; when Olivia gave birth, Annie gave it to Caitlin. Olivia thought her baby had died, Caitlin had no idea that she had her mother's child. This, of course, caused Olivia's divorce. Caitlin and Cole were happy, they had a baby and they got married. It seemed. In the summer of 1998, Cole and Caitlin were involved in the tsunami storyline. Cole met his former lover Francesca Vargas, Francesca tried to win him over, but he only loved Caitlin; when Francesca was murdered, they were suspects, but none of them murdered her, but Gregory's the one who killed Francesca. Olivia was shocked to find out that Caitlin's baby is her own. Caitlin had hard time dealing with the truth, this caused a big fight between Cole and Caitlin. Caitlin and Gregory were shocked to learn that Cole had an affair years ago, it was revealed that Cole is Trey's father.

This led to a fight between Gregory and Cole, after which Gregory went missing and everyone presumed him dead. Caitlin had to struggle with the fact that Trey isn't hers, she was more shocked when Cole was caught by London authorities and went missing, he returned to Sunset Beach in the final episode, reunited with his one and only love, Caitlin

List of tallest buildings in Navi Mumbai

Navi Mumbai is a planned township of Mumbai on the west coast of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It was developed in 1972 as a new urban township of Mumbai; the population of Navi Mumbai has reached 1,119,477 per the 2011 provisional census. Navi Mumbai is known as the'Satellite City' of Mumbai; this lists ranks buildings in Navi Mumbai that stand at least 100 m tall, based on standard height measurement. This does not include antenna masts. Only completed buildings, under-construction buildings, on-hold buildings that have been topped out are included; this lists ranks buildings in Navi Mumbai that stand at least 100 m tall, based on standard height measurement. This does not include antenna masts. List of tallest buildings in India List of tallest buildings in Mumbai List of tallest buildings in Pune List of tallest buildings in Bengaluru

Hirsch report

The Hirsch report, the referred to name for the report Peaking of World Oil Production: Impacts and Risk Management, was created by request for the US Department of Energy and published in February 2005. Some information was updated in 2007, it examined the time frame for the occurrence of peak oil, the necessary mitigating actions, the impacts based on the timeliness of those actions. "The peaking of world oil production presents the U. S. and the world with an unprecedented risk management problem. As peaking is approached, liquid fuel prices and price volatility will increase and, without timely mitigation, the economic and political costs will be unprecedented. Viable mitigation options exist on both the supply and demand sides, but to have substantial impact, they must be initiated more than a decade in advance of peaking." The lead author, Robert L. Hirsch, published a brief summary of this report in October 2005 for the Atlantic Council. A number of industry petroleum geologists and economists were listed with their global peak production projection.

In 2010, Hirsch developed a projection that global oil production would begin to decline by 2015. As of 2018, it was unclear. After exhibiting steady growth since the 2009 recession, oil production has been stable between 2015 and 2017, with 75.1 million barrels per day in 2015, 75.4 mbpd in 2016 and 74.7 mbpd in 2017. Operating under the assumption that existing services must be sustained, the Hirsch report considered the effects of the following mitigation strategies as part of the "crash program": Fuel efficient transportation, Heavy oil/Oil sands, Coal liquefaction, Enhanced oil recovery, Gas-to-liquids; the report came to the following conclusions: World oil peaking is going to happen, will be abrupt. World production of conventional oil will reach a decline thereafter; some forecasters project peaking within a decade. Peaking will happen. Oil peaking will adversely affect global economies the U. S. Over the past century, the U. S. economy has been shaped by the availability of low-cost oil.

The economic loss to the United States could be measured on a trillion-dollar scale. Aggressive fuel efficiency and substitute fuel production could provide substantial mitigation. Oil peaking presents a unique challenge. Without massive mitigation, the problem will be long-term. Previous energy transitions were evolutionary. Oil peaking will be revolutionary; the problem is liquid fuels for transportation. The lifetimes of transportation equipment are measured in decades. Rapid changeover in transportation equipment is inherently impossible. Motor vehicles, aircraft and ships have no ready alternative to liquid fuels. Mitigation efforts will require substantial time. Waiting until production peaks would leave the world with a liquid fuel deficit for 20 years. Initiating a crash program 10 years before peaking leaves a liquid fuels shortfall of a decade. Initiating a crash program 20 years before peaking could avoid a world liquid fuels shortfall. Both supply and demand will require attention. Sustained high oil prices will cause forced demand reduction.

Production of large amounts of substitute liquid fuels must be provided. The production of substitute liquid fuels is technically and economically feasible, it is a matter of risk management. The peaking of world oil production is a classic risk management problem. Mitigation efforts earlier than required may be premature. On the other hand, if peaking is soon, failure to initiate mitigation could be damaging. Government intervention will be required; the economic and social implications of oil peaking would otherwise be chaotic. Expediency may require major changes to existing regulatory procedures. Economic upheaval is not inevitable. Without mitigation, the peaking of world oil production will cause major economic upheaval. Given enough lead-time, the problems are soluble with existing technologies. New technologies will on a longer time scale. More information is needed. Effective action to combat peaking requires better understanding of the issues. Risks and possible benefits of possible mitigation actions need to be examined.

Waiting until world oil production peaks before taking crash program action leaves the world with a significant liquid fuel deficit for more than two decades. Initiating a mitigation crash program 10 years before world oil peaking helps but still leaves a liquid fuels shortfall a decade after the time that oil would have peaked. Initiating a mitigation crash program 20 years before peaking appears to offer the possibility of avoiding a world liquid fuels shortfall for the forecast period; the Hirsch Report urged a crash program of new technologies and changes in manners and attitudes in the US and as well implying more research and development. The report cites a peaking crude oil supply as the main reason for immediate action. During the significant oil price rise through 2007, a theme among several industry observers was that the price rise was only due to a limit in crude oil availability. For example, an article by Jad Mouawad cited an unusual number of fires and other outages among U. S. refineries in the summer of 2007 which disrupted supply.

However, a lack of refining capacity would only seem to explain high gasoline prices not high crude oil prices. Indeed, if the refineries were unable to process available crude oil there should be a crude oil glut that would reduce crude prices on international crude o